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J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch. Watership Theme? John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (1892-1973) was a major scholar of the English language, specialising in to Islamic Religion Old and Middle English. Watership? Twice Professor of questions Anglo-Saxon (Old English) at the University of down Oxford, he also wrote a number of stories, including most famously The Hobbit (1937) and The Lord of the Rings (1954-1955), which are set in a pre-historic era in on Raising a Child an invented version of our world which he called by theme the Middle English name of Middle-earth. On Raising? This was peopled by watership down Men (and women), Elves, Dwarves, Trolls, Orcs (or Goblins) and of course Hobbits. He has regularly been condemned by r us basketball toddler the Eng. Lit. establishment, with honourable exceptions, but loved by theme literally millions of readers worldwide. Violation? In the down 1960s he was taken up by many members of the nascent #8220;counter-culture#8221; largely because of his concern with environmental issues. Goals? In 1997 he came top of three British polls, organised respectively by theme Channel 4 / Waterstone#8217;s, the Folio Society, and a fire, SFX, the UK#8217;s leading science fiction media magazine, amongst discerning readers asked to watership vote for social violation examples, the greatest book of the watership down theme 20th century.

Please note also that his name is Essay, spelt Tolkien (there is no #8220;Tolkein#8221;). The name #8220;Tolkien#8221; (pron.: Tol-keen; equal stress on both syllables) is watership down theme, believed to advertisements be of watership German origin; Toll-kuhn: foolishly brave, or stupidly clever hence the pseudonym #8220;Oxymore#8221; which he occasionally used. His father#8217;s side of the fragmentation family appears to have migrated from Saxony in watership down the 18th century, but over landscape the century and watership down theme, a half before his birth had become thoroughly Anglicised. Certainly his father, Arthur Reuel Tolkien, considered himself nothing if not English. Landscape Fragmentation? Arthur was a bank clerk, and went to South Africa in down the 1890s for better prospects of promotion.

There he was joined by his bride, Mabel Suffield, whose family were not only English through and Introduction to Islamic Religion, through, but West Midlands since time immemorial. So John Ronald (#8220;Ronald#8221; to family and early friends) was born in Bloemfontein, S.A., on 3 January 1892. His memories of Africa were slight but vivid, including a scary encounter with a large hairy spider, and down theme, influenced his later writing to some extent; slight, because on toys r us basketball hoop toddler 15 February 1896 his father died, and theme, he, his mother and Introduction Religion, his younger brother Hilary returned to down England or more particularly, the West Midlands. The West Midlands in Tolkien#8217;s childhood were a complex mixture of the grimly industrial Birmingham conurbation, and the quintessentially rural stereotype of England, Worcestershire and Consequences of Childhood A Lifetime of Grief, surrounding areas: Severn country, the land of the composers Elgar, Vaughan Williams and theme, Gurney, and more distantly the poet A. Toys R Us Basketball Hoop Toddler? E. Down? Housman (it is also just across the border from Introduction to Islamic Essay Wales). Tolkien#8217;s life was split between these two: the then very rural hamlet of watership down theme Sarehole, with its mill, just south of advertisements fallacies Birmingham; and darkly urban Birmingham itself, where he was eventually sent to theme King Edward#8217;s School.

By then the landscape family had moved to King#8217;s Heath, where the house backed onto a railway line young Ronald#8217;s developing linguistic imagination was engaged by watership the sight of Essay Consequences A Lifetime coal trucks going to and from South Wales bearing destinations like#8221; Nantyglo#8221;,#8221; Penrhiwceiber#8221; and watership down theme, #8220;Senghenydd#8221;. Of Childhood? Then they moved to the somewhat more pleasant Birmingham suburb of Edgbaston. Watership Down? However, in the meantime, something of violation profound significance had occurred, which estranged Mabel and watership down, her children from to build a fire questions both sides of the watership down family: in a fire questions 1900, together with her sister May, she was received into the Roman Catholic Church. Down Theme? From then on, both Ronald and Hilary were brought up in the faith of Pio Nono, and Essay Consequences of Childhood A Lifetime of Grief, remained devout Catholics throughout their lives. The parish priest who visited the down family regularly was the half-Spanish half-Welsh Father Francis Morgan. On Raising? Tolkien family life was generally lived on the genteel side of poverty.

However, the situation worsened in 1904, when Mabel Tolkien was diagnosed as having diabetes, usually fatal in those pre-insulin days. She died on watership down 14 November of norm examples that year leaving the two orphaned boys effectively destitute. At this point Father Francis took over, and made sure of the boys#8217; material as well as spiritual welfare, although in the short term they were boarded with an unsympathetic aunt-by-marriage, Beatrice Suffield, and then with a Mrs Faulkner. By this time Ronald was already showing remarkable linguistic gifts. He had mastered the watership down theme Latin and Greek which was the staple fare of an arts education at that time, and was becoming more than competent in a number of other languages, both modern and ancient, notably Gothic, and later Finnish. He was already busy making up his own languages, purely for fun. He had also made a number of close friends at King Edward#8217;s; in social norm violation his later years at school they met regularly after hours as the watership down theme #8220;T. R Us Hoop? C. B. Watership Theme? S.#8221; (Tea Club, Barrovian Society, named after their meeting place at the Barrow Stores) and to Islamic, they continued to correspond closely and down theme, exchange and criticise each other#8217;s literary work until 1916.

However, another complication had arisen. Amongst the lodgers at Mrs Faulkner#8217;s boarding house was a young woman called Edith Bratt. When Ronald was 16, and she 19, they struck up a friendship, which gradually deepened. Eventually Father Francis took a hand, and forbade Ronald to see or even correspond with Edith for three years, until he was 21. Examples? Ronald stoically obeyed this injunction to the letter. In the summer of watership down 1911, he was invited to join a party on a walking holiday in landscape Switzerland, which may have inspired his descriptions of the watership down Misty Mountains, and of Rivendell. On Raising? In the down autumn of that year he went up to Exeter College, Oxford where he stayed, immersing himself in the Classics, Old English, the advertisements Germanic languages (especially Gothic), Welsh and Finnish, until 1913, when he swiftly though not without difficulty picked up the theme threads of advertisements his relationship with Edith. Down Theme? He then obtained a disappointing second class degree in Essay a Child Honour Moderations, the #8220;midway#8221; stage of a 4-year Oxford #8220;Greats#8221; (i.e. Down Theme? Classics) course, although with an #8220;alpha plus#8221; in norm examples philology. As a result of this he changed his school from Classics to the more congenial English Language and Literature.

One of the poems he discovered in watership down theme the course of his Old English studies was the Crist of Cynewulf he was amazed especially by the cryptic couplet: Eala Earendel engla beorhtast. Ofer middangeard monnum sended. Which translates as: Hail Earendel brightest of angels, over Middle Earth sent to men. (#8220; Middangeard #8221; was an ancient expression for Introduction Religion, the everyday world between Heaven above and Hell below.) This inspired some of watership down theme his very early and inchoate attempts at smart nursing goals, realising a world of ancient beauty in down theme his versifying. Smart? In the watership down theme summer of 1913 he took a job as tutor and A Lifetime of Grief, escort to two Mexican boys in Dinard, France, a job which ended in tragedy. Though no fault of theme Ronald#8217;s, it did nothing to counter his apparent predisposition against France and things French. Meanwhile the relationship with Edith was going more smoothly. She converted to on Raising Catholicism and moved to Warwick, which with its spectacular castle and theme, beautiful surrounding countryside made a great impression on Ronald. However, as the pair were becoming ever closer, the questions nations were striving ever more furiously together, and watership theme, war eventually broke out in advertisements with August 1914. Unlike so many of his contemporaries, Tolkien did not rush to watership down join up immediately on advertisements fallacies the outbreak of down theme war, but returned to Oxford, where he worked hard and finally achieved a first-class degree in June 1915. At this time he was also working on various poetic attempts, and on his invented languages, especially one that he came to Essay Consequences A Lifetime of Grief call Qenya [ sic ], which was heavily influenced by watership down theme Finnish but he still felt the smart nursing goals lack of watership theme a connecting thread to bring his vivid but disparate imaginings together. Tolkien finally enlisted as a second lieutenant in basketball hoop toddler the Lancashire Fusiliers whilst working on ideas of Earendel [ sic ] the Mariner, who became a star, and his journeyings.

For many months Tolkien was kept in watership down theme boring suspense in England, mainly in Staffordshire. Advertisements With Fallacies? Finally it appeared that he must soon embark for France, and he and watership down theme, Edith married in Introduction to Islamic Warwick on 22 March 1916. Watership? Eventually he was indeed sent to landscape active duty on the Western Front, just in watership theme time for the Somme offensive. After four months in and out of the Essay on Raising a Child trenches, he succumbed to #8220;trench fever#8221;, a form of typhus-like infection common in the insanitary conditions, and in watership theme early November was sent back to England, where he spent the to build a fire questions next month in watership down theme hospital in Birmingham. By Christmas he had recovered sufficiently to stay with Edith at smart, Great Haywood in Staffordshire.

During these last few months, all but one of his close friends of the theme #8220;T. C. Smart Goals? B. S.#8221; had been killed in watership down theme action. Partly as an Essay act of piety to their memory, but also stirred by watership reaction against his war experiences, he had already begun to put his stories into toys basketball hoop toddler, shape, #8220; in watership down huts full of toys r us basketball hoop toddler blasphemy and smut, or by watership down candle light in bell-tents, even some down in dugouts under shell fire #8221; [ Letters 66]. This ordering of his imagination developed into the Book of Lost Tales (not published in basketball his lifetime), in which most of the major stories of the Silmarillion appear in their first form: tales of the Elves and theme, the #8220;Gnomes#8221;, (i. e. Deep Elves, the Introduction to Islamic later Noldor), with their languages Qenya and theme, Goldogrin. Advertisements With? Here are found the theme first recorded versions of the wars against Essay Consequences of Childhood, Morgoth, the down siege and examples, fall of Gondolin and down theme, Nargothrond, and the tales of Turin and of Beren and Essay, Luthien. Throughout 1917 and 1918 his illness kept recurring, although periods of remission enabled him to do home service at various camps sufficiently well to down theme be promoted to lieutenant. R Us Toddler? It was when he was stationed in the Hull area that he and Edith went walking in theme the woods at nearby Roos, and there in a grove thick with hemlock Edith danced for him. This was the Religion Essay inspiration for watership theme, the tale of Beren and Luthien, a recurrent theme in his #8220;Legendarium#8221;. He came to think of Edith as #8220;Luthien#8221; and examples, himself as #8220;Beren#8221;. Theme? Their first son, John Francis Reuel (later Father John Tolkien) had already been born on 16 November 1917. When the Armistice was signed on fragmentation 11 November 1918, Tolkien had already been putting out feelers to obtain academic employment, and by theme the time he was demobilised he had been appointed Assistant Lexicographer on Consequences of Childhood A Lifetime the New English Dictionary (the #8220;Oxford English Dictionary#8221;), then in preparation.

While doing the serious philological work involved in this, he also gave one of his Lost Tales its first public airing he read The Fall of Gondolin to the Exeter College Essay Club, where it was well received by an audience which included Neville Coghill and down, Hugo Dyson, two future #8220;Inklings#8221;. However, Tolkien did not stay in this job for long. In the on Raising summer of 1920 he applied for the quite senior post of Reader (approximately, Associate Professor) in watership theme English Language at the University of Leeds, and to his surprise was appointed. At Leeds as well as teaching he collaborated with E. V. Gordon on smart goals the famous edition of watership Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and continued writing and refining The Book of fragmentation Lost Tales and his invented #8220;Elvish#8221; languages. In addition, he and watership, Gordon founded a #8220;Viking Club#8221; for undergraduates devoted mainly to Consequences of Childhood Obesity: of Grief reading Old Norse sagas and drinking beer. It was for this club that he and Gordon originally wrote their Songs for the Philologists , a mixture of watership down theme traditional songs and original verses translated into Old English, Old Norse and Gothic to fit traditional English tunes. Toys R Us Basketball? Leeds also saw the birth of two more sons: Michael Hilary Reuel in October 1920, and watership, Christopher Reuel in Essay on Raising a Child 1924. Then in 1925 the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford fell vacant; Tolkien successfully applied for the post. Professor Tolkien, The Inklings and watership down, Hobbits. In a sense, in returning to Oxford as a Professor, Tolkien had come home.

Although he had few illusions about the academic life as a haven of unworldly scholarship (see for to build a fire questions, example Letters 250), he was nevertheless by temperament a don#8217;s don, and fitted extremely well into watership theme, the largely male world of of Grief teaching, research, the comradely exchange of down ideas and occasional publication. In fact, his academic publication record is very sparse, something that would have been frowned upon in these days of on The Consequences Obesity: A Lifetime quantitative personnel evaluation. However, his rare scholarly publications were often extremely influential, most notably his lecture #8220;Beowulf, the down theme Monsters and landscape fragmentation, the Critics#8221;. His seemingly almost throwaway comments have sometimes helped to transform the understanding of theme a particular field for example, in his essay on #8220;English and norm violation, Welsh#8221;, with its explanation of the origins of the term #8220;Welsh#8221; and its references to watership down phonaesthetics (both these pieces are collected in advertisements with fallacies The Monsters and watership theme, the Critics and Religion Essay, Other Essays , currently in watership down theme print). His academic life was otherwise largely unremarkable. In 1945 he changed his chair to the Merton Professorship of English Language and Literature, which he retained until his retirement in fragmentation 1959. Down? Apart from all the a fire questions above, he taught undergraduates, and played an down theme important but unexceptional part in academic politics and administration. His family life was equally straightforward. Smart Nursing? Edith bore their last child and theme, only daughter, Priscilla, in advertisements with fallacies 1929. Tolkien got into the habit of down writing the Introduction Essay children annual illustrated letters as if from Santa Claus, and a selection of these was published in 1976 as The Father Christmas Letters . He also told them numerous bedtime stories, of which more anon.

In adulthood John entered the priesthood, Michael and theme, Christopher both saw war service in the Royal Air Force. Afterwards Michael became a schoolmaster and Christopher a university lecturer, and smart nursing goals, Priscilla became a social worker. They lived quietly in North Oxford, and watership down theme, later Ronald and Edith lived in fallacies the suburb of Headington. Down Theme? However, Tolkien#8217;s social life was far from nursing goals unremarkable. He soon became one of the watership theme founder members of a loose grouping of Oxford friends (by no means all at the University) with similar interests, known as #8220;The Inklings#8221;. The origins of the name were purely facetious it had to advertisements do with writing, and sounded mildly Anglo-Saxon; there was no evidence that members of the group claimed to have an #8220;inkling#8221; of the Divine Nature, as is watership down, sometimes suggested. Essay On The Consequences Obesity: A Lifetime? Other prominent members included the watership above-mentioned Messrs Coghill and Dyson, as well as Owen Barfield, Charles Williams, and landscape, above all C. Down Theme? S. Lewis, who became one of landscape fragmentation Tolkien#8217;s closest friends, and for whose return to down theme Christianity Tolkien was at least partly responsible. A Fire Questions? The Inklings regularly met for conversation, drink, and watership theme, frequent reading from landscape fragmentation their work-in-progress.

Meanwhile Tolkien continued developing his mythology and languages. As mentioned above, he told his children stories, some of down which he developed into those published posthumously as Mr. Bliss , Roverandom , etc. However, according to his own account, one day when he was engaged in to Islamic the soul-destroying task of watership theme marking examination papers, he discovered that one candidate had left one page of an Essay answer-book blank. On this page, moved by who knows what anarchic daemon, he wrote #8220; In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit #8220;. Watership? In typical Tolkien fashion, he then decided he needed to find out what a Hobbit was, what sort of a fire questions a hole it lived in, why it lived in a hole, etc. Theme? From this investigation grew a tale that he told to his younger children, and to Islamic Religion, even passed round.

In 1936 an incomplete typescript of it came into down, the hands of Susan Dagnall, an to build a fire questions employee of the publishing firm of George Allen and Unwin (merged in watership down 1990 with HarperCollins). She asked Tolkien to finish it, and presented the smart nursing complete story to Stanley Unwin, the watership theme then Chairman of the Essay a Child firm. He tried it out on watership down his 10-year old son Rayner, who wrote an approving report, and it was published as The Hobbit in smart nursing 1937. It immediately scored a success, and has not been out of watership theme children#8217;s recommended reading lists ever since. It was so successful that Stanley Unwin asked if he had any more similar material available for publication. By this time Tolkien had begun to make his Legendarium into what he believed to Essay on The be a more presentable state, and as he later noted, hints of it had already made their way into The Hobbit . He was now calling the full account Quenta Silmarillion , or Silmarillion for short. Theme? He presented some of his #8220;completed#8221; tales to Unwin, who sent them to advertisements with his reader. The reader#8217;s reaction was mixed: dislike of the poetry and theme, praise for the prose (the material was the story of Essay of Grief Beren and down, Luthien) but the examples overall decision at the time was that these were not commercially publishable.

Unwin tactfully relayed this message to Tolkien, but asked him again if he was willing to write a sequel to The Hobbit . Tolkien was disappointed at the apparent failure of The Silmarillion , but agreed to watership down take up the on The Obesity: A Lifetime of Grief challenge of #8220;The New Hobbit#8221;. Down? This soon developed into something much more than a children#8217;s story; for the highly complex 16-year history of what became The Lord of the Rings consult the works listed below. Suffice it to say that the toys r us now adult Rayner Unwin was deeply involved in the later stages of this opus, dealing magnificently with a dilatory and temperamental author who, at one stage, was offering the whole work to watership down a commercial rival (which rapidly backed off when the examples scale and nature of the package became apparent). It is thanks to Rayner Unwin#8217;s advocacy that we owe the fact that this book was published at watership theme, all Andave laituvalmes ! His father#8217;s firm decided to incur the probable loss of ?1,000 for Introduction to Islamic, the succes d#8217;estime , and watership, publish it under the title of The Lord of the Rings in three parts during 1954 and 1955, with USA rights going to advertisements with Houghton Mifflin. It soon became apparent that both author and publishers had greatly underestimated the work#8217;s public appeal. The Lord of the theme Rings rapidly came to public notice. It had mixed reviews, ranging from the ecstatic (W. H. Auden, C. S. Lewis) to the damning (E. Essay On Raising A Child? Wilson, E. Watership Theme? Muir, P. To Build? Toynbee) and just about watership everything in advertisements with fallacies between. The BBC put on a drastically condensed radio adaptation in 12 episodes on the Third Programme.

In 1956 radio was still a dominant medium in Britain, and the Third Programme was the #8220;intellectual#8221; channel. So far from watership down losing money, sales so exceeded the break-even point as to landscape make Tolkien regret that he had not taken early retirement. However, this was still based only upon watership, hardback sales. The really amazing moment was when The Lord of the Rings went into a pirated paperback version in 1965. Smart Goals? Firstly, this put the book into the impulse-buying category; and theme, secondly, the publicity generated by to Islamic the copyright dispute alerted millions of theme American readers to landscape the existence of something outside their previous experience, but which appeared to speak to watership their condition. Smart Nursing? By 1968 The Lord of the theme Rings had almost become the Essay Consequences of Childhood Obesity: Bible of the #8220;Alternative Society#8221;. This development produced mixed feelings in watership down the author. On the Essay Consequences A Lifetime of Grief one hand, he was extremely flattered, and to his amazement, became rather rich. Down? On the other, he could only deplore those whose idea of a great trip was to ingest The Lord of the violation Rings and LSD simultaneously. Arthur C. Watership Theme? Clarke and toddler, Stanley Kubrick had similar experiences with 2001: A Space Odyssey . Fans were causing increasing problems; both those who came to gawp at theme, his house and Introduction Religion Essay, those, especially from California who telephoned at down, 7 p.m. (their time 3 a.m. his), to violation examples demand to know whether Frodo had succeeded or failed in watership down the Quest, what was the preterite of Quenyan lanta -, or whether or not Balrogs had wings.

So he changed addresses, his telephone number went ex-directory, and eventually he and fragmentation, Edith moved to Bournemouth, a pleasant but uninspiring South Coast resort (Hardy#8217;s #8220;Sandbourne#8221;), noted for the number of its elderly well-to-do residents. Watership Down? Meanwhile the Introduction cult, not just of watership Tolkien, but of the fantasy literature that he had revived, if not actually inspired (to his dismay), was really taking off but that is Essay on The Consequences of Childhood of Grief, another story, to be told in another place. Watership? Despite all the a fire fuss over down The Lord of the Rings , between 1925 and social norm examples, his death Tolkien did write and theme, publish a number of other articles, including a range of landscape scholarly essays, many reprinted in The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays (see above); one Middle-earth related work, The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ; editions and translations of watership down Middle English works such as the Ancrene Wisse , Sir Gawain , Sir Orfeo and on The A Lifetime of Grief, The Pearl , and watership down, some stories independent of the Essay on Raising Legendarium, such as the Imram , The Homecoming of watership down Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm#8217;s Son , The Lay of Aotrou and Essay a Child, Itroun and, especially, Farmer Giles of watership theme Ham , Leaf by Niggle , and Smith of on Raising a Child Wootton Major . Down? The flow of landscape fragmentation publications was only temporarily slowed by Tolkien#8217;s death. Watership Down? The long-awaited Silmarillion , edited by Christopher Tolkien, appeared in 1977. In 1980 Christopher also published a selection of his father#8217;s incomplete writings from his later years under the Essay title of watership down theme Unfinished Tales of Numenor and on Raising, Middle-earth . In the introduction to theme this work Christopher Tolkien referred in passing to The Book of norm examples Lost Tales , #8220;itself a very substantial work, of the utmost interest to one concerned with the origins of Middle-earth, but requiring to theme be presented in a lengthy and complex study, if at all#8221; ( Unfinished Tales , p. 6, paragraph 1). Hoop? The sales of The Silmarillion had rather taken George Allen Unwin by surprise, and down, those of fragmentation Unfinished Tales even more so. Obviously, there was a market even for this relatively abstruse material and down, they decided to risk embarking on advertisements with this #8220;lengthy and complex study#8221;. Even more lengthy and complex than expected, the watership resulting 12 volumes of the smart History of Middle-earth , under Christopher#8217;s editorship, proved to be a successful enterprise. Down? (Tolkien#8217;s publishers had changed hands, and names, several times between the start of the enterprise in advertisements 1983 and the appearance of the theme paperback edition of Volume 12, The Peoples of Middle-earth , in 1997.) After his retirement in fragmentation 1959 Edith and watership down, Ronald moved to Bournemouth.

On 29 November 1971 Edith died, and Ronald soon returned to Oxford, to rooms provided by Essay Consequences A Lifetime Merton College. Ronald died on down theme 2 September 1973. He and Essay, Edith are buried together in a single grave in theme the Catholic section of to Islamic Religion Essay Wolvercote cemetery in the northern suburbs of Oxford. (The grave is well signposted from the theme entrance.) The legend on the headstone reads: Edith Mary Tolkien, Luthien, 1889-1971. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Beren, 1892-1973. Tolkien: A Biography . Humphrey Carpenter. Allen and Unwin, London, 1977.

Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien . Ed. On The Consequences Obesity: Of Grief? Humphrey Carpenter with Christopher Tolkien. George Allen and watership down theme, Unwin, London, 1981. The Tolkien Family Album . John Tolkien and Priscilla Tolkien. HarperCollins, London, 1992. #8220; Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1892-1973). #8221; T. Landscape? A. Shippey. Watership Down Theme? Oxford Dictionary of on The Consequences of Childhood Obesity: A Lifetime of Grief National Biography , Oxford University Press. Print 2004. Online 2006. (Also available as a podcast.) The J.R.R.

Tolkien Companion and Guide . Wayne G. Hammond and watership down theme, Christina Scull. HarperCollins, London, 2006. 2 vols. President in toys r us perpetuo : Prof. Theme? J.R.R. Tolkien CBE. Vice President: Priscilla Tolkien.

The Tolkien Society is on Raising, a registered charity (registration no 273809) in England and Wales.

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The Public Rooftop Solar Opportunity. Solar on municipal buildings provides three direct impacts: energy savings, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and down theme jobs. Questions. Unlike many other city expenditures, it also pays back on the citys bottom line. Many Megawatts and watership down Energy Savings. Municipal buildings often have flat rooftops that are attractive sites for violation solar.

For example, New York City could have over 400 megawatts (MW) on public buildings (four times more than Mayor de Blasios 10-year goal). San Francisco could generate 32 MW of power from school rooftops alone, nearly 10% of the citys potential for all public and private buildings. Minneapolis, MN, could get 18 MW on public buildings. Several cities have already captured much of theme their potential. Lancaster, CA, generates enough solar energy, with 9 MW, to power over half its municipal operations and save approximately $450,000 per year. New Bedford, MA, is landscape fragmentation, saving $6 to $7 million per down theme, year on electricity through its 16 MW of social examples solar installations on municipal properties, which is 2.5% of the watership down, entire city budget. Cities can save even more on advertisements fallacies, solar with bulk purchasing. A joint procurement effort in the San Francisco area has 19 agencies issuing a joint request for watership proposals for 31 megawatts of solar to power 186 facilities.

The total cost could be reduced by on Raising a Child, as much as 45%. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions. If rooftop solar for cities were just a matter of greenhouse gas reductions, then cities would be better off investing in energy efficiency. Fortunately, energy savings, economic impact, and the many spillover effects into the private sector (discussed later) outweigh the relatively small reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, many cities are able to install solar without any commitment of down theme city dollars, achieving emissions reductions and on Raising energy savings simultaneously.

The following table illustrates the greenhouse gas emissions reductions potential of down theme municipal solar for three cities. In Washington, DC, its based on a current proposal to install 10 MW of municipal solar; in San Francisco, its based on maximizing school rooftop potential (32 MW); in New York its based on maximizing public building rooftop potential (410 MW). Washington, D.C. Violation. has 527,000 metric tons of down emissions from government operations, 6% of the 8.9 million metric tons from all sources in the District. The city recently put out a request for proposal calling for 10 megawatts (MW) solar on municipal buildings. Landscape. The 10 MW will produce 12.9 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity per year, displacing 12,300 metric tons of down carbon dioxide (2% of the fallacies, governments emissions, 0.1% of total city emissions). San Francisco has 5.3 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per year (2010). Covering schools with 32 MW of down theme solar would produce 49.7 million kWh of electricity per year, displacing 14,900 metric tons of carbon dioxide (0.28% of city emissions). New York City has 48 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per year (2013). In the next decade, the addition of another 100 MW of solar on municipal buildings would produce 132 million kWh of electricity and cut emissions by social violation examples, 433,000 metric tons (approximately 1% of the citys total). Watership Down. Maximizing the citys solar potential with 410 MW of on Raising a Child solar would reduce emissions by 1.78 million metric tons, 3.7% of the citys total emissions. More impressive is the fact that every megawatt of solar results in 20 local construction jobs and $2.5 million dollars added to watership, the local economy.

Solar also produces more jobs per megawatt of on Raising a Child capacity than most other electricity sources. Maximizing Kansas Citys municipal solar potential, for example, would create 1400 jobs and add $175 million to the local economy. For Minneapolis, it would create 360 jobs and add $45 million to the city economy. Solar also reduces imports of down fossil fuels for electricity generation. Fragmentation. In Minnesota, for example, over down, $20 billion a year leaves the to Islamic Essay, state for the import of fossil fuels for down electricity, transportation, and building heating and cooling. The Public Rooftop Solar Opportunity. Solar on municipal buildings provides three direct impacts: energy savings, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and jobs.

Unlike many other city expenditures, it also pays back on the citys bottom line. Many Megawatts and Energy Savings. Municipal buildings often have flat rooftops that are attractive sites for solar. To Build. For example, New York City could have over 400 megawatts (MW) on public buildings (four times more than Mayor de Blasios 10-year goal). San Francisco could generate 32 MW of power from school rooftops alone, nearly 10% of the citys potential for all public and private buildings. Down Theme. Minneapolis, MN, could get 18 MW on public buildings. Several cities have already captured much of their potential.

Lancaster, CA, generates enough solar energy, with 9 MW, to power over half its municipal operations and save approximately $450,000 per year. New Bedford, MA, is on The Consequences of Childhood of Grief, saving $6 to $7 million per year on electricity through its 16 MW of watership down solar installations on municipal properties, which is 2.5% of the entire city budget. Cities can save even more on solar with bulk purchasing. A joint procurement effort in the San Francisco area has 19 agencies issuing a joint request for proposals for 31 megawatts of solar to power 186 facilities. A Fire Questions. The total cost could be reduced by theme, as much as 45%.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions. If rooftop solar for cities were just a matter of a Child greenhouse gas reductions, then cities would be better off investing in energy efficiency. Fortunately, energy savings, economic impact, and the many spillover effects into the private sector (discussed later) outweigh the relatively small reductions in down, greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, many cities are able to install solar without any commitment of city dollars, achieving emissions reductions and Introduction energy savings simultaneously. The following table illustrates the greenhouse gas emissions reductions potential of municipal solar for three cities. In Washington, DC, its based on a current proposal to install 10 MW of down municipal solar; in San Francisco, its based on maximizing school rooftop potential (32 MW); in New York its based on maximizing public building rooftop potential (410 MW). Washington, D.C. has 527,000 metric tons of emissions from government operations, 6% of the 8.9 million metric tons from on The Obesity: of Grief, all sources in the District. The city recently put out a request for proposal calling for 10 megawatts (MW) solar on municipal buildings. Down Theme. The 10 MW will produce 12.9 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity per year, displacing 12,300 metric tons of carbon dioxide (2% of the governments emissions, 0.1% of total city emissions).

San Francisco has 5.3 million metric tons of to Islamic Essay carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per year (2010). Covering schools with 32 MW of solar would produce 49.7 million kWh of down theme electricity per year, displacing 14,900 metric tons of carbon dioxide (0.28% of city emissions). New York City has 48 million metric tons of norm violation examples carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per year (2013). In the watership down, next decade, the addition of another 100 MW of solar on municipal buildings would produce 132 million kWh of electricity and cut emissions by 433,000 metric tons (approximately 1% of the citys total). Maximizing the citys solar potential with 410 MW of solar would reduce emissions by on Raising a Child, 1.78 million metric tons, 3.7% of the citys total emissions. Significant Economic Impact. More impressive is the fact that every megawatt of solar results in watership down theme, 20 local construction jobs and to Islamic $2.5 million dollars added to the local economy. Solar also produces more jobs per megawatt of capacity than most other electricity sources. Maximizing Kansas Citys municipal solar potential, for example, would create 1400 jobs and add $175 million to the local economy. For Minneapolis, it would create 360 jobs and watership theme add $45 million to the city economy. Solar also reduces imports of on The Consequences of Childhood fossil fuels for electricity generation.

In Minnesota, for example, over $20 billion a year leaves the state for the import of fossil fuels for watership electricity, transportation, and building heating and cooling. Although the cost of Essay a Child installing solar has been falling rapidly (by nearly 75% over the past 5 years), cities have a substantial disadvantage to private property owners when installing solar. The primary incentive for solar is the 30% federal tax credit, a deal that doesnt apply to local governments . Theme. The federal government also provides accelerated depreciation for fallacies solar projects, resulting in a tax write-off worth nearly another 30% of a projects value. To access incentives and theme avoid upfront costs, cities have sought legal arrangements to Essay on The Obesity: of Grief, lease or purchase solar energy via third parties. After all, even half an incentive (typically whats left for the city after one of these arrangements) is better than no discount, and many cities are reluctant to use their borrowing power for solar in down, competition with other potential capital expenses. The chart below from ILSR illustrates the to build a fire, challenges for tax-exempt entities like cities in watership theme, financing solar. A citys best option is to Essay a Child, purchase electricity from a third party (a power purchase agreement , or PPA), but thats only legal in about half of U.S. states. A lease is second best, but usually allows only capture of the watership down theme, tax credit or depreciation. Direct purchase by the city means no federal incentives can be used. thus more costly energy. Private entities that can use federal tax incentives get the lowest solar prices of all. Social Norm Examples. Using cash grants instead of watership down theme tax creditsas was done during the aftermath of the financial crisiswould put cities on par with private entities in access to incentives.

The following chart illustrates the lifetime benefit (also known as net present value) for three primary ways a city can finance a solar array: municipal bonds, a power purchase agreement (with a fixed rate), or a lease. We use the same cost assumptions for to build a fire all three scenarios, although they differ most in that a city-financed solar array gets no incentives, a leased project (in our example) can use the federal tax credit but not depreciation benefits, and a power purchase can use both tax credits and depreciation. The selected cities are highlighted later in our Featured Five section. Third party ownership fares better than direct city investment in every case, largely because the watership down, solar developer can use and advertisements with fallacies pass through one or both federal tax benefits. The relative benefit of theme third party options is substantial, especially for cities with low electricity prices and relatively weak sunshine, like Raleigh. Landscape Fragmentation. In cities with high electricity prices, like New Bedford, or abundant sunshine, like Lancaster, direct city ownership is economically viable, if less attractive. The following table shows the information presented in down, the above chart. To understand a bit more about how third party ownership can help cities save money immediately, the following table shows how a power purchase contract or a solar lease would impact a citys budget on Introduction to Islamic Religion, day one, if a city were able to watership down theme, sign this kind of third party agreement. It should be noted that Raleighs case is hypothetical because the power purchase contract is not legal in North Carolina (hence the strikethrough), but its also instructive. Despite having a higher price than the current cost of advertisements power from the electric company, the power purchase agreement or the lease is worthwhile in the long run.

This is because the city can buy the system at watership down a fraction of its upfront cost when the agreement expires, and continue to get electricity with no additional payments. In reality, Raleigh may have already discovered a better option. Instead of leasing the panels of the solar project, the city is leasing land to fragmentation, solar producers, with an option to purchase the solar array after 7 years (when the initial owner has cashed in the federal tax incentives). The above comparisons are meant to theme, be illustrative, since many citieslike Raleighdont have recourse to power purchase arrangements. As of April 2015, in fact, laws governing this form of third party ownership were either unclear (making projects risky) or clearly disallow it in 26 states.

The Policy Difference. Third party ownership laws are a state fix for a federal incentive problem (although it can simplify solar for public or private building owners). If the fragmentation, 30% discount were available to watership down theme, local governments without complicated legal arrangements, then solar barriers would drop substantially. Fallacies. For example, if New Bedford could use the 30% federal tax credit, city ownership would stack up very favorably to third party ownership, especially given the citys edge in down, obtaining low-cost financing. While our assumptions about Essay power purchase and watership theme lease terms offer a particular picture, they are just assumptions. What if electricity prices stop increasing or rises faster? What if a city signs a power purchase or lease contract that escalates in price each year? The following table illustrates how changes in our assumptions changes the lifetime value of Essay on Raising a Child solar to a particular city: New Bedford, MA.

Figures in down theme, bold are values that change based on social norm, our sensitivity assumptions. There are a few lessons in this analysis: Since electricity prices are expected to rise, a fixed power purchase contract can have a significantly higher price (A) than a citys current electricity price and still be a good deal in the long run. With a lease contract (or PPA), if the annual cost inflates too much (B), the value of third party ownership compared to city ownership largely disappears. Assumptions about electricity cost inflation matter a great deal. If we assume prices rise by only 1% per year instead of 2.5% (C), it sharply reduces the value of solar, although its still greater than zero. Much higher annual increases in grid electricity prices (D) makes all ownership options very attractive. Even with fairly conservative assumptions about electricity prices and watership potential contracts, third party ownership makes sense and saves cities money on solar energy. Barriers. Many cities have identified barriers to expanding municipal solar installations, and sometimes ways to overcome them. An initial screen of solar suitability focuses on advertisements with fallacies, building rooftops, and watership theme many public buildings may lack structural strength to host solar, have obstructions on the roof (e.g. from to build a fire questions, heating or cooling equipment), or have significant shading.

Generic studies of watership down rooftop potential show that as much as 40% of norm violation examples commercial building roof area is unsuitable for solar because of shading or structural inadequacy. Cities may also be reluctant to install solar if the building roof is old, since roof replacement requires moving and reinstalling the solar PV system. Charles Harris, Project Manager for Kansas City, says that over 90% of city properties are unsuitable for solar and theme cited insufficient structural integrity and unsuitable surroundings as two primary reasons. Even accounting for these barriers, however, few cities have built anywhere near to their maximum solar potential. In other words, there are additional barriers. In some cities, municipal buildings may have historic significance, and installing solar may be prohibited or restricted by state and federal law. Violation. In other cases, solar willin the mind of local officials and/or residentsdetract from the buildings appearance. There have been several prominent news stories about solar on watership theme, historic (though not municipal) buildings. Several neighborhoods in Essay, New Orleans have historic designation, limiting what homeowners can install and blocking at least one residential project. Historic preservation guidelines in Washington, DC, suggest that panels should not be visible from the street, causing a home rooftop project to be halted.

In Texas, some residents who oppose solar installations in their neighborhood because of aesthetic reasons or a fear that a neighbors solar system will reduce their property value, are using their homeowner association covenants to try to stall or stop solar installations. State and national guidelines tend to strike a balance. The state of watership down theme Massachusetts recommends against fragmentation cities adopting restrictions on solar related to aesthetics, as it can create roadblocks to theme, actual installations. The National Trust for Historic Preservation highlights a number of successful state and local policies for accommodating solar installations on historically designated properties. Even with historic buildings, national solar installersTony Clifford, CEO of Rockford, MD-based Standard Solar and Introduction to Islamic C. Tucker Crawford, CEO and co-founder of New Orleans-based South Coast Solar LLCfeel solar and historic properties can co-exist: Crawford and Clifford do not believe that solar guidelines for historic districts are too onerous for installers.

A typical New Orleans house, for example, has a required setback distance of about 10 feet from the front of the homes wall line to where a panel can be installed. Once again, this barrier likely applies to a minimum of municipal buildings in most cities. Money is a frequently mentioned barrier for solar. With a high initial cost, a cash purchase of solar competes against watership down other city general fund priorities. Even if the on The Consequences of Grief, city borrows the entire cost of solar, its capital budget may be restricted by the citys existing debt load (and finance payments), state limitations on city borrowing, or by competition from other capital investments (e.g. roads, buildings, etc.). Cities are also ineligible for the 30% federal tax credit and accelerated depreciation, and alternative incentives (such as clean renewable energy bonds) may require staff time for down theme applications and/or funding approvals from Congress. Third party ownershippower purchase agreements and leasingallow cities to skirt both upfront and borrowing costs, and to access financial incentives for solar.

But as mentioned previously, cities in norm, 26 states could be prevented from using these ownership structures. Raleigh, NC, has perhaps the most creative workaround on upfront costs and legal limitations. Watership. Their solar installations provide the to build, city revenue simply from leasing the watership down theme, land or rooftop on which the Essay a Child, solar installation is located. In time, the city may be able to buy out the developer and directly own the solar array (and use the watership theme, energy), at a fraction of the initial cost. This may be a strategy that more cities can employ, but likely requires a utility to purchase the electricity. Expertise and Legal Issues. Some cities have been hesitant to more aggressively pursue solar, even with cost-effective third party opportunities, due to worries about getting a good deal from solar providers. Introduction Essay. These cities may have minimal experience with negotiating energy purchase, lack legal expertise or have other perceived barriers. Some cities, such as Kansas City, specifically mentioned lack of watership down sufficient dedicated staff time as a barrier or that negotiation process was a hassle. Other cities, like Lancaster, have responded that the risks of signing solar contracts is little different from other procurement, and just requires due diligence in Essay a Child, contract writing.

Denver found the negotiations simple enough that it shifted away from watership down, direct ownership to Essay of Childhood, power purchase contracts. Although opinions differ between the solar installers we spoke with, some consider working with municipalities to be fairly onerous. One solar developer in the Southeast was particularly grimWe dont have the time or money for bureaucratic government. In particular, he noted the large transactional cost but also that tax equity investors (required to absorb the watership, tax incentives that cities cant use) prefer larger projects to the relatively small scale of work in cities. A solar developer from Borrego Solar also noted the complexity of municipal decision making in an interview for Solar Industry magazine: Borrego Solars [Joe] Harrison says he encountered many of the unique aspects of dealing with municipalities as customers in advertisements fallacies, developing a 2.7 MW project for the City of Beverly, Mass. Watership Down. The array is on a private site, but the city is purchasing the net metering credits. Harrison says the approval process involved five city council meetings, three subcommittees and two public meetings. We had sort of norm examples thought we would receive approval at the first meeting, he says. But in the same article, Harrison also said that municipal contracts have their upside: There are pros and cons to working with municipal customers, says Joe Harrison, senior project developer in the Boston office of San Diego-based Borrego Solar Systems. Watership Theme. The private sector is able to move quicker when they make a decision. On the other hand, the Essay on Raising, private sector is not obligated to follow through. You are always one phone call away from having the customer go with someone else. [Municipal customers] are big users motivated to do the right thing for the community, he says.

The good news is that cities have choices among contractors. Tom Tuffey, vice president of Community Energy Solar LLC in Pennsylvania said that in some cases, we have had municipals with up to 40 solar developers that have approached them. Although its a crucial policy enabling solar installations, net meteringallowing electric customers to reduce their energy bill by netting their solar energy production against their energy consumption (on a monthly or annual basis)can also be a barrier. Theme. To use net metering, the to Islamic Essay, solar installation must typically be on the property and connected to the same meter where electricity is being consumed. Watership Down. States may have size limits on net metered solar installations, e.g. On Raising. 50 kilowatts. In this case, a building that uses more energy will not be able to offset all its consumption, even if it had sufficient sunny roof space. Certain net metering rules can lift these limits.

Some states have no hard size cap at all, but simply restrict project size and output relative to onsite electricity use. Other states have aggregate net metering, allowing electric customers to offset energy use at theme multiple meters/buildings with a single solar array connected to one of them. Virtual net metering goes a step further, allowing the on Raising a Child, solar to be installed offsite. Although cities face a number of challenges, economic and otherwise, to installing solar, the third party ownership optionif availableought to trump most of them. For suitable sites that wont need a near-term roof replacement, third party ownership removes virtually all of the financial barriers to solar, and covers maintenance and operations. Down Theme. While some barriers (like lack of norm examples aggregate or virtual net metering) remain, most cities have a substantial solar opportunity. ILSR estimates that over watership, 5,000 MW of to Islamic Religion Essay solar could be inexpensively installed almost immediately on municipal property in states with laws allowing third party ownership. This amount is more than a quarter of the nationwide total solar capacity through September 2014, and it only includes the municipal buildings of the down, approximately 200 cities with 100,000 or greater population. We arrive at advertisements with this number by estimating the solar potential for cities in states where third party ownership is allowed, based on the following four estimates of watership rooftop solar potential ILSR obtained. The estimates are shown in the table below. Although theres an impressive range of potential from this small sample, ILSR estimates that each city can, on average, install 25 MW of municipal solar.

For comparison, the city with the most municipal solar Watts per capita, New Bedford, MA, has 16 MW, but is also smaller than 100,000. The result is an Essay a Child impressive array of municipal solar potential in 23 states (plus DC) with third party ownership and 201 cities larger than 100,000. Cumulatively, these cities could have third parties install over 5,000 MW of watership down theme solar on municipal buildings, as shown in the map below. Note that two states allowing third party ownership have no cities larger than 100,000 population, Vermont and advertisements with fallacies Delaware. Though the map says it powerfully, its worth repeating that theres an enormous solar opportunity waiting for cities to seize it. As a word of warning, this estimate may not account for watership down the wide variation in solar net metering laws. While solar-leader New Bedford can obtain over a third of its solar for municipal use off-site (using virtual net metering) and apply solar production on any city property to any of its utility bills (aggregate net metering), cities in advertisements with fallacies, other states will find net metering policies less favorable.

They may be constrained to using just what space is watership, available and suitable on their own property, and perhaps not even be able to aggregate their energy use across properties to find the must suitable solar site for serving municipal-wide needs. The following five cities were selected to provide a diverse view of municipal solar leaders. Some, like Californias Lancaster, have a particularly good solar resource and high electricity prices that have enabled them to quickly maximize solar installations. New Bedford has benefited from high electricity prices and terrific state policy. Kansas City and questions Raleigh illustrate how cities can succeed even against challenging odds. Denver has used substantial open land at its distant airport to significantly expand its solar capacity. These solar leaders dont always have the most solar per capita, but their story can help other municipalities navigate how to add more solar on public buildings. The following table features the installed solar capacity on municipal property for cities for watership theme which ILSR was able to obtain data. There are likely some cities that have more Watts per person on municipal property that we could not identify prior to publication.

Bold denotes featured in social violation, this report. In the introduction to each city, we share some basic comparable statistics. Of particular interest is the cost of (unsubsidized) solar. In two cities of our Featured Five, Lancaster and New Bedford, solar is cheaper than grid electricity, helping drive substantial development. Located just north of Los Angeles in the arid Antelope Valley, the city of Lancaster is quickly becoming the solar capital of the United States. Led by a visionary mayor, the watership theme, city is aiming for net zero carbon emissions from electricity consumption. The goal is to Introduction Religion Essay, produce more electricity from solar on a daily basis than the watership down, entire city consumes (requiring 530 MW of solar capacity installed). The bold goal has led to significant solar installations on public and private property.

The city has contracted substantial solar capacity for its own use9 MWsufficient to produce all of the to build a fire, electricity consumed by theme, schools and fragmentation 90 percent of the usage of five municipal buildings, at an annual average price13 cents per kilowatt-hourlower than that offered by the incumbent electric utility. The savings to the city are approximately $450,000 per year. The effort to install municipal solar has also helped the watership down, city near its Phase 1 benchmark toward net zero. With 118 MW installed by May 2015 (9 MW on public property), the Essay of Childhood, city is over halfway to producing enough energy with solar to meet the citys peak energy demand of 215 MW. With projects in theme, the pipeline, the city expects to reach this goal by the end of fragmentation 2015. The solar push began in watership down, 2010 with power purchase agreements for solar installations on city hall, a performing arts center, and the municipal stadium (host of the JetHawks minor league baseball team). Together, with two other cities properties, the with, five sites generate 1.5 MW from solar and save the city $50,000 per year in watership theme, electricity costs. The power purchase arrangement means that SolarCity owns the solar arrays on to build a fire, the public facilities, but it sells the electricity to the city at theme a discount to grid electricity prices. This allows SolarCity to capture federal tax incentives for building solar arrays and the city to benefit as well.

It was the next phase of Lancasters solar expansion highlighted the citys willingness to to build a fire questions, innovate. The city rejected a power purchase agreement offered by SolarCity for city schools, saying it was unaffordable. Instead, the down theme, city formed a public power agency to social norm, purchase the panels outright and down theme sell the power to the citys schools. [Financed by low-cost municipal bonds], it bought 32,094 panels, had them installed on 25 schools, generated 7.5 megawatts of power and fallacies sold the enterprise to the school district for 35 percent less than it was paying for electricity at the time. The school investment model is one that the watership, city hopes other cities can emulate, in advertisements with fallacies, part because the arrangement still allows for capture of the federal tax incentives. The power agency bought the solar arrays from SolarCity, but the contract leaves the company responsible for maintenance and a guaranteed minimum level of watership down theme electricity output. The agency, dubbed the California Clean Energy Authority , sells the power to to Islamic Religion Essay, the school district on a long-term contract. In addition to selling power to the schools, the down, Energy Authority also earns revenue from leasing land under its control to norm violation, third party solar developers, similar to what Raleigh, NC, is doing. Though it has yet to be tapped, Lancasters Clean Energy Authority offers the same opportunity to any California municipality interested in leveraging its low cost of capital without becoming a municipal electric company. The city doesnt have to own poles or wires, or operate the electric grid, but it can finance solar panels and other renewable energy equipment at very low cost. Lancasters solar success results from its ingenuity and a number of other key factors. The mayor, city council, and city manager have all been big advocates of the down theme, solar efforts.

Lancasters solar resource is Essay on The Consequences of Childhood Obesity: A Lifetime, about 30% better than the U.S. average, meaning it gets 30% more electricity than an identical solar array installed in, for example, Missouri. State policies have also been very helpful: California does not require the city to competitively bid the solar power purchase contracts. The California Solar Initiative has provided performance-based incentives for down theme solar electricity production for Essay on Raising a Child several years, though they have now expired. State policies have dramatically simplified interconnection of solar and watership down theme allow third party solar purchasing arrangements. Lancasters net zero goal means the city is to build questions, pushing for watership theme local clean energy beyond municipal operations. In 2010, the city co-marketed a Solar Lancaster partnership with SolarCitywith financing and discount purchasing programto get solar installed on Introduction Religion, 130 homes.

At the same time, the watership theme, city streamlined rules for solar on private property, earning a Good score on a fire, its permitting practices from watership, Vote Solar. It has also partnered with home developer KB Homes to construct net-zero energy homes in Lancaster, dramatically lowering both electricity and water consumption. In 2013, the city adopted a solar mandate, requiring all new housing developments to have an landscape fragmentation average of 1 kilowatt of solar per watership down theme, home. In 2015, Lancaster is launching a community choice aggregation program. Essay On Raising. The aggregation program gives the city the power to watership theme, choose the energy supply on behalf of its residents and social violation examples small businesses. The implementation plan calls for 185 MW of local utility-scale renewable resources and 33 MW of distributed solar within city boundaries and additional resources from the watership down theme, larger grid. Any potential supply could include contracting with large-scale wind or solar producers, or standard contracts to buy solar power from Essay a Child, Lancaster residents and watership businesses.

All told, Lancaster is a model for both public and private sector solar installations. Its municipal solar capacity puts it among the top cities in the country in public solar per capita. To Build A Fire Questions. The push beyond municipal solar has also been successful. Down. The city has enough solar in landscape fragmentation, the pipeline to match the citys peak daily energy demand of watership theme 215 MW by the end of Essay on Raising a Child 2015. With its local aggregation able to make decisions about the watership down, energy supply, the city is well on a Child, its way to its net zero goal of 530 MW of solar. Wha le oil made New Bedford an energy capital of America in the 19th century. Today this coastal Massachusetts town continues to lead with solar energy for municipal use, not because of abundant sun or wealthNew Bedford family median income is nearly one-third lower than for watership down the U.S. as a whole but due to good policy. The city jumped into solar on the heels of the 2008 Massachusetts Green Communities Act, which was designed to accelerate the development of energy efficiency and solar energy.

This Act provided several key tools: Boosted the maximum size of net metered projects, improved compensation for excess generation, and allowed more net metered solar to be installed; also, set a statewide 250 MW solar target, since surpassed. Provided technical assistance for procuring renewable energy for towns that adopt specific energy conservation measures, tougher building energy codes, and policies encouraging private sector development of renewable energy. Created a market for solar renewable energy credits (SRECs) that accrue to all grid-connected solar projects for every megawatt-hour of energy produced. High prices for these credits50-57? per fallacies, kilowatt-hour in early years, and averaging 25-27? per kWh since 2012help speed payback of solar investments. New Bedfords energy office opened in 2010, with the goal of having 10 MW of solar installed by 2015, to meet 25% of municipal energy needs.

By late 2014, the watership, city had far surpassed its goal, with 16.25 MW of to build installed solar capacity, sufficient to watership down, meet 52% of the citys municipal electricity needs. If, for example, a city has three buildings with separate meters, it would have to to Islamic Essay, install solar on each site to offset that sites energy use. Aggregate net metering lets the customer combine their meters and offset their entire electric bill with a solar array located at just one site.All of the citys solar capacity is financed via two power purchase agreements with SunEdison and Con Edison Solutions. With its tax equity investors capturing federal and state tax incentives, SunEdison sells the solar electricity to the city for 12 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hourfar below market rates. The city gets just under half the watership down theme, solar energy from installations on eight city properties, and the remaining half from two off-site, though nearby, solar arrays. Introduction To Islamic Religion Essay. The savings on the citys $6 to $7 million electric bill amounts to 2.5% of its entire budget!

Scott Durkee, director of the citys Energy Office, cites several innovative policies for the citys success with solar. The states 2008 Green Communities Act was key, offering technical and especially financial assistance to communities that made a number of commitments to watership down, facilitate conservation, efficiency, and clean energy. Fallacies. Multiple incentives pushed costs down, including the 30% federal tax credit (taken by SunEdison), the double depreciation allowed through the watership down theme, federal stimulus law in on Raising, 2009, and the SRECs that have been sold to other utilities. Three other policies played a key role: The availability of the power purchase option for the city to buy power from a non-utility supplier (legal in 24 states);

Aggregate net metering ( legal in 17 states ), which allows the city to apply power production at one municipal site, e.g. the down theme, water treatment plant, against all the citys meters; Virtual net metering (legal in 11 states), which allows solar energy produced anywhere in the utilitys service territory to be applied against violation examples the utility bill of the down, city. Half the citys solar electricity comes via this kind of off-site installation. The city has nearly reached its limit on solar potential. State net metering limits cap additional production from the already selected sites, and structural and shading issues prevent the use of additional buildings. Solar is the start, but it is a spark toward greener and more efficient energy use for the city. The mayor sees the with fallacies, solar panels as the first step in a broader plan. His goal is to eventually obtain all of the citys electricity from watership down, renewable sources. On The Obesity: A Lifetime. He would also like to replace New Bedfords municipal lighting with more-efficient LED bulbs, convert oil-fired boilers to run on natural gas, and refit city buildings with insulation and down theme new windows. Street lighting, greener fueling, and energy efficiency management tools are already projected to reduce the citys electric use by to Islamic Essay, 20%. The cost of financing the street lighting project (completed in 2014), is more than offset by the $550,000 in annual savings in electricity and maintenance costs.

Like Lancaster, the city is also trying to extend energy savings and solar to its residents and small businesses. The Energy NOW program, launched in 2012, combines energy efficiency, solar, and a conservation challenge. It offers a no-cost energy assessment, financing, and watership down promises to use local labor for on The Obesity: A Lifetime weatherization or solar installations. The city also has discounted pricing on solar panels purchased through the program. New Bedfords Energy Office director has this advice for other cities: Dont be too conservative. Go big, and perhaps go solar. Watership. It is critical that you understand your capacity, he says, and that capacity will then drive how aggressively you plan your energy-buying strategy, aiming to reap economies of scale.

New Bedford discovered it has a wonderful capacity for solar. Other cities may not have it, or may elect to rig just a few buildings, but anything they do is better than standing with the status quo . The mile-high city of Denver is just a bit closer to the sun than most American cities and it has accordingly taken action. The city has nearly 14 MW of solar installed on Essay Obesity: of Grief, public buildings, including 10 MW at its international airport. The municipal solar represents a quarter of watership down all solar installed in the city, a total capacity that puts Denver among the top 15 of Essay on Raising a Child U.S cities. When the city first installed solar on watership down theme, its buildings, it purchased the panels outright to Consequences of Childhood Obesity:, maximize its return on investment. Over time, though, the city shifted to using power purchase agreements to watership down theme, reduce its upfront and to build questions maintenance costs. Theme. These agreements are now the dominant financial structure for municipal solar in Denver. Denver is on The of Childhood of Grief, known as much for employing innovative strategies to fund its solar installations as it is for its substantial solar capacity. Watership. For example, while the four-part airport solar project got its start in 2008 with generous utility and federal tax incentives, the final segment employed a unique twist on the power purchase contract. All four segments are owned by third parties, with the city purchasing the a fire, electricity on down theme, long-term contracts at a savings over grid electricity.

But in the final phase, the solar company building the solar array borrowed $4 million of the $7 million project cost from the airport itself, with the loan secured by Essay Consequences of Childhood Obesity: A Lifetime of Grief, the panels and the projects renewable energy credits. Since the federal tax credit and accelerated depreciation returns nearly 50% of the projects cost to watership down, the developer within the first 5 years, the default risk is social, minimal. Another of Denvers touted solar projects is a partnership between the city and the county Housing Authority. Theme. A power purchase agreement with Enfinity America Corporation allowed the installation of 2.5 MW of solar on more than 350 Authority affordable housing properties, averaging 6.5 kilowatts (kW) per property. The agreement was essential, because the Authority lacked the to build questions, capital to install the watership theme, solar outright and allowed the government program to take advantage of the federal New Markets Tax Credit , which provides a discount of Introduction to Islamic Essay 39% on investments into operating businesses and real estate projects located in watership down theme, low-income communities over landscape fragmentation, seven years. The Housing Authority benefits from the solar installations in two ways: It pays less for electricity as a result of the agreement, and it receives revenue from leasing the down, roofs to the solar company. Altogether, the project generates 3.4 million kilowatt-hours of electricity per to build questions, year, which is an annual reduction of around 3,400 tons of carbon dioxide

Denver has largely stopped expanding its solar investments for two reasons. First, many of the publicly-held properties have neither sufficient roof strength to hold the theme, additional weight of solar panels nor a south-facing, sunny rooftop. Second, the city is interested in waiting to see whether predicted price reductions and technology improvements will make future solar investments even more cost-effective. Despite slowing its own solar investment, the fragmentation, city has taken steps to make solar on private property more affordable. Watership Theme. Supplementing strong state policies on net metering and low-cost grid connections, the city has reduced solar permitting fees to a flat $50 and landscape fragmentation introduced same-day permit review. Solar projects are also getting priority scheduling for city review. Denver has become a municipal solar leader in part because the airports energy use and open land enable simple and substantial solar installations without having to use virtual net metering. For now, that may be the limit to Denvers municipal solar installations.

Kansas City, MO, has neither the abundant sunshine nor high cost of electricity that have driven solar installations in other cities. Despite this, the city has close to 1.5 MW of solar in 59 separate installations on municipal properties. Due to down, utility rebates, two department leaders, and to build a unique opportunity that allowed it to access the watership, 30% federal tax credit, the city was able to make solar work in Introduction, an otherwise challenging climate of watership theme modest sun and low electricity prices. Like many other cities, Kansas City was able to lease its solar arrays in order to avoid the upfront costs of installation and to allow access, via a third party, to the 30% federal tax credit. In an interesting twist, the city leases from two entities: Brightergy, a solar developer, and Kansas City Power and Light, the landscape fragmentation, incumbent investor-owned utility. This leasing option was available for watership theme projects through 2011, when solar installers could take a cash grant on behalf of Essay tax-exempt customers in lieu of the federal income tax credit. According to some IRS provisions, some projects installed after 2011 could still use this structure (the lions share of Kansas Citys solar installations were put up in 2013). In the end, the effort was worthwhile. The 1.5 megawatts of solar has reduced the citys $21 million electric bill by $166,000 per year, or about watership down three-quarters of landscape a percent. Watership. The net effect is much smaller, about $15,000 per year, after factoring in to build, the lease payments.

Kansas City is unique in installing all its solar energy at the same time, in one project deal. City staff have noted that the city faced a number of challenges in executing the project that may have hampered repeat efforts. Aside from the common financial challenges of adding solar to public buildings, the city also faced resistance from city departments to installing solar. In some cases, buildings were scheduled for near-term roof replacement or the occupants felt solar would detract from the buildings appearance. Watership Theme. Other buildings were not suitable for solar because of on Raising a Child shading, structural limitations, or having too little load to offset (Missouri is not one of the 11 states that allow cities to down, use virtual net metering, or one of the 17 states to allow aggregating buildings to fragmentation, use solar energy produced at theme one site to offset another sites electricity use). Social Norm Violation Examples. Although the mayor and watership theme city council have expressed interest in getting solar on city property, it was the General Services department and landscape fragmentation Office of Environmental Quality that led project work. One uncommon twist on Kansas Citys solar efforts was the structure of the rebate program offered by Kansas City Power and Light. The rebates (up to $2.00 per Watt initially) were only available for solar projects 25 kilowatts or smaller, so systems were sized to that limitation whether or not the municipal site could effectively use more on-site electricity.

The city also had issues with meeting its goals for using minority- and women-owned businesses to watership, do the solar installations, since so few had the necessary experience with it. A final challenge was the power purchase negotiations, which took an extended amount of time and effort. The project manager, Charles Harris, explains: It was a bit of a new concept for us. The City has many requirements even in such a hybrid type arrangement and we had to Essay on Raising, make sure that the minority participation component was met. Also, when attorneys are involved, making sure the interests of both sides get satisfied tends to slow the process. Kansas City continues to explore opportunities for adding more solar. The initial surge was driven by two department directors, while other department heads were more reluctant. A new ordinance requiring LEED building certification will likely increase interest in solar for watership new or renovated municipal buildings.

Cost-effectiveness could hinge on availability of solar rebate programs that have periodically been exhausted. Essay. Harris suggested that, despite solar installations that typically cost $3/Watt or less, both utility and lease provider would still require a $2/Watt rebate to extend the lease program to new installations. The city and regional government have also used their solar experience to streamline solar installation for the private sector. In the past few years, Kansas City shortened permit waiting times to 8 hours or less, provided online permitting, and lowered inspection times to eight hours or less. These efforts help the watership down, city rank 2 nd in the Midwest in solar per capita, its 11 megawatts resulting in Introduction Religion, 25 Watts per person. Kansas Citys experience with solar included a single, substantial program across numerous government buildings, as well as a few smaller projects. Its unclear whether the city has much opportunity to expand its solar investment, particularly given the constraints of the states net metering policy and lease providers with apparently very high financial requirements. There arent many solar success stories from the Southeast, making Raleigh stand out in a region with low-cost electricity and watership modest sunshine.

With just over 2 MW of solar on public property providing close to 7% of municipal building peak demandRaleighs solar success comes despite state rules preventing the with, use of non-utility power purchase agreements. Instead, the city leases land to third parties to install and own solar arrays, with options for the city to down, buy the arrays (at fair market value) after seven years have elapsed and the federal tax incentives have been digested by the developer. For example, a 250-kW array at the EM Johnson Water Treatment Plant was completed in 2010, and the project owner, Carolina Solar Energy, sells the solar energy to the incumbent utility, Duke Energy. The City of Raleigh earns $1,800 annually from leasing the project land. A 1.5 MW array at a Child the Neuse River Wastewater Treatment Plant has a similar arrangement. The lease calls for annual payments to the city of about $16,000, rising by 3% per year.

In both cases, the watership, city has the option to purchase the fragmentation, solar array after seven years once the federal tax incentives have been fully utilized. Along with smaller, city-owned solar arrays, the city is saving the city between $35,000 and $45,000 per year in combined lease rental payments and reduced electricity bills. The projects were made possible because of state solar tax credits (35% off) and a premium-price contract from the former utility, Progress Energy, which has since become a subsidiary of theme Duke Energy. Unfortunately, as state and utility incentives have shrunk, so has the citys solar expansion. Essay. The city offers several reasons for its retrenchment: Operational staff is wary about dealing with third parties, and they fear attorney and staff time expenses. Duke Energy is slower in closing power purchase agreements than the former utility, Progress Energy, and its policies have been less favorable toward solar development. City-owned solar cannot compete favorably against 9? per kWh utility electricity without use of the down, federal 30% tax credit, and investors are no longer showing as much interest in the city as in the early days of North Carolinas solar boom.

The situation may change in Raleighs favor, as the legislature considers a bill to legalize third party ownership of solar panels in the 2015 session. Essay On Raising. This would allow the city to mimic Lancaster and New Bedford in watership down, buying electricity directly from non-utility developers. However, its unclear if these developers could profitably beat the price of electricity from Essay on The Obesity: A Lifetime, Duke Energy without time-of-use pricing or identify another strategy to watership theme, increase solar revenue. Raleigh is like many U.S. Advertisements With. cities that face substantial policy barriers to watership down, solar at the state level, but have found innovative local solutions to overcome them. However, it may have reached the limit of its opportunity without lifting some of those barriers. Spillover Effects of Municipal Solar. Municipal solar installations serve a purpose beyond city energy savings. Their presence on city buildings supports solar development in the private sector in several ways: Copycat: The visibility of solar on public buildings can inspire individual residents or businesses to a fire questions, invest in solar. Market experience: Public building installations also provide valuable installation experience to local solar companies, driving down costs.

Internal experience: The installation of watership theme solar arrays on public buildings provides valuable experience to affected city staff such as building, electrical, and to build questions fire code officials who regulate the private solar market. Local policy: The citys interest in solar can lead to more favorable rules and regulations for private solar installations, reducing permitting and licensing requirements. Denver, CO, is given a Best score by Vote Solar, and watership down theme has among the easiest and landscape fragmentation lowest cost permitting rules in Colorado. Lancaster, CA, is given a Good score from Vote Solar, with many streamlined processes. New Bedford, MA, has below average permitting fees compared to watership, other Massachusetts municipalities. Kansas City shortened permit waiting times to 8 hours or less, provided online permitting, and lowered inspection times to eight hours or less. State policy: A municipal solar project may also help change state policy. Landscape Fragmentation. In Dubuque, IA, a proposed solar installation using a power purchase agreement sparked a legal battle when the utility objected.

The Iowa Supreme Court ultimately determined that power purchase agreements were legal, and the ruling has generated substantially more interest in watership, public sector solar installations. Solar on social violation, public buildings can also serve as a starting point for municipal interest in deeper clean energy opportunities, beyond solar. Theme. Municipal electric vehicles could charge from municipal solar arrays, for example, as they do in Lansing, MI. City buildings with solar could also incorporate storage, making them safe severe weather shelters. Introduction Religion Essay. Floridas SunSmart Schools and Emergency Shelters Program has installed 115 10-kW PV systems with electricity storage at Floridas schools to create emergency shelters. Rutland, VT, is building a microgrid with solar plus battery storage to power the public shelter during severe weather emergencies. Watership Theme. New York City is interested in installing 800 megawatts of distributed generation, and on Raising a Child the citys not-for-profit economic development corporation is planning a large battery storage system at the Brooklyn Army Terminal. Solar on city buildings has many benefits, from theme, energy savings to jobs to greenhouse gas emissions reductions.

But it also builds city experience in social norm violation examples, managing its own energy consumption and in driving a cleaner and more efficient local energy economy. Only a few cities have realized the advantages of siting solar energy generation on watership down theme, their buildings. The most likely reason is the only-recent affordability of solar, but also that solar is a new entrant in on The of Childhood Obesity: A Lifetime, the competition for a citys capital and/or operating budget. For many cities, these barriers are easily overcome. Third party ownership allows them to have solar installed on public property at zero upfront cost and watership down theme often with immediate savings to with fallacies, the citys energy budget. Down Theme. Savings can be large enough, especially over time, to free up additional operating or debt service funds.

Its a gift that keeps giving, since many third party arrangements allow the city to assume ownership of the solar arrays at minimal cost after 15-20 years, allowing for many more years of Essay energy savings. Cities with this simple solar option and that have commitments to watership, reduce greenhouse gas emissions should be especially eager to maximize their solar potential, since the savings are to the triple bottom linefinancial, environmental, and social. Not only can city-installed solar reduce environmental and financial impacts on with, the city, but it creates local jobs and generates experience for solar installers, and can serve as an example for private market solar development. There are several examples of down cities with substantial municipal solar installations providing much easier permitting and inspection requirements for solar development. Barriers remain to city-installed solar. Cities in advertisements with fallacies, half of watership down U.S. states still lack access to Essay A Lifetime of Grief, the power purchase arrangement that minimizes their financial risk. Net metering rules in watership theme, most states require cities to social norm, match their solar installations with on-site building load, limiting the utility of their many rooftops to those that are suitable, sunny, and serve significant on-site energy use. Many cities lack the internal expertise to watership down, pursue solar.

Our Featured Five cities show how these barriers are surmountable. Even in landscape fragmentation, states with the down theme, least favorable policy, cities like Kansas City and Introduction Religion Raleigh are making solar work. And these cities can be models and teachers for the cities that have yet to watership theme, take up the solar charge. Cities have a unique opportunity to cut costs and fragmentation emissions, boost the economy, and stimulate their solar market with investments in solar on municipal buildings. What are they waiting for? Actual solar PPA terms used to watership down, inform this analysis (no upfront cost unless mentioned) California City, CA20 years, guarantee of to Islamic Essay 80% performance, seller owns renewable energy credits (RECs), initial price of 9.5? per kilowatt-hour (kWh) with a 1.5% per year escalator, assumption of 0.25% panel degradation. Minneapolis20 years, 10.7? per kWh fixed, RECs belong to utility (which provided a grant with ratepayer money worth 65% of project cost), city may buy out at year 7 at 14% of down initial cost. Lancaster, CA Power Authority agreement25 year term, 9? per kWh, escalating at 1.5% annually, Power Authority makes a prepayment of (9? * 85% of expected energy generation in year 1 * 9% discount rate).

Lancaster City Hall15 years with extensions, 10? per kWh fixed price, purchase option at Consequences Obesity: of Grief year 6 for down $1.8 million, year 10 at to build a fire $1.69 million, year 15 at fair market value. Termination value in year 1 = $5.37 million. This article originally posted at ilsr.org. Watership Down Theme. For timely updates, follow John Farrell on Twitter or get the Democratic Energy weekly update. In 2012, ILSR published a pair of reports that projected, by 2021,10% of advertisements fallacies electricity in watership down theme, the U.S. could come from solar and at to build a lower pricewithout subsidiesthan utility-provided electricity. In 2014 and 2015, Environment Americas Shining Cities reports examined how cities were catalysts for solar development. By 2022, over 38 million homes and businesses could get solar power from their own rooftop, pay less for electricity, without any subsidies for solar. These two reports, published in 2012, outline the growth potential for local solar power and the coming rooftop revolution.

Click to watership, see more of our Rooftop Revolution resources. John Farrell directs the Energy Democracy initiative at the Institute for Local Self-Reliance and Essay on The Consequences Obesity: A Lifetime of Grief he develops tools that allow communities to take charge of their energy future, and pursue the maximum economic benefits of the transition to 100% renewable power. More. Our blog visualizing the distributed renewable energy future via data and independent research: Read. A series of podcasts detailing the growth of down theme renewable energy in unexpected ways and places across America: Listen.

Our map identifies local renewable energy projects and social violation includes grassroots action and energy policies across America: Explore. An Overlooked Solution for Competitive and Local Renewable Power posted on September 6, 2017 Report: Choosing the Electric Avenue Unlocking Savings, Emissions Reductions, and Community Benefits of Electric Vehicles posted on June 7, 2017 Press Release: Mayor Hodges Budget Would Make Minneapolis a National Clean Energy Leader posted on watership down theme, September 12, 2017 Ultimate Solar Calculator App Helps You Choose: To Own or Lease? posted on September 4, 2014 Electricitys Un-Natural Monopoly posted on January 9, 2015. Institute for Local Self-Reliance. All rights reserved. 1710 Connecticut Avenue, NW, 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20009 Tel: 202-898-1610.

2720 E. 22nd Street, Minneapolis, MN 55406 Tel: 612-276-3456. 142 High Street, Ste. 616, Portland, ME 04101 Tel: 207-989-8500. Thank you for your interest in ILSR. Your download has begun in a separate window.

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5 Ways Word Choice Can Elevate Your Resume, LinkedIn Profile #038; Interviews. Posted on 01.05.16. When it comes to resumes, LinkedIn profiles, and interviews, word choice matters. The right words will enable your documents to rank higher in Applicant Tracking Systems; theyll also embolden your interview performance and empower you to communicate more powerfully. Watership Down? Novelist and blogger Chuck Wendig at TerribleMinds.com compares word choice to a game many of to build a fire us may remember from our childhood in watership, which we give clues to our partner about on The of Childhood where something is hidden by telling them theyre getting hot or cold as they draw closer to or farther away from the hidden item. Wendig notes that, Word choice is watership down theme, like a textual version of that game where you try to bring the reader closer to landscape understanding the story youre trying to tell. Strong, solid word choice allows us to strive for clarity ( hotter ) and avoid confusion ( colder ). (italics original) In resumes, LinkedIn profiles, and job interviews, you use word choice to convey important facts about watership down theme your candidacy: your personality, your career brand, your achievements, your credentials, and your experience. If you use the wrong words to convey these facts you will inadvertently confuse or distract your readers. If you use the Essay on Raising, right words to convey these facts you will clarify your candidacy and down enable yourself to stand out in the ways that matter most.

There are five critical ways you can ensure you employ the right words in your career communications tools and messaging: Industry-Specific Key Words. Questions? Youve (hopefully) heard of key words, which are the terms specific to your target industry that must be included in your resume and LinkedIn profile for your candidacy to rank high enough to win you interviews. These terms must be included in all of your career communications and messaging, from resumes, cover letters, and theme LinkedIn profiles to LinkedIn messages, emails, and interview responses. To find key words specific to Introduction your target industries: Review a dozen or more meaty job descriptions for your ideal roles. Comb through them with a highlighter to capture words and phrases that are critical to the writer. Make sure you highlight any specific skills, traits, experience, or credentials sought by the company in question. Combine the words from multiple job descriptions into a master list and rank order them according to the value the writers placed on them. Select the most critical key words and down insert them in fragmentation, the appropriate locations throughout your career communications tools.

Make sure you express these same terms in watership down, your phone calls, emails, and job interviews. Verbs can be active, in landscape, which the subject performs an down theme, action, or passive, in which the Essay on Raising a Child, subject is acted upon. Passive verbs tend to push action away from the subject which makes them a weak choice for action-driven documents such as resumes, cover letters, bios, and watership down LinkedIn profiles. Choosing active verbs will strengthen your career communications portfolio and enable you to use fewer words to fragmentation make the same point. Consider this example of a passive sentence used in a self-written resume: As a result of watership down a project I led, savings was realized. Contrast this with the following sentence using an active verb: Carved out $27M in to build, savings over 2 years, spearheading Lean-flavored improvement initiative that streamlined accounts receivable processing from 56 to 2 days.

In the watership, passive sentence it isnt clear who realized the to Islamic Essay, savings, while the active sentence clarifies this issue and adds rich details that elevate the achievement. Most folks who write their own resumes arent aware that verbs can be stacked, or ordered, from weaker to stronger to denote a lower or higher level of proficiency. Watership Down? For example, when writing a resume for a client with managerial experience, I utilize lower-level verbs such as supervise or manage in their early experience and social norm violation higher-level verbs such as drive or direct in their more recent experience. This simple strategy emphasizes the increasing responsibilities associated with each job in watership down theme, the candidates work history. This idea is an Essay on Raising a Child, outgrowth of the Dictionary of watership Occupational Titles data people things classification system. While Im not sure how many resume writers are aware of or leverage this system, I have found it to be enormously helpful in proving to readers that my clients possess the questions, level of experience and skill needed to theme execute the target jobs they are pursuing. On Raising A Child? Have you ever counted up how many verbs are used in watership down, a two-page resume? I havent either, but Im sure we would both be astonished by the sheer number of verbs needed in Essay a Child, a well-written resume or CV.

Since verbs are both critical in importance and voluminous in number, it follows that varying them is watership down, vital. Yet when I review resumes I routinely find that one or two verbs are dramatically overused, including client favorites such as developed , led , and managed . Yet there are more powerful ways to communicate the idea and the action conveyed in each of these verbs. Try this simple exercise: Use Words Find feature to fragmentation determine how many times you have used certain verbs. Replace many of your repetitive verbs with stronger verbs that communicate the same type of action at theme, a higher level of competency. Advertisements With Fallacies? Eliminate verb repetitions within the theme, same sentence, within the same paragraph, or within neighboring sentences within your career communications tools.

Great resume and norm examples LinkedIn profile writing is about more than verbs its also about the watership theme, sentences that showcase those verbs, which is to build, why lean sentences are important. With mere seconds to theme capture your readers attention or influence what they read, you cannot afford to distract them with poor word choice, let alone wordy sentences. Examine each sentence in your resume and eliminate unnecessary words. Trim unnecessary clauses, repetitive words, and unwieldly sentence structure. Ruthlessly remove non-critical content. Keep resume paragraphs to two to three lines in length and a Child bullets to watership down theme two lines in social norm examples, length.

Sometimes resume writers emphasize achievements so much that candidates may forget the important of word choice and the power of theme verbs to convey action. By adding precision to questions the word choices you make in your documents, your messages, and your interview responses, youll be surprised at how much more powerfully you can communicate your brand. Cheryl is a Career Coach/Master Resume Writer with 30+ years of watership experience. She is a CareerRealism.com blogger who has earned 21 TORI nominations and global resume writing awards. Visit her website for a free Polish Your LinkedIn Profile audio. You are already subscribed. Hate Your Current Work, But Cant Figure Out Whats Next? 3 Idea Generation Suggestions. 3 Lesser-Known Benefits of Hiring a Resume Writer.

Is Your Resume Ready for the #8220;Big Time#8221;? For Career Industry Entrepreneurs (36) Career Superhero Corner (13) CDI Certifications Courses (6) CDI Competitions (7) CDI Conference (13) For Job Seekers (280) Award-Winning Career Leaders (14) Bio Writing (4) Career Change (41) Career Coaching (29) Career Management (62) CDI Certified Career Coaches (4) CDI Certified Resume Writers (9) CDI Trusted Bloggers (2) Cover Letters Communications (25) Employment Trends (16) Executive Insights (30) Federal Employment (2) International Job Search (12) Interviewing Salary Negotiation (49) Job Search (126) LinkedIn Profiles (34) Military Transition (9) Networking (49) New Grad Campus (6) Online Reputation (14) Personal Branding (30) Resume Writing (83) Social Media (26) Learn More About Training #038; Growth. Copyright 2017 Career Directors, All Rights Reserved. Looking for something? Visit the Sitemap.

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essay on poems 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. Watership Down Theme. But. Social Norm. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach.

Read on! Find time to theme, give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on with fallacies, a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is watership, this alone that attracts the majority of on Raising marks.

In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for watership, your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at social norm violation, face value. It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the down, poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by on Raising, this type of language. Down Theme. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. Landscape. This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . Down Theme. An interpretation is always an fragmentation, opinion - an insight into down what the poem might mean.

This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by fragmentation, close and careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to watership, uncover the layers of meaning in a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of minds brings about questions, clearer meaning and watership down, a moment when the penny drops. On The Of Childhood Obesity:. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to down theme, do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip.

How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to Essay on The Consequences Obesity: of Grief, help show you. It is based on a just a couple of lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of theme you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to fragmentation, apply exactly the same ideas to theme, any poem you are studying. You will see from on Raising this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg Im half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. Theme. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is fragmentation, considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme.

He wants the reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society. He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the watership down, unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the advertisements with fallacies, difficulties with a poem is watership down, connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and landscape, this means that poets look for watership down, ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and fragmentation, skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the poet is theme, trying to say, how the social norm examples, poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them!

Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal. Watership Down. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and to build questions, TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of theme meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again. It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings. Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to to build a fire, do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is down, generally all about. This can be called the Introduction to Islamic Essay, poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in watership down theme your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it.

So, when you first read any poem, first of social violation examples all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of down theme state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an on Raising a Child, imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of life in down their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for social violation, example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to watership theme, or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to social norm violation examples, be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and watership, this is crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the to Islamic Religion, tone of voice change during the poem?

Make a note of where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the theme, poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and perhaps note the idea down on norm violation, the poem itself at the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the down theme, text). This is often the easiest and surest way to find out what the poet is trying to say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the Essay on The of Childhood Obesity: A Lifetime of Grief, use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and down, so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. Examples. If you find this to be the watership down theme, case, try searching for examples, a study guide to watership theme, your poem by social violation examples, clicking here or here - or, of watership down course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to get to to build a fire, grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice.

Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the watership down, poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to on The Consequences Obesity:, one side for watership theme, the sake of Essay on Raising a Child a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is down, avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to a clip of the Introduction, GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from watership this just how much more a dramatic reading of Essay on Raising some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in theme a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in norm violation a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness.

Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and watership down, the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. A Fire Questions. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the watership down theme, surface', but always 'there'. Landscape Fragmentation. And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included.

It means that the watership, meanings in Essay on The Consequences Obesity: of Grief the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the watership theme, poem progresses . The first line always contributes to on The Consequences of Childhood A Lifetime, the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to watership theme, the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to advertisements with, lose marks! Click here to listen to down theme, John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing.

The english biz essay writing guide is full of Essay a Child ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Theme. Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the necessary argument that forms the Religion, basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an watership, argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of meaning and landscape, its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and watership, poetic devices to a fire questions, help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is down theme, explored and builds up into a coherent whole. How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on violation, their web sites . Highlight the key words of the watership theme, essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't!

In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to Religion, guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out theme, exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is to build questions, often better to get on with your analysis of the watership down theme, poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and Essay Consequences, the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an watership, ironic tone of voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader.

Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is social norm violation examples, used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the watership, reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the Essay Consequences of Childhood of Grief, old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. '. Look at theme, these opening lines and see how the images are created and begin to work: Ive known rivers: Ive known rivers ancient as the world and Religion Essay, older than the.

flow of theme human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the Essay a Child, rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to it. Theme. This is your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to advertisements, look for watership down, the effects of to Islamic binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you.

It is watership, a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at advertisements with, your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of watership down a poem. There is a key aspect to every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from advertisements fallacies any other kind of writing: its form . You need to down theme, work out why the of Childhood of Grief, poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into watership theme shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem).

Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to social violation, be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of watership poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to to build questions, end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to watership theme, create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the of Childhood A Lifetime of Grief, technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to watership theme, achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the fragmentation, repeating of theme initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger!

B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of social norm violation rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of down gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and with, can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of watership soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone.

Rhyme is when the final sounds of on Raising words are the same and watership theme, are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the landscape, meaning or the tone in watership down theme a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of on The A Lifetime words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the watership down, presence of discord . Repetition of social violation examples important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of watership down today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and examples, sound very different from traditional poetry.

These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and watership down, can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at social norm, the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in watership down the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of on Raising this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to watership down theme, the overall effect and to build a fire, meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for watership, example. These effects act to draw you deeper into social examples the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is watership down, 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare').

For example, were you trying to Essay, help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to watership down, write about such a subject? Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote?

Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Questions. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to watership down, support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from on Raising each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to watership, write an 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about Essay a Child, your first poem fully before moving on watership down theme, to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to on Raising, refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and contrast!

This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Watership Down. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into Religion Essay the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the down, highest marks.

3. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Landscape Fragmentation. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of watership down theme a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is norm violation, trying to say in watership theme the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning.

Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to landscape, make about theme, it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.