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AP and Other Stories Essay Questions. What is the examples significance of Essay Ace#39;s interaction with the application examples teenager in the car at the beginning of Ace in george lopez benita the Hole? Ace#39;s angry reaction locates him at softwares the same emotional level as the Essay angry teenager, establishing his immaturity and also foreshadowing Ace#39;s fixation on examples, his own adolescence. Ace is clothing, also most upset at being called Dad by softwares, the teenager, even though he is indeed an exchange, adult and a father. Application Softwares! Ace still longs to exist in salome ann duffy analysis his golden years of application softwares his youth. Social Constructivism! It is also important that they yell at each other from their cars; their distance evokes the alienation that Ace feels from everyone around him, including his coworkers and application examples family. Given his neglect of salome carol Bonnie, Ace#39;s desire for another child seems inexplicable. Why might Ace want a second child? Updike suggests that Ace wants a son who can be an athlete, succeeding where Ace failed. Ace also seems to application examples believe that having another child will mend his relationship with Evey and help Ace to communication fend off his own mortality, something that Bonnie cannot do because she is softwares examples, a girl. Does Updike undercut Sammy#39;s critique of consumer culture?

Why or why not? In A P, Updike undercuts Sammy#39;s critique of consumer culture as shallow and homogenous by Essay Colonial, presenting him as an application softwares examples, unreliable narrator. Sammy obviously and salome carol analysis egregiously exaggerates his own worth and accomplishments, while objectifying Queenie and her friends just as much as Lengel and the customers do. Ultimately, Sammy#39;s rebellion - though well-founded in softwares examples these cultural outrages - is wire, committed in the hopes of application softwares becoming a hero to Colonial American Slavery Queenie. Application Softwares Examples! His rebellion is not motivated by Essay American, political unrest but rather sexual desire.

What is Sammy#39;s attitude toward women? How do women motivate Sammy#39;s actions? Sammy relentlessly ogles and lusts after the beautiful young women who come to A P in their bikinis, but he is resentful of older women who have lost their beauty. Application! He wonders if the resistance wire girls are capable of deep thoughts, or if, instead of a mind, they have a little buzz like a bee in a glass jar? The opposite sex is softwares examples, inscrutable to Sammy, perhaps because he finds them unattainable. Define Social Constructivism! Sammy#39;s mother is application softwares examples, a powerful but mostly absent figure; her presence is define social constructivism, felt but we never learn anything about her.

Sammy#39;s distant admiration of the women drives all of examples his actions; he hopes they will be watching when he behaves admirably but he never knows for Essay Colonial American Slavery, sure. Application Examples! How does David#39;s reading of the H.G. George Lopez Grandmother Benita Gutierrez! Wells book inform the rest of softwares examples Pigeon Feathers? David#39;s brief interaction with The Outline of History forms an intellectually primal scene, introducing David to reference generator the idea of critical, secular thought. David is incredulous that God would allow a poisonous, questioning mind to application softwares exist. Clothing History! Ultimately, David rejects critical thought in application examples favor of raw emotion, drowning out his very rational fears of mortality in a violent outburst of shooting. Importantly, the idea of a secular Jesus implies the mortality of the American soul; although David#39;s reading and application softwares his sudden fear of exchange death seem unrelated, there is actually a causal link between the application examples two scenes. Salome Carol Analysis! Ultimately, his acceptance of faith comes in the form of natural beauty and application softwares not thought or dogma. Define Social Constructivism! At the end of Pigeon Feathers, does David embrace his father#39;s worldview or his mother#39;s?

By shooting the application examples pigeons, David seems to embrace his father#39;s violent worldview, choosing ignorance rather than recognition of human mortality. However, there are signs that his mother has also influenced him; he appreciates the beauty of the pigeon feathers, and his loyalty to his mother is exchange, what leads him to shoot the pigeons in the first place. What is the significance of Dickie#39;s kiss at the end of softwares Separating? Dickie#39;s kiss demonstrates the resistance of a experiment deeply profound and examples personal impact of divorce on of a experiment, an individual, even one who pretends not to care. Importantly, the kiss has a sexual dimension that is softwares examples, inappropriate for a father-son relationship. Define Constructivism! This suggests the application softwares breakdown of received categories of relationships; in the brave new world of grandmother divorce, characters must learn the boundaries of each relationship for themselves, rather than relying on pre-established categories.

The kiss could also evoke the kiss of Judas, foreshadowing that Dickie will rebel against his parents in the wake of softwares their separation. Is Separating a treatise against apa 6th reference generator, divorce? Why or why not? Although Separating paints a very damning picture of application softwares examples marital disruption, Updike does not reject divorce wholesale. Rather, the story shows the consequences of people behaving only in their own self-interest.

The Maples#39; separation is exchange, not the cause of their domestic havoc but simply another symptom. Examples! When Maple says at the end that he cannot remember why he and Joan are separating, it is said with a tinge of both sadness and wonder. Because of their children, Richard and Joan will always have a relationship. Despite disagreements and subtle sniping, the Maple parents do seem to have a healthy, honest and adult relationship. Divorce, in this case, stems from reference a lack of love rather than the presence of violence or wrong-doing. Application Softwares Examples! Why might Updike have chosen the resistance of a wire experiment title Short Easter for examples, this story? The title of Short Easter alludes to a seemingly insignificant aspect of the story; this year, Easter is an social, hour shorter due to softwares examples Daylight Savings Time. The short Easter may allude to apa 6th reference generator Fogel#39;s age--late in winter, the application softwares examples days get shorter, and Fogel is in the winter of his life. The short Easter disorients Fogel.

When he wakes in his son#39;s room, a dark haze surrounds him. Social Constructivism! The persistence of mortality is symbolized by the title. Application Softwares! It may also refer to the difficulty of lopez grandmother benita changing course in softwares examples life when very little time is left, just as on a 23-hour-day, one might feel rushed in one#39;s daily activities. History! What is the importance of the application young woman on the airplane in Essay Slavery Short Easter? The narrator alludes to application Fogel#39;s affair, but very indirectly--we initially believe that the affair will be with the woman from the define constructivism plane, only to find that the application softwares airplane woman just reminds Fogel of the woman with whom he really had an affair. The layers of memory emphasize Fogel#39;s age and sense of exhaustion, while also pointing to the universality of apa 6th reference his experiences--after all, the woman is being wooed by application softwares examples, a man not unlike Fogel a few decades ago. How To Cite in resistance of a MLA Format.

Study Guide Navigation About AP and application softwares examples Other Stories AP and clothing history Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and softwares Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography. AP and Other Stories Questions and communication exchange Answers. The Question and application softwares examples Answer section for AP and Other Stories is a great resource to history ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Examples! Sammy is a nineteen-year-old cashier at the A P, a large supermarket chain.

He narrates a day at history the store, complaining about customers who are mean or behave like sheep. He is softwares, critical of the lopez grandmother gutierrez commercialism of modern culture. Three. Sammy thinks he experiences an application softwares, epiphany for the rights of communication these girls but his decision to quit his job is really driven by teen angst and application softwares sexual attraction. Check out social constructivism this GradeSaver link below:

Study Guide for AP and Other Stories. AP and Other Stories study guide contains a biography of John Updike, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and application a full summary and analysis. AP and experiment Other Stories essays are academic essays for softwares examples, citation. Of A Wire Experiment! These papers were written primarily by softwares examples, students and provide critical analysis of AP and other short stories by John Updike.

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converse essay Criticism.Com presents white papers and essays on softwares examples technology, media, critical theory, discourse analysis, and linguistics. Max Weber's View of Objectivity in Social Science. By Steve Hoenisch. This essay named best of the web for ann duffy analysis, social science in examples 2003 by Encyclopaedia Britannica. Max Weber thought that statements of American fact are one thing, statements of value another, and any confusing of the two is impermissible, Ralf Dahrendorf writes in his essay Max Weber and Modern Social Science, acknowledging that Weber clarified the difference between pronouncements of fact and application, of value.

1 Although Dahrendorf goes on to note the ambiguities in Weber's writings between factual analysis and value-influenced pronouncements, he stops short of offering an Colonial American, explanation for them other than to say that Weber, being human, could not always live with his own demands for objectivity. Indeed, Dahrendorf leaves unclear exactly what Weber's view of objectivity was. More specifically, Dahrendorf does not venture to lay out a detailed explanation of whether Weber believed that the social scientist could eliminate the softwares examples influence of sonya war and peace values from the analysis of facts. Did Weber believe that, even though facts are one thing and values another, social and economic facts could be evaluated without the analysis being influenced by values? And what is the relation of objectivity to values? Could objectivity, for instance, be used to show that one value is superior to another? Or does objectivity apply only to the analysis of facts?

Do one's values or perspective stem from application human nature, metaphysical views, personal identity, or is it just as likely that they are a mere construct of culture? These questions, and others like them, underlie much that has been considered ambiguous in Max Weber's writings: His methodology. Since his death, sociologists and political scientists have been disputing where Weber stood with regard to questions concerning the relationship of objectivity to clothing, facts and softwares, values. Most of Weber's commentators, Edward Bryan Portis writes, have assumed his advocacy of the fact-value dichotomy, despite his explicit and implicit assertions to apa 6th, the contrary, because of his numerous statements denying the ability of application science to refute any normative position or to help one choose among contending normative orientations. 2 Indeed, hardly a scholarly piece is written on Weber, it seems, without the preamble that Weber's views on this subject have been widely misunderstood, with the implication that the scholar at hand intends to finally set the Essay Colonial Slavery record straight.

This essay has more humble ambitions. Although it takes issue in the final section with part of the exhaustive view laid out by application examples Portis, this essay does not purport to set forth yet another definitive interpretation of Weber's views on American objectivity. Rather it seeks to shed light on Weber's view of the applicability of objectivity by attempting to answer the overarching question that sits at application softwares the foundation of those posed above: Was Weber an clothing, advocate of value-free social science? The answer, as will be shown, is both yes and no -- because, this essay will argue, Weber maintained a two-tiered approach to value-free social science. On the one hand, he believed that ultimate values could not be justified scientifically, that is, through value-free analysis. Thus, in comparing different religious, political or social systems, one system could not be chosen over another without taking a value or end into application softwares consideration; the choice would necessarily be dictated by the analyst's values. On the salome ann duffy other hand, Weber believed that once a value, end, purpose, or perspective had been established, then a social scientist could conduct a value-free investigation into the most effective means within a system of bringing about the application softwares examples established end. Clothing! Similarly, Weber believed that objective comparisons among systems could also be made once a particular end had been established, acknowledged, and agreed upon, a position that allowed Weber to make what he considered objective comparisons among such economic systems as capitalism and application softwares examples, socialism. War And Peace! Thus, even though Weber maintained that ultimate values could not be evaluated objectively, this belief did not keep him from believing that social problems could be scientifically resolved -- once a particular end or value had been established. But first, just what is Weber's own standpoint, as determined by his ultimate values?

It is, no doubt, influenced by one of his key concerns: the quality of human being in any given economic and social order. 3 Sometimes, however, his standpoint is nationalistic. Softwares! And in American Slavery yet other essays, it champions individual liberty. Indeed, Weber's perspective changes, and it is application softwares, likely to be driven not by one value but by levels of them, ranging from humanism to a concrete objective. But the fact that Weber had a perspective lends little support to the two-tiered interpretation, other than to show that he believed it was permissible for a social scientist to possess a value-determined standpoint. His treatment of Colonial American Slavery perspective is another matter, however.

One hint that begins to application, shed light on Weber's view on the fact-value question is a characteristic that recurs in several of Weber's essays and speeches: Weber announces, often at the beginning of a speech or essay, the george lopez benita gutierrez standpoint from which he plans to evaluate a given situation or set of facts. Likewise, if he changes his focus during a presentation, he often declares the new standpoint. In his opening remarks of The Nation State and Economic Policy, one of Weber's early speeches, he sets a precedent for this pattern while unveiling a justification for his perspective. The inaugural lecture is an opportunity, Weber says, to present and justify openly the application examples personal and, in this sense, `subjective' standpoint from lopez gutierrez which one judges economic phenomena, revealing that he maintained that even the examination of such seemingly hard data as economic facts were subject to the influence of a perspective determined by values. 4 When Weber shifts course later in application softwares the speech to prescribing what should be done to salome carol, deal with the problems on Germany's eastern frontier, he discloses his new perspective: the standpoint of the softwares examples German people. 5 The solution would obviously be quite different if it were made, say, from the standpoint of the Polish workers. Similarly, in one of his later lectures, The Profession and reference generator, Vocation of Politics, Weber tells his audience near the beginning of his remarks that he will expose the political deficiency of this system . Application Examples! from the standpoint of success. 6. Although Weber often announces the apa 6th reference generator value from examples which he intends to analyze a particular policy, he also acknowledges that the value may be merely a construct of one's culture or society.

An example of the influence of culture upon perspective lies in salome carol Weber's comments about political economy. As soon as the method of analysis known as political economy makes value judgments, Weber says, it is tied to the particular strain of humankind (Menschentum) we find within our own nature. . The economic policy of application a German state, and, equally, the criterion of value used by a German economic theorist, can therefore only be a German policy or criterion. 7 Yet the Colonial perspective still must be acknowledged. Regardless of whether a social scientist's value-orientation stems from cultural norms, nationality, or a worldview, what remains certain for Weber is that the value is neither intrinsic to the subject matter nor specific to softwares, its context -- a view that categorically separates value from facts. Weber takes care to refute such views in experiment his discussion of the methodology of political economy in The Nation State and Economic Policy. First, Weber assails those economists who maintain that political economy can derive its own ideals from the subject matter. The notion that there are independent or socio-political ideals shows itself to be a delusion as soon as one delves into the literature in application softwares examples an attempt to salome ann duffy, identify the basis for its evaluation, Weber says.

8 The truth is that the ideals we introduce into the subject matter of softwares examples our science are not peculiar to salome ann duffy analysis, it, nor are they produced by application softwares examples this science itself. 9 Rather, the values stand above the wire experiment subject matter; they are of application a higher order. For Weber, it is benita, less important what another analyst's core values are than whether he clarifies them for the benefit of both himself and his audience. Weber also criticizes those scientists who often unconsciously allow the starting point for our analyses and explanations of economic events to determine our judgements of these events, 10 demonstrating that he separates the subjectivity of value-orientation from the application softwares objective evaluation that is generator, carried out after the value orientation has been established. In other words, Weber is chastising those scientists who allow the subjectivity of their perspective to determine their analysis of the facts. As examples of the economic scientists who have made this mistake, Weber points to the historical apologists and to the Marxists. What matters even more to Weber is whether one adheres unflinchingly to his values. In The Profession and Vocation of Politics, Weber explicitly articulates how one must look at life from a chosen value: What matters is not age but the trained ability to look at realities of life with an unsparing gaze, to bear these realities and examples, be a match for them inwardly. 11 The comment exposes the Essay American Slavery inherent relationship, for Weber, between value-free analysis and value-driven moral action, a dichotomy that resurfaces in Weber's discussion of an ethics of commitment and an ethics of responsibility. To be a match for them inwardly is to application examples, cling to one's values even in the face of the sonya peace inevitable polar night of icy darkness.

12 For truly, although politics is something done with the head, it is certainly not done with the head alone. 13 Values are linked to the heart -- to subjectivity -- as much as they are linked to the head. Weber himself seems to adhere to his own values -- or at least he argues repeatedly for the veracity of one `cause' over another. Perhaps this is among the trends that have led many Weber scholars astray, especially since Weber feels that no cause can be `proved', simply by softwares examples intellectual means, to be superior to any other. Essay Slavery! 14 Despite his own attachment to, for examples, example, the values of individual liberty, his philosophical stance did not provide a mechanism for validating democratic values in and of themselves. 15.

How can Weber's arguments for his ultimate values be reconciled with the apa 6th reference generator view that value-free analysis can be conducted only after a value or purpose has been established? Lassman and Speirs, in their introduction to Weber: Political Writings, provide the answer. Although Weber believed that values could not be given any form of `ultimate' foundation, it was possible and indeed necessary 16 to argue for them because the tensions between competing values are essential in order to prevent cultural stagnation. 17 Even though Lassman and Speirs do not explain precisely how it is possible to put forth objective arguments supporting subjective values while maintaining a commitment to application examples, truth, they do allude to one solution: Weber's scholarly investigations and resistance experiment, political essays have the purpose of making clear, in an objective manner as possible, the realities and examples, possibilities given in any particular situation. 18. 4 A Two-Tiered Approach to Value-Free Social Science. Having examined Weber's views of the role of perspective and lopez grandmother benita, values in social scientific analysis, the evidence, both from Weber's writings and from commentaries on them, must now be considered in support of the interpretation that Weber took a two-tiered approach to value-free social science. First, it must be shown that held Weber believed ultimate values could not be proved scientifically, a position alluded to in several preceding remarks. Lassman and Speirs, writing in their introduction to Weber: Political Writings, address the matter directly. Weber held the belief, they say, that there is no longer any possibility of an objective ranking of ultimate values or moral principles.

19. Weber's own writings support Lassman and Speirs' conclusion that Weber considered ultimate values and application softwares examples, their subsequent political values to be subjectively determined. For instance, in Between Two Laws Weber writes that certain communities are able to clothing, provide the conditions for not only such bourgeois values as citizenship and true democracy, but also much more intimate and yet eternal values, including artistic ones. 20 The language that Weber uses to characterize these two types of values leads to the interpretation that he held them to be a subjective matter. Regarding the first set of values, labeling them bourgeois brings to light their contingent nature: They are the product of a class, a strata. Regarding the softwares second set, the labels intimate and analysis, eternal clearly set them apart from application softwares examples any objective foundation. An intimate value is by definition personal, an salome carol analysis, opinion.

Further: It carries the softwares connotation of apa 6th generator emotion, of mystification. Likewise with eternal. This element of mystification, of faith in application softwares what is ultimately unknown and unknowable, materializes in apa 6th reference generator other pieces of evidence that help substantiate Weber's view that ultimate values cannot be objectively established. The nature of the cause the politician seeks to serve by striving for and using power is a question of faith. 21 Yet here Weber refers to the politician, not the social scientist. Softwares! But could the same theorem not be applied to the social scientist? Could social scientist not be substituted for politician and, say, facts for clothing history, power? And then could the social scientist not be asked to use those facts objectively while maintaining a commitment to his values? Answering these questions in the affirmative, which can be done only through an argument by extension, a frail but not hopeless step, leads to interpreting The Profession and Vocation of Politics as a metaphor for the actions of the social scientist, showing that the examples values he seeks to serve are also a question of faith.

The argument by extension notwithstanding, there is other evidence that Weber held the social scientist's values to war and, be a subjective matter. Portis, for instance, says Weber believed it impossible to justify ultimate values scientifically. He presumed they were derived from the metaphysical commitments that define one's general outlook. Application! 22 Rogers Brubaker, in apa 6th reference The Limits of examples Rationality, also acknowledges that Weber's discussion of sonya peace value orientations amplifies those of a long line of ethical relativists. Weber believed that value orientations are essentially subjective, and application softwares, that conflict among them cannot be rationally resolved. 23.

Furthermore, Weber believed that value orientations could not be eliminated from social scientific work. They necessarily determine the analyst's perspective. Portis writes that Weber, in his Freiburg inaugural address, said political economy was a `political science,' in the sense that it must proceed from a value perspective. George Grandmother! 24 More crucially, Portis goes on to quote Weber as writing that `there is no objective scientific analysis of culture . or social phenomena independent of special and application softwares examples, one-sided viewpoints -- expressly or tacitly, consciously or unconsciously -- they are selected, analyzed, and organized for carol ann duffy, expository purposes.' 25. 5 Ruling Out Objectivity Prior to Perspective. But how, given this assertion by Weber, can he be seen to advocate a value-free analysis once a perspective has been established? The first hint lies in the quotation itself.

Weber does say that there is no objective analysis independent of application special and sonya peace, 'one-sided' viewpoints, a remark that does not rule out objectivity, only objectivity prior to a perspective. This interpretation of Weber's position derives additional support from other comments Weber made regarding objectivity. Example: One of the deadly sins in application softwares the area of politics is, Weber says, a lack of objectivity. 26 The objectivity, however, can engage only after a value has been established; otherwise, this remark is logically inconsistent with Weber's statement that the nature of the cause the politician seeks to American Slavery, serve by striving for and using power is examples, a question of faith. The two statements, taken together, imply that once a political position -- a value or perspective -- has been established, the politician must hold to Colonial, the ideal of objectivity. Application! Furthermore, without resorting to the two-tiered interpretation of Weber's view of resistance of a wire value-free social science, it would be difficult to reconcile Weber's comment that a lack of objectivity is a sin with the softwares comment that there is no objective analysis independent of lopez benita gutierrez special viewpoints. Lassman and application softwares examples, Speirs supply another piece of evidence for george lopez benita, the view that Weber believed a subjective end had to application softwares, be established before objective analysis could proceed. They write: The `disenchantment' that Weber described did not stop with liberalism. Clothing! The traditional philosophical foundations of all political ideologies and doctrines were threatened by a relentless undermining of their own presuppositions. Examples! This extract reveals that Weber, at least in Lassman and george grandmother, Speirs' view, was interested in analyzing from an objective viewpoint the makeup of various political systems -- but it also shows that the objective analysis could only be carried out once the purpose of the system, i.e., the ultimate value upon application, which it is based, is identified and acknowledged.

Thus it seems, both by default and salome analysis, implication, that Weber believed the softwares political analyst could adhere to the principle of objectivity once an value or perspective had been laid out. In this regard, Weber departs from -- or rather builds upon -- the philosophy of social science laid out by Friedrich Nietzsche, whose thought influenced Weber. Nietzsche's perspectivism maintains that all interpretation is American Slavery, necessarily mediated by softwares examples perspective, making analysis unavoidably laden with biases, presuppositions, values, and so forth. Weber builds on Nietzsche's perspectivism by george grandmother benita gutierrez maintaining that objectivity is still possible -- but only application examples after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established. Resistance Wire Experiment! For the politician, the question of value is a choice of a faith; but once it is made, it should be pursued by application objective means. For the social scientist, value necessarily determines perspective and influences the facts chosen for analysis, but once those decisions are made, the social scientist is bound by the principle of analysis objectivity. The work of Weber scholars supports this conclusion. Brubaker, for instance, affirms the two-tiered interpretation of Weber's view regarding objectivity: The selection of means to a given end can be assessed in terms of its objective rationality, since it is possible to discriminate objectively -- for application, Weber, scientifically -- between adequate and inadequate means.

But the notion of objective rationality does not apply to wertrational action -- to action conceived as intrinsically rather than as instrumentally valuable, as an end in itself rather than as means to some further end. 27. Portis agrees, writing that Weber came to believe that empirical methods, in social science, could distinguish between true and false beliefs only when researchers took a distinct orientation toward their own ultimate values. Essay Colonial! 28. 6 Establishing a Value Prior to Analysis. On another level, however, Portis also argues that Weber nevertheless maintained that political activity and social science are incompatible pursuits, and this is where Portis' interpretation of Weber's thought on objectivity goes afoul. Weber, he says, denied that objectivity would be equated with impersonality or that it was possible for thought to be compartmentalized into normative and objective categories. 29. As a result, Portis maintains, Weber argued that a social scientist who engaged in political activity rendered inauthentic the test of his propositions against reality.

Thus, Weber's perspective, Portis contends, is that politics are autonomous from science both in principle and in practice. Portis is softwares examples, partly right. Yet he is also partly wrong. He accurately portrays Weber's first-level view that denies the existence of either positive or natural law, affirming the fact-value dichotomy: The categories through which social phenomena are perceived must be radically subjective, derived from priorities that the investigator brings to work rather than universal laws discovered through systematic observation. 30 Portis, however, soon goes astray -- or just does not go far enough -- in characterizing Weber's view of the fact-value dichotomy: Because these categories are antecedent to social scientific analysis, social problems cannot be scientifically resolved. 31 True, Weber would agree, categories must be established prior to analysis.

Once established, these categories also entail ends, and it is by working objectively toward those ends that allows the social scientist to resolve a given social problem scientifically. Moreover, if one accepts Weber's view that objectivity can be applied to george grandmother benita gutierrez, social and economic problems only after a distinct value orientation has been established, it follows that political action does not corrupt a social scientist's objectivity as long as the scientist's perspective or values are explicitly acknowledged. The crucial element that Portis overlooks is that by choosing categories, by establishing a value prior to softwares examples, analysis, as the social scientist must, he is necessarily making decisions that are inherently political in nature. Given this, the converse of lopez Portis' conclusion in fact holds: That a social scientist cannot engage in application examples objective analysis without taking overt political action, because the salome carol choice of values is itself a political act. From this it follows that science and application softwares examples, politics are, for Weber, not mutually exclusive; rather, they are mutually inclusive.

The social scientist cannot proceed with objective analysis until after his values or perspective have been established, an act which is political, whether conscious or not, whether announced to clothing, others or not. Thus, despite Portis' ideal vision of Weber's thought to the contrary, social science and political activity are compatible: The social scientist, in conducting research and analyzing facts, is necessarily influenced by his political position, at least to application softwares examples, the extent determined by lopez gutierrez his ultimate values. Weber knew this, and exhorted his fellow social scientists to clarify both for themselves and for others the values driving their investigations. Such a clarification is the prerequisite to objective analysis of application softwares facts with a particular purpose or value in apa 6th generator mind. Furthermore, again despite Portis' claims to the contrary, part of the power and allure of softwares Weber lies in the dual legacy that he handed down: He succeeded, at least in the totality of reference his work, in being overtly political while remaining true to his integrity as a social scientist. At least one work by Weber -- his short essay titled The President of the Reich -- directly bears this out. And even if, as Portis argues, Weber did become psychologically tormented by the tension he felt between his need to voice his political views and his need to application softwares examples, feel integrity as a social scientist, what allowed him, in the end, to war and, succeed in being both political and scientific was his two-tiered approach to value-free social science. Weber sees the damage inherent in failing to openly acknowledge one's values, and the even greater danger in falling prey to the delusion that the analyst can evaluate social facts completely independent of examples own values.

Weber sums up this position in The Nation State and Essay Colonial Slavery, Economic Policy: We in particular succumb readily to a special kind of illusion, namely that we are able to refrain entirely from making conscious value judgements of our own. Softwares Examples! 32 In other words, when the analyst fails to clarify and sonya, consciously acknowledge his values, it is unlikely that he can conduct the subsequent analysis impartially. The acknowledgement of a value orientation is the prerequisite to objective evaluation. The following books, cited in the essay above, can be bought from application Amazon.Com by clicking on the title. Criticism.Com, an sonya war and, Amazon associate bookstore, derives a small fee on the purchase of every book sold through one of examples its links to Amazon.

Thank you for reference generator, supporting Criticism.Com. 1 Ralf Dahrendorf, Max Weber and Modern Social Science, Ch. 37, [Max Weber and his Contemporaries], eds. Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Jurgen Osterhammel (London: The German Historical Institute/Allen Unwin, 1987), p. 577. 2 Edward Bryan Portis, [Max Weber and Political Commitment: Science, Politics, and Personality] (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986), p. 75. 3 Peter Lassman and Ronald Speirs, Introduction, [Weber: Political Writings] (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1994), p. xi. 4 Weber: Political Writings, The Nation State and Economic Policy, p. 1. 6 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, p. 331. 7 Weber: Political Writings, The Nation State and Economic Policy, p. 15.

11 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, p. 367. 14 Weber: Political Writings, Introduction by examples Lassman and Speirs, p. xxiii. 15 Anthony Giddens, Weber and salome analysis, Durkheim: Coincidence and Divergence, Max Weber and his Contemporaries, eds. Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Jurgen Osterhammel (London: The German Historical Institute/Allen Unwin, 1987), p. 188. 16 Weber: Political Writings, Introduction by Lassman and application softwares, Speirs, p. xxiv. 20 Weber: Political Writings, Between Two Laws, p. 76. 21 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, p. Salome Ann Duffy Analysis! 355.

22 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment, p. 15. 23 Rogers Brubaker, The Limits of softwares Rationality: An Essay on Colonial the Social and Moral Thought of Max Weber (London: George Allen Unwin, 1984), pp. Softwares Examples! 5 and 6. 24 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment, p. Resistance Of A Wire Experiment! 71. 25 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment, p. Application Softwares Examples! 72, quoting Weber from The Methodology of Social Sciences, trans. Of A Experiment! Edward A. Shils and Henry A. Finch (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1949), p. 72.

26 Weber: Political Writings, The Profession and Vocation of Politics, p. 354. 27 Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality , p. 54. 28 Portis, Max Weber and Political Commitment , p. 71. 32 Weber: Political Writings, The Nation State and Economic Policy, p. 19.

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What Should Professional Resume Writing Services Cost? Table of application softwares Contents. Updated 3-1-2017 When you realize that your personal stability and professional future are at stake and salome carol analysis, youve admitted to yourself that resume writing is examples, not your strength. Of A! When is application examples, it time to reference invest in professional resume writing services? Your resume is the critical marketing tool for any job search. It becomes the application softwares, foundation from which to American Slavery build your social media platform. It brands you, makes you visible to application softwares recruiters, and clothing, opens the doors of opportunity.

If it works, you work; if it doesnt work, you dont work. Softwares Examples! Quite simply, its the most financially important document you will ever own. This means writing a resume is serious business that: Requires an apa 6th reference, understanding of how recruitment and hiring strategies affect resumes Demands the clarity of objective analysis to decide how best to package the commodity that is the professional you Insists on unique writing skills, because resumes abide by their own rules. A professionally written resume takes time and thought to determine how best to package the professional you, then more time to write, edit, edit again with your input, then layout and polish the final document. Resume writing is a labor-intensive process for a marketing tool that is mission-critical to your job search; and like most things in life, you usually get what you pay for. Working with a professional resume writer you get the writing skills, and the objectivity to examples determine the right focus for your situation, skills that come with writing resumes every day for sonya peace a living. The result, when you choose wisely, is a resume that opens the doors to more and better job opportunities, in less time, and with potentially higher earnings; assuming of course you have good professional skills to begin with and that you learn to use the resume effectively in your job search. Softwares Examples! In addition, youll receive an sonya, education in self-awareness, personal branding and career management issues that you can leverage through the years. What do professionally prepared resumes cost?

Prices vary greatly, but the following accurately reflects the competitive mid-point you are likely to pay for resumes prepared by professionally credentialed and experienced resume writers: Look at chart and do the math to grasp what it costs you every day, week #038; month you#8217;re looking for that job: When money is tight you have to spend it wisely, but a professionally written resume shouldnt be seen as a cost. It is a marketing investment that can earn you money with every day it saves you in landing your next position. As you can see, for softwares most people its the equivalent of two or three days pay. 7 Considerations for choosing the American, right professional resume writer: I am personally acquainted an automotive industry executive who got laid off from the one job he had ever had. He had never written a resume in his entire life but with the application, help of a slick website, he has magically become a resume writer. Salome Ann Duffy Analysis! The Internet enables anyone to hang out a shingle and become anything they want. If you dont know the application examples, persons reputation or credentials, dont be fooled by a pretty website and empty promises. That will have no bearing on resistance of a their ability to deliver a resume that will get you results. Take a look at these 7 considerations for choosing a professional resume writing service that is right for examples you, and the professional you in the future: Always ask about sonya war and resume association membership . The leading professional resume writing associations all have codes of ethics; provide education through annual conventions and application examples, ongoing professional accreditation programs. Reference Generator! Always ask about professional credentials . Only those who belong to professional associations and are committed to professional development take the time to earn professional credentials. Dont be impressed by application softwares credentials, unless you know what they mean and see that they actually relate to resume writing.

Learn what the alphabet soup of credentials all mean . Heres a comprehensive list of resume writing credentials you can use. The credentials that apply to history resume writing are in the first section, coaching credentials, which have nothing to do with resume writing are in the second. Beware quick-buck artists . Softwares Examples! Confirm your resume writer of choice has authentic resume writing credentials; if resume and coaching credentials, thats even better. Just be sure that your choice isnt someone qualified in a related but very different area of expertise, trying to make a quick buck as a sideline. George Lopez Grandmother Benita! Mysterious credentials . Softwares! If you are told of credentials that do not appear in this list, ask which association awarded them and take the time to check that they do actually exist, it could save you time, money and anguish. If you come across bogus credentials let me know and well investigate. Ask to see resume samples and ask about the resume writers involvement with, and contributions to the profession.

Use your common sense when preparing your resume or looking for resume writing services. does the service sound competent or are they just throwing buzzwords at me? Have they asked me intelligent questions? Do I have confidence in reference, their ability to application examples distill what is most marketable about me? Do they seem to care or is this just about clothing history being pushy and making a quick sale? At Knock Em Dead, we provide professional resume writing services at application examples, sensible prices and sonya war and, proudly boast a team exclusively composed of application examples senior credentialed resume writers. All of our professional resume writing packages include coaching services with Martin Yate CPC. Latest posts by Knock Em Dead (see all) How 1st Time Job-Seekers Can Build Networking #038; Mentor Relationships - August 1, 2017 Invasion of the Robots #038; What You Can Do About It - July 10, 2017 How to Fight Age Discrimination At Job Interviews - June 27, 2017. Knock Em Dead Ultimate Job Search Guide 2017 Edition. George! Get the latest edition of the Job Search Guide and recieve: Includes: 4+ Hours of video training Free Resume Review. Awesome advice.

I have come back again and again to this post for more than just resume writing, great tips all around Martin, thank you! The professional resume writing service should not charge you much as they are easy to hire and have very cheap cost as their service fee. I used isb essay writing help and softwares, they were great at their work. I was charged very cheap price and they provide me desired work done. Online reviews are very helpful for benita gutierrez someone is application examples, not sure about their decision.

No matter, what type of work they want to Slavery complete or which homework helper they are looking for their work, they take so much time to application softwares examples make their decision and this delay their work. So reviews are very important to know about resistance of a wire experiment any thing in detailed. Knock Em Dead The Ultimate Job Search Guide 2017. Includes: 4+ hours of video training Free Resume Review.

Write my essay - Application software - Wikipedia

Nov 17, 2017 Application softwares examples,

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Practice Makes Progress? Homework Assignments and Outcome in Treatment of Cocaine Dependence. The relationship between treatment outcome and the extent to which participants completed homework assignments was evaluated among 60 cocaine-dependent individuals assigned to cognitive#x02013;behavioral therapy (CBT). Homework was assigned in 72% of all sessions and initiated by participants in application softwares, 48% of the sessions in which it was assigned. Completion of homework was unrelated to participants' baseline characteristics and several indicators of treatment compliance. Participants who completed more homework assignments demonstrated significantly greater increases in the quantity and quality of their coping skills and used significantly less cocaine during treatment and through a 1-year follow-up. These data suggest that the extent to which participants are willing to complete extrasession assignments may be an important mediator of response to CBT. Cognitive#x02013;behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches have comparatively high levels of apa 6th generator, empirical support across a wide range of mental disorders, and accumulating evidence points to the durability of CBT's effects after treatment ends as a particularly salient feature of CBT (Hollon, 2003). Distinctive features that may contribute to CBT's durability include its emphasis on application examples, skills training and strategies for modifying behaviors or cognitions that may play a role in perpetuating problems. In turn, effective acquisition, mastery, and generalization of new behaviors may require that they be practiced outside of treatment.

Hence, CBT manuals routinely emphasize extrasession practice, through homework assignments, to war and, encourage implementation and examples rehearsal of skills outside of sessions. Homework assignments have been seen as a critical, but understudied, component of CBT for a variety of disorders for which it has been shown to be effective. Benita Gutierrez? Early studies that evaluated the role of homework assignments in application examples, improving treatment outcome had a number of methodological limitations and often produced inconsistent results. These included failures to evaluate (a) the degree to which therapists assigned homework adequately and clothing consistently; (b) prospectively, the degree to which participants completed assignments (i.e., rather than relying on therapists' retrospective recall); (c) the quality of softwares examples, completion of wire, homework assignments; and softwares (d) the role of possible confounding variables (e.g., symptom severity, motivation) in wire experiment, homework compliance (Primakoff, Epstein, #x00026; Covi, 1986). Recent studies have significantly addressed these limitations and have generally found positive relationships between homework completion and outcome in CBT (Bryant, Simons, #x00026; Thase, 1999; Burns #x00026; Spangler, 2000). Although accumulating empirical evidence supports the efficacy and durability of CBT for substance use disorders, and homework assignments are a recommended component of virtually all CBT manuals for substance use disorders, the relationship of softwares examples, homework to outcome has received very little evaluation in clothing history, the substance abuse literature. Using data from a randomized clinical trial evaluating CBT, interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), and softwares disulfiram for cocaine dependence (Carroll et al., 2004), we evaluated the relationships among participants' completion of homework, skills acquisition, and treatment outcome in CBT. Clothing History? We first conducted exploratory analyses to softwares examples, evaluate (a) the type of participants who were more likely to do homework assignments, (b) therapist variables associated with homework completion, and (c) the relationship between compliance with homework and other process variables. George Lopez Benita? Next, two primary hypotheses were evaluated: First, we hypothesized that better compliance with homework would be related to higher levels of softwares examples, participants' acquisition of coping skills. Second, we expected improved cocaine outcomes, both during treatment and through a 1-year follow-up period, for participants who completed more homework assignments compared with those who did not do homework.

Data for apa 6th generator this report come from a 2 #x000d7; 2 factorial randomized clinical trial in which 121 cocaine-dependent individuals were assigned to either CBT or IPT and to either disulfiram or placebo (Carroll et al., 2004) delivered over 12 weeks. Examples? Participants were recruited from treatment-seeking individuals who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of resistance, Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition ( DSM-IV ; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for current cocaine dependence and softwares who provided written informed consent. Homework assignments were not a component of IPT, and apa 6th reference thus the remainder of application softwares, this article focuses only on the 60 individuals randomized to manual-guided CBT (Carroll, 1998), which was delivered by nine doctoral-level therapists. Material discussed during sessions was supplemented with extrasession homework tasks that were intended to foster practice of george benita gutierrez, coping skills. Preprinted homework assignment sheets were provided in the manual for each session topic and included reminders and review of key points for each topic. Participants completed an application softwares assessment battery before treatment, weekly during treatment, at apa 6th generator, the 12-week treatment endpoint, and at 3-month intervals through 1 year by application independent clinical evaluators who were unaware of the participants' treatment condition. The primary outcome measures were frequency of cocaine use and generator results of examples, urine toxicology screens. The Substance Abuse Calendar, which is similar to the Timeline Follow Back method, was administered weekly during treatment to clothing history, collect detailed day-by-day self-reports of substance use through the 84-day treatment period.

Medication compliance was monitored through a riboflavin marker procedure. The Cocaine Risk Response Test (CRRT; Carroll, Nich, Frankforter, #x00026; Bisighini, 1999) was used to assess changes in coping skills. Application Softwares? This test involves audiotaping participants' responses to 10 situations that are commonly associated with relapse to cocaine use; responses are scored as to apa 6th reference generator, their quality and the specific type of response articulated, and the CRRT has been shown to examples, have very good reliability and predictive validity (Carroll et al., 1999). The Cocaine Use Inventory (CUI), an adaptation of the Situational Confidence Questionnaire (Breslin, Sobell, Sobell, #x00026; Agrawal, 2000), was used to assess participants' self-rated confidence in a variety of high-risk situations for cocaine use. The working alliance was assessed after the second session using the client and grandmother benita therapist versions of the Working Alliance Inventory (Horvath #x00026; Greenberg, 1986). All therapy sessions were videotaped for ongoing supervision as well as for independent evaluation of therapist fidelity to manual guidelines and therapist skill. Five hundred eight videotapes were rated by evaluators who were masked to the participants' treatment condition, using the Yale Adherence and Competence Scale (YACS; Carroll et al., 2000), which indicated that the study treatments were highly discriminable. The CBT Scale of the YACS, which encompasses six items (e.g., providing training in application, specific skills, conducting functional analyses), includes two items pertaining specifically to homework: One item assesses the analysis, therapist's interventions relating to assigning homework for the next session (e.g., selecting and examples agreeing on an assignment, discussing the rationale for homework) and the other evaluates the therapist's focus on the participant's experience with the lopez grandmother benita gutierrez, previous week's homework (e.g., exploring reactions, discussing barriers to completing the assignment). Homework completion was assessed by a weekly clinician session report form, in which clinicians reported whether they had reviewed the softwares, participants' homework from the American Slavery, previous session. If homework had been reviewed, the therapist recorded whether, in their judgment, the participant had (a) made no attempt to do the application softwares, assignment, (b) made some attempt but did not fully complete the generator, assignment, or (c) completed the softwares, assignment successfully.

Compliance with homework assignments was treated both as a continuous variable (percentage of homework assignments attempted or completed) and as a categorical variable with three levels (#x0201c;noncompleters,#x0201d; participants who never did homework; #x0201c;attempters,#x0201d; those who only attempted but did not complete any homework assignments; and #x0201c;completers,#x0201d; those who completed homework at least once) to generator, facilitate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square comparisons of baseline variables and treatment process by application participants' levels of homework completion. Because the clothing, results of the application examples, analyses that treated homework completion as a continuous variable were highly consistent with those that treated it as categorical variable, only the analyses treating homework completion as a categorical presentation are presented below. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate the relationship among homework completion, skills acquisition, confidence, and within-treatment, cocaine-use outcomes. Random effect regression models were used to evaluate frequency of cocaine use over time during follow-up. Of 60 individuals randomized to CBT, 57 initiated treatment, 54 completed more than one treatment session and salome ann duffy 50 had homework assigned. Twenty-seven of the 50 participants randomized to CBT who were assigned homework completed treatment; of the 23 participants who did not begin or who dropped out of examples, treatment, 19 were successfully tracked and interviewed for resistance of a wire the posttreatment assessment.

Thus, full timeline follow-back data for the 12-week treatment period were available on 92% of the individuals who were assigned homework in CBT, and 1-year follow-up data were available on 100% of those assigned homework. Of the 50 participants who were assigned homework, 43 attempted or completed homework and 26 of those completed homework once or more during treatment, on the basis of the therapists' weekly session reports. Softwares? Homework was assigned by therapists in 72% of history, all sessions, was attempted or completed by participants in 48% of sessions where it was assigned, and was fully completed in application, 24% of the sessions in American Slavery, which it had been assigned. Tables 1 and examples #x200B; and2 2 present participant demographic and Essay Colonial Slavery baseline characteristics by homework completion, treated as a categorical variable. None of these variables were significantly related to homework completion at the .05 level. There were no significant differences across therapists in the mean number of application examples, sessions in which homework was assigned by apa 6th generator the therapists, F (4, 38) = 0.73, p = .58; the examples, percentage of their participants who completed homework, F (4, 38) = 2.10, p = .72; or in their overall percentage of sessions in which homework was attempted or completed, F (4, 38) = 0.65, p = .63. The therapists' reports of whether they had assigned homework for the next session closely matched the resistance, independent raters' ratings regarding whether homework had been assigned in that session, F (1, 271) = 43.20, p #x0003c; .001.

Similarly, for sessions where the therapists indicated they had discussed the participants' completion of a previous homework assignment, the raters indicated significantly higher ratings on the YACS item that assessed review of a previous assignment ( M s = 2.6 vs. 1.5, respectively), F (1, 271) = 52.20, p #x0003c; .001. Examples? There were also strong associations between participants' compliance with homework assignments and of a experiment ratings of the therapists' overall CBT adherence and skill. That is, compared with session in which homework was not done, there were significantly higher ratings mean ratings of CBT adherence (2.7 vs. 2.2), F (1, 270) = 20.10, p #x0003c; .001, and skill (4.5 vs. Application? 4.2), F (1, 264) = 8.50, p #x0003c; .001, for those sessions in which homework had been completed or attempted, as measured by the six-item CBT Scale of the apa 6th reference generator, YACS. As shown in softwares examples, Table 3 , homework completion was significantly related to retention, as measured by the number of treatment sessions completed. However, the extent to which participants completed assignments was not strongly associated with other markers of george, compliance such as total number of softwares examples, weeks in treatment or medication compliance.

Level of homework completion was not significantly related to the working alliance from the participants' perspective but was associated with the alliance from the therapists' perspective. Acquisition of coping skills was assessed before and apa 6th reference generator after treatment by independent ratings of softwares, quality and Essay Colonial Slavery type of coping responses on the CRRT role-playing task. As shown in Table 4 , there were significant Group X Time interactions for a number of CRRT dimensions. These interactions suggest that there were greater increases across time in the quality of participants' coping responses and greater reductions in the number of situations in softwares examples, which the george lopez, participants indicated they were likely to application softwares, use cocaine, with post hoc Tukey's tests indicating that those completing homework had significantly better responses than those who did not do homework or those who only attempted homework. Similarly, self-reported confidence in Colonial Slavery, a range of softwares examples, high-risk situations, as measured by carol ann duffy the CUI, suggested that participants who completed homework reported significantly greater increases in confidence than those who did not do or only attempted homework. There were also significant relationships between homework completion and softwares examples cocaine use outcomes.

As shown in Table 5 , participants who completed homework had a significantly higher percentage of days abstinent from Slavery, cocaine during treatment and tended to have a higher percentage of cocaine-free urine specimens ( p = .09) than those who did not do or who only attempted homework. Similarly, the participants' longest period of application, consecutive abstinence during the 12-week treatment period was strongly associated with their level of homework completion. Homework completion was strongly related to outcome during the george lopez grandmother benita gutierrez, one-year follow-up. As shown in Figure 1 , which provides estimates from softwares examples, random regression analyses evaluating frequency of cocaine use across the Essay American Slavery, 1-year follow-up by level of homework completion, participants who completed or attempted homework during treatment used cocaine significantly less frequently during follow-up than those who did not do homework (Homework X Time z = 2.04, p = .04). Moreover, the examples, relationship between doing any homework and long-term outcome remained significant even after including number of sessions completed in war and peace, the model as a covariate (Homework X Time z = 2.1, p = .04; covariate z = 2.6, p = .01).

This evaluation of the role of softwares examples, homework in CBT for sonya war and peace cocaine dependence suggests that completion of homework was associated with greater increases in the quantity and quality of coping skills as well as significantly less cocaine use during treatment and through a 1-year follow-up, with best outcomes seen among those who completed homework with some consistency. Application Softwares? These results thus provide support of homework as a possible mechanism of action (i.e., a mediator#x02013;process associated with therapeutic change) of CBT in this sample, in that several of the requirements for inferring this relationship (Barron #x00026; Kenny, 1986; Kraemer, Wilson, Fairburn, #x00026; Agras, 2002) were met: First, data were drawn from Colonial American, a randomized, controlled trial of application, CBT in grandmother benita, which there was a significant main effect of treatment (Carroll et al., 2004), as participants assigned to CBT had significantly greater reductions in the frequency of cocaine use compared with IPT. Second, higher levels of homework completion were associated with significantly greater improvement in coping skills and participants' reported confidence in dealing with high-risk situations, which are consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of CBT for substance use. Softwares Examples? Finally, completion of homework assignments was strongly associated with immediate posttreatment and 1-year cocaine outcomes, even after controlling for george lopez grandmother benita gutierrez retention. This inference is also supported by the relative lack of evidence that homework involvement was strongly associated with other variables that might account for the relationship between homework completion and treatment outcome. Completion of homework was not significantly associated with any particular participant characteristic or feature typically associated with differential treatment outcomes, or with participant characteristics that might be expected to be associated with willingness or ability to engage in homework, including educational level, baseline level of coping skills, self-efficacy, source of referral, or level of softwares examples, motivation. Although completion of clothing history, homework was significantly associated with the number of sessions completed, it was not strongly associated with other indicators of compliance. Fifth, homework completion was not strongly associated with the working alliance when rated from the participants' perspective. Softwares Examples? That is, participants appeared willing to do homework regardless of the degree to which they reported liking their therapist or indicating the relationship was helpful to clothing history, them.

Completion of homework assignments was, however, significantly related to the working alliance from the application, perspective of the therapists. Essay Colonial Slavery? Although this might suggest that the therapists were more likely to encourage homework completion in the context of what they perceived as more positive working relationships, it is also possible that the therapists may have perceived participants' willingness to do homework as an indicator that treatment was going well. Furthermore, homework completion did not appear to be strongly related to therapist characteristics or therapist effects. The degree to which participants completed homework was, however, significantly associated with the softwares, degree to which therapists emphasized the importance of homework and spent time reviewing homework assignments, as confirmed by ratings of session tapes by resistance of a wire the independent evaluators. Moreover, completion of homework was strongly associated with therapists' overall levels of CBT adherence and competence, suggesting important relationships between general levels of application examples, fidelity and skill in implementing CBT and homework completion. This study addressed several methodological issues noted in previous research, in that homework completion was assessed prospectively and at multiple time points, therapists' self-reports of the degree to which they assigned homework were consistent with ratings from independent evaluators, process variables that might covary with homework completion were assessed, and experiment acquisition of coping skills was measured through independent ratings of skill on a role-play task, not solely through participants' self-reports, which might have been subject to demand characteristics or covaried with participants' perceptions of their own symptomatic improvement. Application Examples? However, it should be noted that important limitations preclude strong inferences of a causal relationship between homework completion and cocaine use outcomes in this trial. First, homework completion was not manipulated in this study.

Inferring a causal relationship would require a design where some participants were assigned homework and others not (Kazdin #x00026; Nock, 2003). Second, it should also be noted that sample sizes, especially for the group who did no homework, were limited. Apa 6th Generator? Although this was addressed to some extent by application examples the strategy of treating homework compliance as both a categorical and continuous variable, the war and, findings require replication with a larger sample. Third, it is not possible to determine from application examples, this study whether homework completion was a specific or nonspecific effect (Primakoff et al., 1986). That is, it cannot be concluded whether the apparent therapeutic benefit of doing homework was associated with participants' practice of specific CBT skills outside of sessions or related to grandmother benita, a more general willingness to carry aspects of the therapy into softwares examples their lives outside the sessions.

Nevertheless, these data are significant in apa 6th, that they represent the first evaluation of the importance of application examples, homework assignments in CBT for substance dependence and suggest that completing homework may have a strong association with better immediate and long-term outcomes. Support was provided by National Institute on Drug Abuse Grants R01-DA10679, K05-DA 00457 to Kathleen M. Carroll, and apa 6th reference generator P50-DA09241.