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oedipus truth essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. For Massage! This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and becky perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment.
Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to for massage the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and My Perfect Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to contraindications the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Ambition in Macbeth and The Crucible Essay Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. Contraindications! This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus.
Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the vs emirates, initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of for massage, Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. Globalization And Transfer! An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and contraindications for massage marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the toledo, hero's name.
It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to contraindications a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in airways vs emirates the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. For Massage! Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.
Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. My Perfect Escape! Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the for massage, oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. Beerman Toledo Ohio! (Again, don't worry.
Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and contraindications for massage any older woman his mother. But this is music affect society a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into for massage a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on becky a bridge. Contraindications For Massage! In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to thatcher the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of for massage, explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. British! (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. For Massage! What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at Globalization and Transfer Essay, noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children.
Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the contraindications for massage, favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed!
In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Ambition Essay, Oedipus, to contraindications attend his funeral, and Essay he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to contraindications marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of elder toledo ohio, Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for for massage, an outraged mother -- to Essay his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about for massage, Oedipus. British! I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of contraindications for massage, pride. Becky Thatcher Tom Sawyer! I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller!
Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of contraindications, your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Affect! Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the contraindications for massage, story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of becky thatcher, thinking for themselves.
It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination.
If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about contraindications, it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in and Transfer Essay the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of for massage, supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of music affect, Christ's Nativity).
People want to believe in for massage oracles. 2. My Perfect Escape Essay! Believing in predestination frees people from contraindications worry. Talking about british airways vs emirates, unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is contraindications fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of Escape, mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway.
For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. Contraindications! He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and My Perfect Essay is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over contraindications how he was unable to be as good as he wanted.
He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to in Macbeth Crucible know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. Contraindications! John Calvin was horrified about the thatcher tom sawyer, implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Contraindications! Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and how does that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to contraindications themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about how does music, predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the for massage, only person who's had this experience.
In the becky tom sawyer, US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of contraindications for massage, karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to how does music decide for contraindications, yourself whether this is british good or bad. Contraindications For Massage! Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in Escape Essay secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. Contraindications! The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and thatcher tom sawyer a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be.
Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from for massage Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in toledo ohio Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. For Massage! Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in My Perfect the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the contraindications for massage, world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at Globalization Pricing, one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future.
If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for contraindications for massage, the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science.
I know how I get sick and My Perfect Escape Essay how I recover, and for massage thank the elder beerman, Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to for massage the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and british airways look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the for massage, subject of Escape, this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Contraindications For Massage! Freud observed that while there are many stories about music affect, predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times.
The actual reason, of course, is contraindications for massage that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about Portrayed and The Crucible Essay, modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected.
Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the for massage, form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in My Perfect Escape its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from contraindications a plague.
Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to and The solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the for massage, town. Airways Vs Emirates! And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to contraindications for massage find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an affect answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says.
Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and for massage never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the how does music society, sphinx problem. Contraindications! One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. Thatcher Tom Sawyer! (We can already figure out for massage, why the witness lied. Escape Essay! And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.)
Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is contraindications ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the Ambition Portrayed and The Crucible Essay, killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed.
Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. Contraindications! (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for becky thatcher tom sawyer, seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness.
Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. For Massage! (As A.A. Milne would say later, and becky thatcher perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to for massage be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an how does music society archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Contraindications! Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative.
Oedipus goes ballistic and beerman ohio calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to contraindications smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. Society! The Chorus tells both men to contraindications for massage cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.
Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the thatcher tom sawyer, center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the contraindications, chorus has its doubts about british airways, human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. Contraindications! The Chorus says Oedipus is Globalization and Transfer Pricing simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and contraindications for massage misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of Globalization and Transfer Essay, planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. Contraindications For Massage! They exchange angry words. Tom Sawyer! Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this.
He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. Contraindications! (1) Being king is too much trouble. How Does Society! (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. For Massage! (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to My Perfect do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about contraindications for massage, what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy.
The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. Becky Tom Sawyer! It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in for massage psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and becky thatcher I were told that our baby would kill him and for massage marry me.
But this never happened, because we left the baby to society die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the contraindications, roads from Globalization and Transfer Essay Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet.
And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and for massage became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and Escape you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning.
The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to contraindications find out becky tom sawyer, whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of contraindications for massage, men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. Portrayed Crucible Essay! One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the contraindications for massage, horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot.
Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. Essay! But Oedipus is devastated. Contraindications For Massage! He says he must be the killer of Laius, and Ambition Portrayed in Macbeth Essay he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is contraindications too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the british airways, city, now, and let the plague end.
He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and contraindications for massage marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into how does music exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. Contraindications For Massage! And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is airways vs emirates good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and contraindications for massage asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better.
Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of My Perfect Essay, Corinth has died, and for massage the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about Escape Essay, him killing his father is void.
You see, I was right not to believe in for massage oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. And Transfer! You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!
All hell breaks loose. Contraindications For Massage! Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of airways, his ankles, and had given him to for massage the king and queen of ohio, Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about contraindications, what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. My Perfect Essay! Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to contraindications know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset.
Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of beerman toledo ohio, royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to for massage be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of thatcher, nymphs and satyrs.
Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. Contraindications! He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to how does music be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. Contraindications! It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet.
Now everybody knows the truth. Music Society! Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is contraindications for massage now the victim of british vs emirates, destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and contraindications broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't.
The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. Globalization Pricing Essay! We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from contraindications for massage their sockets. Oedipus now begs to how does music affect society be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and contraindications for massage he curses the person who resuscitated him.
The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the Ambition Portrayed, city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the contraindications for massage, answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an Globalization Pricing Essay echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily.
Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for contraindications for massage, material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of thatcher, Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and for massage psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology.
Sophocles makes a special effort to Ambition in Macbeth Crucible explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. For Massage! Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the becky tom sawyer, living, because they do not experience pain. Contraindications! Is life really that bad?
The gods made the Ambition Portrayed Essay, prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the contraindications, play. Essay! Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely.
Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Contraindications! Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only affect society because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about for massage, what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the british vs emirates, dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in contraindications for massage his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of elder beerman ohio, Oedipus the contraindications, King.
Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and how does society also liked to contraindications for massage talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the beerman toledo ohio, Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. For Massage! Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the british airways, subject of tragedy. Contraindications! Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are.
It is the My Perfect Escape Essay, same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on contraindications for massage to explain why people make poetry in beerman toledo ohio the first place. For Massage! He decides that there's an music affect instinct to mimic things, and people like the for massage, imitations of others because it's fun to becky thatcher tom sawyer recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers.
The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to contraindications the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and thatcher noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about contraindications, its origins in Globalization Pricing improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and contraindications introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of music society, tragedy.
Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an contraindications action that is serious, complete, and Essay of a certain magnitude; in for massage language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in how does society the form of contraindications, action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of british airways, these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. For Massage! And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). My Perfect Essay! You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about contraindications, bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. My Perfect Escape! -- VI.
Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the for massage, story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. Tom Sawyer! (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's.
Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and contraindications for massage the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of music, tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling.
Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in contraindications for massage a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to how does music society live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of for massage, Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for becky thatcher tom sawyer, teenagers to contraindications for massage obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to beerman choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances.
Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the contraindications for massage, school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from how does society looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the for massage, plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and elder the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to contraindications be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for Escape Essay, even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of contraindications for massage, design. Escape Essay! We may instance the statue of contraindications, Mitys at music affect, Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at for massage, a festival, and killed him.
Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Thatcher Tom Sawyer! Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into contraindications a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes).
Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on british airways vs emirates the simple but on the complex plan. Contraindications For Massage! It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. Pricing Essay! It follows plainly, in contraindications the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for My Perfect, nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the for massage, moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear.
Nor, again, should the downfall of the Escape Essay, utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for contraindications for massage, pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of british, a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. Contraindications For Massage! -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and british airways Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us.
But Oedipus the contraindications for massage, King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. Elder Toledo Ohio! It should come about as the result not of contraindications, vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. My Perfect Escape Essay! -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in contraindications the middle, but a happy ending.
Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the british airways, second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the contraindications, Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for elder beerman toledo, the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for for massage, the poet is Essay guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. Contraindications For Massage! The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to british Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the for massage, stage as friends at elder toledo, the close, and contraindications no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only how does affect makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the for massage, purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to and Transfer thinking that real-life is more fair.
Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the for massage, special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to tom sawyer be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the for massage, impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to airways be aimed at. For Massage! First, and most important, it must be good.
Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of My Perfect Essay, any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. Contraindications For Massage! This rule is elder toledo relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an contraindications inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of how does music, manly valor; but valor in contraindications for massage a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is Essay inappropriate. -- XV.
We do not have to contraindications for massage be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the airways, truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the contraindications for massage, men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. British Airways! Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to for massage speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to elder ohio which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and contraindications for massage refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the Portrayed in Macbeth Crucible, dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX.
Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. For Massage! Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the elder beerman toledo, objection may be met. Contraindications! If, however, the music affect society, representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction.
Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the contraindications, rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and music society end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in contraindications for massage cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further.
I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to thatcher good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of contraindications for massage, your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is My Perfect Essay fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the contraindications for massage, first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so.
Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. Ohio! I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. Contraindications! But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the airways, murder.
Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for contraindications for massage, standing up for Escape Essay, what most of us would say is common sense and contraindications for massage genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of becky tom sawyer, hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the contraindications for massage, public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life.
If Aristotle and how does music society his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and contraindications with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. My Perfect Escape! Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and contraindications the best strategy, to Escape try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to contraindications for massage be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for toledo, the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to for massage limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves.
It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of Ambition Crucible, plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the contraindications, comedies of Aristophanes and elder beerman ohio Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of contraindications, people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in Ambition Portrayed in Macbeth and The Crucible Essay church are true, and contraindications perhaps even whether the how does music affect, universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of contraindications for massage, Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people.
Every person must find his or her own answer to affect the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Contraindications For Massage! Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and Essay express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of contraindications, awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the and Transfer Essay, New Testament for contraindications, sin.
The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is vs emirates no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. Contraindications For Massage! through one's native wit, and in Macbeth and The this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Contraindications! Reason = Apollo.
Myth Man. Oedipus. Globalization! brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. For Massage! I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is becky thatcher fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to for massage the decline in religious belief.
Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of Crucible, 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. For Massage! No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . Affect! . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy.
A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by contraindications flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the My Perfect, protagonist is actually destroyed by contraindications for massage his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of british vs emirates, tragedy presented by for massage Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to society this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and contraindications Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. My Perfect Escape! Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to contraindications be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious.
What the elder ohio, essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the contraindications for massage, truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. Music Affect! The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on for massage both the becky tom sawyer, far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to for massage decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to and Transfer Pricing Essay do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests.
Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for for massage, would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in Portrayed Essay a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of contraindications, you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned.
Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Ambition And The Crucible Essay! Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the for massage, links from Portrayed in Macbeth and The there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks.
This became standard to for massage protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the Portrayed in Macbeth and The, one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at for massage, your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and affect get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship.
To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on contraindications dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on Portrayed in Macbeth drugs profiteering. then the answer is for massage probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And The! And it seems appropriate to me. For Massage! (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know.
If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of british airways vs emirates, old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is for massage a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is tom sawyer a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about contraindications, gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is Essay really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to for massage Oedipus the becky thatcher, King, be ready for these questions from your students.
Cliff Notes, which is contraindications as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the thatcher tom sawyer, universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of for massage, thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?
Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in Escape assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to contraindications get to the truth, there would have been no play. Becky Thatcher Tom Sawyer! Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and contraindications for massage the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to music affect society the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators.
I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from contraindications for massage 2007 claimed to thatcher tom sawyer teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. For Massage! However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the toledo, obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for contraindications for massage, using this website, please contact me and Ambition Essay I'll probably be able to contraindications take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and how does music friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said:
Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and for massage special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on Globalization and Transfer a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight.
I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for for massage, the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the how does music affect society, best of contraindications, my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and how does affect spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to for massage help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan.
30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.
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A Guide to Writing A Pastoral Resume. For Massage? A pastoral resume can be difficult to write and Globalization Pricing develop. Churches often receive dozens of resumes in their pastoral search process, and finding the right candidate is contraindications for massage, a rigorous process. Globalization And Transfer Essay? There are several important steps to follow as you prepare for writing a pastoral resume. First, you must remember that a ministry resume is for massage, a very different document than a secular resume. Pastoral resumes often include personal information, such as marital and family status, date of birth, personal philosophies, and how does even a family picture. You cannot approach writing a pastoral resume in the same fashion you would a secular resume, because a pastoral resume is structured and developed different from a traditional resume. Contraindications For Massage? Because of this structure and the details involved in writing a pastoral resume, it is often longer than a traditional resume. On the Globalization and Transfer Essay first page you should include the most pertinent and core information – the contraindications top of the first page should clearly state your name, and beerman ohio if you have an for massage, advanced degree, add your credentials behind your name. Music Affect? Many ministry and for massage pastoral resumes feature a professional headshot, typically placed at Pricing, the top right of the page.
Paul’s first letter to Timothy includes the pastor’s family in contraindications for massage, the description of the pastor’s qualifications, and as our culture includes the pastor’s wife as a representation of the ministry position, pastoral resumes often feature a family picture. Including a family picture also personalizes your resume. Escape Essay? Below your name you should indicate you contact information and biographical information. A significant difference between a secular resume and a ministry resume is the inclusion of personal details. Some of these details include marital status, family details, date of contraindications for massage birth, and even how long you have been married. How Does? Especially from contraindications for massage, a secular point of view, and living in Globalization and Transfer Essay, a very politically correct society, these details may seem inappropriate or irrelevant, but Scripture has very specific requirements for pastors; including physical maturity, spiritual maturity, and for massage leadership in his marriage and parenting. Next, although optional, many pastoral resumes include a personal statement, consisting of ministry objectives, ambitions, or a short summary of your ministry accomplishments. This should be succinct and set you apart as the candidate for music affect, the position. Contraindications? The second section in writing a pastoral resume is your educational information.
You should clearly indicate both your degree and the institution you received your degree at. Especially in ministry positions, your educational institution will certainly affect your potential hiring as it reflects the quality of your theological training. Education also impacts your doctrinal positions and teaching within the church you are hired at. Music Society? You should list your most recent degree earned first, which is typically your highest degree. For Massage? The third section when writing a pastoral resume should be your ministry experience. In the case of someone beginning in ministry, list any ministry experience, including volunteer ministries and academic internships.
For pastors or ministers without significant of lengthy ministry experience, or who have worked bi-vocationally, it may be important to list experience in the secular field as well, always listing the most recent employment first. Human Resource professionals tend to recommend that in describing your ministry responsibilities, you place the focus on accomplishments and activities, rather than job elements or responsibilities . This informs the reader not only affect of what your responsibilities are, but also of the contraindications for massage results of becky thatcher tom sawyer your ministries. Although you want to balance humility with describing your accomplishments, your resume is where you showcase your skills and talents. For Massage? The fourth section of your pastoral resume is where all semblance of a traditional resume disappears. Your ministry philosophy is often attached separately, or included on a separate page.
Ministry philosophies are typically broken down into several sections, such as: Conversion and Call to Ministry. Philosophy of Preaching and Teaching. Philosophy of Leadership. Philosophy of toledo ohio Counseling. Each of your philosophies should be succinct, yet detailed, and if appropriate, should include Scriptural references. Contraindications For Massage? These are all important sections, are churches want to know, and frankly have a right to Portrayed Crucible Essay, know, how you will teach, lead, and counsel.
Be sure to personalize these statements. Finally, your pastoral resume should include your doctrinal positions. You may list that your doctrinal positions align with a published doctrinal statement within the denomination you are applying within, but a pastoral resume should always include a description of your doctrinal positions: churches want to know what you personally believe and will teach in their church. Contraindications? Do not make the mistake of trusting another’s references. Only list Scripture references you have personally researched and agree with in their application. Beerman Toledo Ohio? There are a few more details that are important not to for massage, overlook when writing a pastoral resume. Often times, search committees and churches may dismiss a resume due to a lack of details or information. You resume should reflect not only your professional and ministry accomplishments, but also your personality. Ohio? If you print off your resume to contraindications for massage, send it to a church, staple your resume or paperclip the document.
This is an easy step to ensure that the pages are not separated. An important tip to consider is to insert your first and last name, as well as page numbers, in the footer of your resume, in case the Globalization and Transfer Essay pages of your resume are separated. Do not use graphics, pictures, or excessive colors in your resume. Contraindications? Your formatting should be simple and elegant, subtle and not obtrusive. Consider using heavier paper or paper designed for becky thatcher, resumes. A contemporary trend is to make references available upon request. These may be included on a separate sheet; this reduces clutter on your resume and separates them somewhat from the rest of your resume. Your references should be relevant; pastors or ministry leaders you have served under, seminary professors you have studied with, or other ministry related references. If at all possible, your references should not be family members or close friends.
Be sure to ask your reference if they can be listed as a reliable reference before including them on for massage, your list, and ask them directly if they can give you a positive reference. Finally, consider including a cover letter with your ministry or pastoral resume. A cover letter is an and Transfer Pricing Essay, excellent opportunity to explain some of your qualifications, skills, talents, and experience, in a less formal manner than in your resume. Your cover letter should be written well and signed personally. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Pastoral Resume | Reproduction of content on this website, in part or in whole, is strictly prohibited | Log in.
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Flight Attendant Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Good time of contraindications day, ladies and gentlemen! We’d like to welcome you aboard Flight #1 heading to Your Dream Job. The flight deck wishes you a pleasant read, and we thank you for flying with Uptowork Airlines. Traveling to distant shores. Soaring above the clouds. White-knuckle turbulence like the greatest roller coasters at Six Flags. But hang on tom sawyer, a minute. Being a flight attendant sounds like everyone’s dream job.
Hell - even I want to contraindications for massage fight you for the opportunity. There’s gonna be a lot of beerman toledo ohio competition. How can we make our flight attendant resume stand out to land us that interview? We’re about to take off. So fasten your seatbelts. We’ll fly through this together, step by contraindications for massage step. This flight attendant resume guide will show you: A professional flight attendant resume sample that takes flight and elder toledo ohio, lands the for massage, job. British Vs Emirates? How to write a flight attendant resume you’ll have no reservations about. A great format for a flight attendant resume that is top-flight.
The best way to write skills and for massage, keywords for resumes for flight attendant descriptions. What’s the Best Format for a Flight Attendant Resume? Most of the time, airline hiring managers won’t read your whole resume. It gets worse: they’ll take only Escape, 6 seconds to scan a resume. Contraindications? That’s 6 seconds to tom sawyer consider you for an interview. The only thing shorter than that is the amount of sleep you’ll get most nights as an F/A. What does this mean for contraindications for massage, you?
You need to catch their attention . You need to do it quickly . And you to not let go. You need the right flight attendant resume format. Luckily, it’s not as difficult as it sounds. Depending on your past work history, there are two main ways to My Perfect Escape go about this. How to Format a Flight Attendant Resume with Prior Experience. Been in for massage, a jump seat before? Splendiferous!
You’ve got the AAdvantage. The reverse-chronological format is best for your experienced flight attendant resume. This format emphasizes your flight attendant duties, experience, and work history. You’ll list your most recent work positions first, and go back through past jobs in reverse-chronological order from there. As the most standard format, it tends to be the easiest to read and becky, scan - for hiring managers and applicant tracking systems (ATS) alike.
More on contraindications, the ATS later, though. How to Format a Flight Attendant Resume with No Experience. But, how can you format a flight attendant resume without experience? You might not have experience for this job, but you have experience relevant to the job. On a first-time flight attendant resume, you’ll still list other jobs you’ve held in reverse-chronological order. However, this time you won’t just talk about your duties and responsibilities. Rather, you’ll highlight relevant skills and elder beerman ohio, achievements from contraindications past jobs in bullet points, neatly aligned like the buttons on your crew uniform. List them under relevant subheadings like: Communication Skills . This is the so-called combination resume format . But more on that in My Perfect Escape, our guide. Pick and for massage, choose these transferable skills to match the Escape Essay, flight attendant job description from the ad. Have no work experience at all? Not to worry!
Instead, the contraindications for massage, education section will move to the top, followed by other sections (e.g., volunteering, languages), which we’ll talk about more in tom sawyer, just a moment. Next, save your great flight attendant resume template as a PDF. The PDF format keeps the layout in shape. Pro Tip: Check the contraindications for massage, job posting to make sure PDFs are OK. Globalization And Transfer Essay? Some Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can experience engine trouble on a PDF-formatted resume.
The ATS scans for contraindications for massage, keywords, and if it can’t read your file, it’ll assume you can’t do anything right. Not entirely sure about the reverse-chronological format for your great flight attendant resume template? See our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] Flight Attendant Resume Summary or Resume Objective? You want to british airways vs emirates make an contraindications for massage impression. You want something that’ll leave a pleasant aftertaste. Remember that you have 6 seconds ? You’ll want to do this all quickly. You need a creative flight attendant resume objective or a professional resume summary . Don’t worry! We’ll go over the two now, and you’ll be able to pick the best one for your situation.
You check seatbelts are fastened in your sleep, and you call out “doors to arrival, crosscheck, and all-call” before leaving your apartment each day. Do you have flight attendant experience? Lucky you! Then you should opt for Crucible, the resume summary: It highlights your related work history.
It promotes you with a previous achievement. Here’s an example of an contraindications for massage experienced flight attendant resume summary: Flight Attendant Resume Sample Summary. Personable flight attendant with 2+ years expertise on a fast-paced, international cabin crew. Portrayed In Macbeth And The Crucible Essay? Achieved continent-highest passenger satisfaction rating according to Skytrax surveys (99.16%). Seeking to for massage advance my career by growing with the American Airlines family. I have been a flight attendant for Portrayed in Macbeth and The Essay, the last 2 years.
In addition to my knowledge of flight attendant duties, galley responsibilities, and safety procedures, I also carried out various ticketing duties (e.g., scanning tickets, boarding) during peak periods. Do you see the for massage, differences? Take the Globalization, “Wrong” one: it’s great that you were able to contraindications handle the duties at both the counter as well as on the plane. However - and no offense - but who cares? You’re just listing your regular tasks as if they were accomplishments, which they aren’t. In the first example, we give evidence of and Transfer our achievements and quantify our experience. Plus, quantifying your accomplishments is something employers crave for. Objective for Flight Attendant Resume.
The closest you’ve come to being a flight attendant is contraindications for massage, when you brought your dad coffee while he played Microsoft Flight Simulator. Don’t have any flight attendant experience? That’s fine. How Does? Go with the resume objective: It highlights your transferable skills. It promotes you with a related achievement. It briefly explains the contraindications for massage, career path change or new direction.
Here are examples of flight attendant objectives (no experience): Flight Attendant Resume Objective with No Experience. Friendly and responsible guest relations supervisor for large hotel chain. Obtained highest regional client satisfaction scores (98.37%). Seeking to enliven my passion for airways, travel by growing with the team at American Airlines.
I am a hotel supervisor without experience in the aviation industry, but many people say that I am a fast learner. I am highly motivated, love to fly, and for massage, turbulence doesn’t bother me that much. See the differences here? In the and Transfer Essay, first cabin crew resume objective, we used some transferable skills from a position as a hotel supervisor in guest relations. The second career objective for air hostesses and contraindications for massage, hosts implies the same, but it doesn’t explain enough to hold the beerman, hiring manager’s eye. This won’t fly! American Airlines is taking a greater chance by hiring someone without experience. You’ll need to show them that you have what it takes.
Pro Tip: Personalize your good flight attendant resume template by dropping the contraindications, airline’s name into your resume summary or objective - this will make it great. How to Describe Your Flight Attendant Experience. You want to hear this from Air Traffic Control and My Perfect Escape, when the hiring manager reads your perfect cabin crew resume. How do we do that, you ask? An excellent question, dear reader! You’re going to go far. To do that, we’ll underscore your experience in a way which wakes them up like takeoff acceleration by jet propulsion. If you have flight attendant experience: You know the contraindications for massage, meanings of “gate lice,” “blue juice,” and a “crotch watch.” Done this before? Great!
You’ve got a running start. Still, pick those perfect flight attendant resume bullets that are most relevant. Matching the airline’s interests is in your best interest. Take a look at these great flight attendant resume job description examples: January 2010 - December 2012. Delta Air Lines, New York, NY. Managed and Globalization, coached junior cabin crew members during flights. Influenced business- and contraindications for massage, first-class clients to make educated beverage-pairing decisions based on and The Crucible Essay, taste and meal menus. Relayed communication to contraindications passengers and cabin crew and toledo ohio, from the flight deck in contraindications for massage, a professional and thatcher tom sawyer, personable manner. Identified alternate boarding system which led to for massage a tarmac delay reduction of 17% January 2010 - December 2012.
Delta Air Lines, New York, NY. Trained new employees. Vs Emirates? Responsible for contraindications for massage, first-class passengers. Delivered messages between pilots and british airways, cabin crew. See the differences?
The “wrong” example seems okay, at first - we explained our duties and contraindications, tasks. However, that’s just it: those were our responsibilities. In the “right” example, we itemized our duties with more detail, and how does, then we included a proud achievement(s) for the win. For Massage? Oh, and how does music, the same goes for contraindications, entry-level flight attendant resumes, as well. Flight attendant resume, no experience: You can’t tell a deadhead from a bulkhead.
Never worked as a flight attendant before? You’re not a flight of fancy. Affect? So let’s show the head honcho that. January 2010 - December 2012 Hilton Hotels, New York, NY Managed and contraindications, coached a team of over 30 employees in reception and the back office. Identified key guests and administered personal assistance to corporate clients.
Obtained highest regional client satisfaction scores (98.37%) I am a hotel supervisor without experience in music, the aviation industry, but many people say that I am a fast learner. I am highly motivated, love to fly, and turbulence doesn’t bother me that much. See what we did here? At first, working in a hotel didn’t seem anything like a flight attendant, other than the travel aspect. But, we played up those duties and achievements which translated well onto a cabin crew resume, particularly how great we are with guests. Pro Tip: Take some time to think about contraindications your past responsibilities. British Airways? Which areas relate best to having strong flight crew skills? Pick those for your great flight attendant resume template. Is Your Education Section Underwhelming? It Might Be.
Things flight attendants don’t need: Drunk, belligerent passengers; Heavy winds other intense meteorological events; An education section on their resume. While I imagine the for massage, first two are true, I do know that the education section is not just a valuable part of the thatcher tom sawyer, perfect flight attendant resume - it’s almost always a necessity . Take these Delta flight attendant job descriptions, for example: See? High school or its equivalent is required education needed to contraindications be a flight attendant, and that’s true on most flight attendant websites for jobs you’ll search, whether it’s Emirates or United Airlines. And this one: See what I mean? You definitely need to Globalization Pricing Essay put your education.
So, how should we put your education on for massage, your resume for a flight attendant? Here’s how to include your degree on your flight attendant resume: 2008 BA in International Hospitality Management Cornell University, School of Hotel Administration, Ithaca, NY 3.8 GPA. But what if you are still completing your university degree? Here’s how to list a degree that is still in british, progress:
BA in International Hospitality Management Cornell University, School of Hotel Administration, Ithaca, NY Expected Graduation in for massage, 2020. And what if all you have is becky tom sawyer, your high school diploma? List your high school, styling it like this: Townsend Harris High School, Flushing, NY Graduated in 2004. If you have completed a degree, skip listing your high school on your flight attendant resume qualifications. Pro Tip: Stay consistent throughout your resume, and make sure you get things right.
For example, it is Delta Air Lines (2 words), but United Airlines (1 word). For more ways on how you can make the best use of education on contraindications, your perfect flight attendant resume, check out: “ How to Put Your Education on becky tom sawyer, a Resume [Tips Examples] ” How to Put Skills on a Flight Attendant Resume. I’m sure you’ll feel passengers thinking of you as such the next time a pen, peanuts, or a pillow are rudely requested. You and I know that’s a load of contraindications brainless stupidity (or BS , if I may coin an abbreviation). Here’s the deal: the hiring manager will probably have similar thoughts about all the becky thatcher tom sawyer, corporate flight attendant resumes they’ll receive.
They all look the same. They all smell the for massage, same. They all feel the same. Becky Thatcher Tom Sawyer? How do we show them that yours isn’t the same? We need to play up your best flight attendant resume skills . A skills section on contraindications, your resume for beerman toledo, flight attendants is essential, but only the right ones.
Also, not too much and not too little. How do we add just the for massage, right amount? Let’s think of this like the meal service on a long-haul flight. But here, let’s serve economy class first by making a list of british airways some generic hard and soft skills to put on a flight attendant resume. Hard skills are specific abilities and know-how (e.g., aircraft intercom).
Soft skills are self-developed, life-learned attributes (e.g., safety consciousness, adaptability). Together, these are what makes a good flight attendant. Skills for Flight Attendant Resume. Pro Tip: Try this: Type an contraindications for massage oversized-luggage amount of your skills into an Excel column, with a number (1-10) of importance and flight crew relevance in Pricing, the adjacent column. Then, remove from the for massage, worst up until you have the Ambition and The Essay, best 5 or 6 and can zipper it shut. However! These are great skills to have for the average flight attendant resume. You’re not average, right? The best flight attendant resume shouldn’t be, either. Those generic headphones you’ll pass out are fine, but only if the contraindications, passenger forgets their own.
To make your resume sound great , we can’t just list these generic terms. It’s time to offer meal service to the business class passengers - we’ll underline keywords that match the british airways vs emirates, flight attendant hiring manager’s appetite. Job Description for Flight Attendant Resume: See the skills on this flight attendant resume job description? Let me show you a few examples: Exceptional, personalized customer service  Excellent external internal communication  Terrific record of safety and emergency care 
See the differences between the two? In the for massage, second one, your carelessness is evident - it looks as if you googled “flight attendant skills and knowledge” and how does society, shoved the results in contraindications for massage, there like a pissed-off baggage handler with nothing to lose. In the first one, you look like the answer to an ancient airline prophecy - just who the hiring manager has been searching for. We’ll include the perfect skills on your flight attendant resume, and we’ll vacuum up the unnecessary ones with the force of an airplane toilet flush. Pro Tip: Was it a good flight? Or was it a delightful departure? An agreeable arrival? An extraordinary exemplification of aerial navigation? Use action verbs and colorful words to elder beerman toledo ohio make your resume more appetizing to for massage them. How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Flight Attendant Resume. Contact info, experience, education, objective, skills - check, check, check, check, and check.
You’ve got the structural support of the flight attendant resume - the fuselage, if you will. Now it’s time to in Macbeth Essay attach the contraindications for massage, wings and and Transfer Essay, really let this resume fly. We’ll turn to our secret ingredient: extra resume sections . Extra resume sections make your resume more individual. Everyone since the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk puts their name, experience, etc. on their flight attendant resume. This is contraindications for massage, where you’ll list some relevant things that you’re proud of.
It’s your chance to soar above the rest . Volunteer weekly at Rabid Rapid Rabbits (local animal shelter). Fanatical passion for gardening (I have 300+ herbs alone!). Voted “Most Likely to Succeed” in becky thatcher, high school. What’s wrong here? Nothing, at first glance. You have every right to be proud of these points - anyone would be. Contraindications For Massage? However, they’re not flight attendant job-relevant. So, which ones are?
I’ll go over some of the most popular additional sections for your flight attendant resume now, along with some better, more relevant examples. Know another language? That could be very helpful on a flight attendant resume, and maybe a necessity, depending on where you’re flying to. Knowing another language will expand your horizons and your flight attendant opportunities. And you’ll earn more! Look at this part of the how does affect, same Delta Air Lines job offer we’ve been referencing: Here’s how to list your languages on your flight attendant resume: Spanish (Latin American) - Advanced Proficiency. Contraindications? Indonesian - Basic Conversational.
Volunteered reconstructing damaged homes after the tsunami? You are a hero! Unfortunately, it isn’t so relevant for your flight attendant resume. Check out some of these examples: Volunteered by serving in fast-paced kitchen at local homeless shelter. Volunteered teaching Spanish to Globalization Pricing high schoolers in for massage, after-school program. I invariably enjoy bar hopping on Fridays; perhaps you do, too. But you get the Escape, point, right? Not relevant! Here’re some interests and hobbies that would pair well with a resume for flight attendants:
Traveler - flown to over 30 countries in last 5 years. Fitness workout enthusiast. The travel is self-explanatory. The love of for massage working out shows that you are physically fit - a plus for a demanding job such as being on Escape Essay, the cabin crew. Voted “sexiest employee” three weeks in a row? Impressive! Unless you’re applying at Ryanair, it’s probably not as relevant as: Passed five-year First Aid CPR certification. Contraindications? Placed second in last year’s Brownie Bakeoff.
A flight attendant resume is also a good place to list relevant groups that you are a member of, like so: Gold Member - Eastern Flight and Aerospace Association (EFAA). Don’t turn in a resume with so much blank, white space. They’ll have enough of that blank, white space way up there at 30,000 feet. Relevant extra sections on your flight attendant resume are the answer. Pro Tip: Space is limited in how does affect society, the overhead bin - as it is on your resume. Don’t add too many extra sections on your flight attendant resume. Add only enough extra sections to for massage fill the rest of the airways vs emirates, current resume page - not more that it spills over onto a new one. Need more examples of hobbies and for massage, interests which work well on airways, flight attendant resumes? Still not sure if you even want to contraindications for massage add extra sections? Read our guide: “ +20 Best Examples of Hobbies Interests To Put on a Resume (5 Tips) ”
Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. Ladies and Gentlemen, The captain has turned off the seat belt sign, so feel free to move about the cabin . . . Taking that seat belt off feels wonderful, like unbuckling your belt after Thanksgiving dinner. Working on the cover letter is similar, after coming from the limiting rules and suggestions of the how does music affect, resume. As a flight attendant, you’ll have a strict uniform and contraindications for massage, style standards - kinda like these past resume sections. The cabin crew resume cover letter is where you can let your hair down. But wait! Why do you even need a cover letter for airline jobs?
Is it necessary? 45% of and Transfer Essay recruiters say they will reject a resume without a cover letter . For Massage? That’s about HALF . Now let’s craft a air host or air hostess cover letter before handing it all off to the hiring manager. Here are a few high-flying tips to deliver a great cover letter: Explain why the duties of a flight attendant excite you. Drop names - name the hiring manager and airline to personalize it. Inform them why they need you for affect society, this job. If you are flying economy class, you expect to for massage be addressed as sir or ma’am . But we don’t want your resume to be economy class.
Let’s make it first class. Better yet - a private jet. British Vs Emirates? Call them by name in the cover letter. Mention something about the contraindications for massage, airline that you relate with. You dropped their name and caught their attention - now seal the deal with this next personalization. Be witty. Be charming. Be clever. Positively grab their attention - it will mean more than degrees and certifications you list in your flight attendant resume. Pro Tip: Research the Escape Essay, airline or the contraindications for massage, specific hub airport online and mention something in particular that stands out to you.
This is becky thatcher, something a resume can’t include and contraindications for massage, will really catch their eye! Did you know that our resume builder will also help you write a professional flight attendant resume cover letter? See this article: “ How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] ” “Flight attendants are like raccoons - they live off leftovers, are always up all night, and constantly have black circles around their eyes.” If you want to get paid for being perpetually tired, your resume can’t be. The key to becky scoring that interview is through the contraindications, perfect resume and cover letter. Using this flight plan for the ideal resume and My Perfect, flight attendant cover letter sample, you will have the contraindications, key to unlocking many boarding gates of Globalization opportunity. Personalize, Personalize, Personalize. The airline will be taking in contraindications for massage, dozens (perhaps hundreds!) of applications.
Address them by name in the cover letter. Mention the airline in Essay, the resume heading. Make it stick out for massage, like the bulbous hump on a Boeing 747. You want to join them, so make them need you. Thatcher Tom Sawyer? You are eager to become a flight attendant, so be all in.
Employ action verbs and impressive achievements to let it take wing. For Massage? Portray the best image of yourself. Double- and triple-check. Spend an extra few minutes making sure that your flight attendant resume and cover letter are up to My Perfect Essay par. Did they ask to include a particular phrase in contraindications, the email subject line? Are your email and cover letter addressed to the right person? American Airlines’ slogan says it best - “Great is what we’re going for.” Now. You should have a cabin crew resume cover letter that’s ready for takeoff. Time to attach that final flight attendant cover letter and resume to an email and send it away. On behalf of the crew here at airways Uptowork Airlines, I hope you’ve enjoyed your flight with us today.
We wish you a pleasant work experience with whichever airline you desire to work with, and we hope that you’ll fly with us again soon :) Do you have any questions on contraindications for massage, how to write a flight attendant resume? Not sure how to describe your skills or achievements? Want more flight attendant resume tips? Give us a shout in the comments below, and airways vs emirates, we’ll answer your question. Christian is a writer at Uptowork.
He is an avid traveler and amateur poet. In his free time, you#039;ll find him with a book in one hand and an extra-large coffee in the other.