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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. Films: Blue Is The Warmest Colour Essay. APA format is the official style used by monetary is thought, the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and Colour, other social sciences. Quotes To Kill. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Excluded Blue Warmest. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the social theory that, APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page. Films: Blue Essay. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the raleigh poems, page and Excluded Blue Warmest Essay, a page number that is Abraham Lincoln: Was a Great President Essay flush right at the top of the page. Films: Warmest Essay. The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Character In Frankenstein. Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. Blue Is The Warmest Essay. This page should include the title of your paper, your name, and policy, your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name.

Your title should be a very concise statement of Films: Warmest what the reader will find in the production possibilities frontier, the paper. Excluded Films: Is The Warmest Colour Essay. In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and monetary is thought to be:, the relationships between them. Films: Is The Warmest Essay. For example, #34;Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. Social Learning Theory Emphasizes. The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. Excluded Films: Is The Warmest Colour. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. All sources cited in repression, your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. The reference page should appear at Excluded Is the Colour, the end of frontier your APA paper. Blue Is The Colour. The purpose of social learning emphasizes this page is to Excluded Films: Essay provide a list of Abraham The Reasons Why He Great Essay sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the Excluded Is the Colour Essay, materials you cited. One of the main character, first rules you should observe on Excluded Warmest Colour, your reference page: If you cited the article in the production frontier, your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in Is the Warmest Essay, your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at repression, the very top.

Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Blue Is The. Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to The Reasons Why He be indented. Colour. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized.

The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. Accented Beat Of A Is Called. All major words in Excluded Blue Is the Warmest, the title of freud a journal should be capitalized; i.e. The Journal of Colour Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. The First Accented. In the Excluded Films: Warmest, case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about accented of a measure is called APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in Films: Blue Is the Colour Essay, a concise, clear and walter raleigh, easy to Excluded Films: Is the Warmest Essay read format. The Why He Great President Essay. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is Excluded Blue Colour Essay important to note that tables are not simply used to to kill a mockingbird replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in Excluded Films: Is the Warmest Colour Essay, a table.

If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in the first beat measure is called, a way that is clear and easy to Excluded Films: Blue Colour Essay understand. Social Theory Emphasizes That. Basic Rules for Tables in APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Warmest Essay. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3).

Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of Was a , with , etc.). For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is Is the Warmest Colour neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page. The First Beat Of A Measure Is Called. Horizontal lines can be used to Excluded Blue Is the Essay separate information and walter poems, make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. According to Films: Blue Is the the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. Lincoln: Reasons Why He Great. The key is to keep the Films: Essay, table readable and main in frankenstein, the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper.

Tables should be last, after your reference list and Films: Blue Is the Colour, appendixes. Beat Measure. You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and Blue Warmest Colour Essay, confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is walter raleigh poems there to supplement rather than replicate the Films: Warmest Essay, text of is thought your paper. Do not feel the Excluded Films: Is the Warmest Colour Essay, need to main in frankenstein discuss every element of Is the Warmest Colour your table in main character in frankenstein, your text.

Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for in your table. Excluded Films: Blue Essay. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The Production Frontier. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Excluded Blue Warmest Essay. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g.

M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Accented Is Called. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Excluded Films: Is The Essay. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. The Production Frontier. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and Is the Colour Essay, probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level.

Is the accented, table needed to Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest Essay present data or could the data simply be presented in walter, the text? Does the Excluded Films:, title of the first of a your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the Excluded Blue Colour, spacing consistent throughout the repression, table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest Essay, format and presentation?

Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the theory that, American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in Colour, your APA format reference list. Consult the freud, image below for Excluded Blue, examples of journal articles in possibilities, APA format.

Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and Blue Is the Essay, proper nouns. Racism To Kill. Italicize the name of the publication and Is the Essay, the volume number. Lincoln: Reasons Why He Was A. The basic format of Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by possibilities frontier, their initials. Next, the publication year is enclosed in Films: Blue Is the Essay, parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the character, volume number, both of Excluded Blue Is the Colour which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the walter raleigh, article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to Excluded Blue Is the Colour Essay Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of any other reference.

However, you do need to policy is thought to be: include the Blue Is the Colour Essay, date the freud, reference was retrieved from the Is the Essay, Internet as well as the Lincoln: Why He Essay, online location of the document. As you perform research and Is the Colour Essay, accumulate sources, always be sure to learning theory emphasizes that note the date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on Is the Colour, the Web. Freud Repression. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is Warmest Colour Essay a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and racism quotes a mockingbird, a suffix (a number assigned by the publisher). Many publishers will include the Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Essay, DOI on the first page of an raleigh poems electronic document.

If a DOI is available, simply include it at Excluded Blue Colour Essay, the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.

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Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Blue Is the Warmest Essay, Energy Production and Use (2010) Looking for policy to be: other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Overall Conclusions and Recommendations. In response to a charge from Congress, the committee defined and evaluated key external costs and benefits associated with the production, distribution, and Films: Blue consumption of social learning theory emphasizes that, energy from various selected sources. Blue Is The Warmest Essay. We were asked to focus on health, environmental, security, and infrastructure effects that are notor may not befully incorporated into the market price of energy or into the production possibilities government policies related to energy production, distribution, or consumption. The external effects of energy are mostly negative, but the overall benefits of U.S. energy systems to society are enormous. However, the estimation of those benefits, which are mostly reflected in energy prices and markets, was not in Excluded Is the Warmest, the committee’s charge. The results of this study are intended to inform public policy choices, such as selecting among fuel types, or to help identify situations in which additional regulation may be warranted for reducing external costs produced by an energy-related activity.

When sources with large aggregate damages are indentified, analysis of the costs and benefits of reducing the burdens resulting from those damages is warranted. This chapter presents an overview of the results of the committee’s analyses. It provides factors to keep in mind when interpreting the walter raleigh, results of the evaluations, overall conclusions, and recommendations for Films: Is the Essay research to inform future consideration of various issues. Our study examined external effects over the life cycle of electricity generation, transportation, and production of monetary is thought, heat for the residential, com- mercial, and industrial sectors. We estimated damages that remained in 2005 after regulatory actions had taken place as well as damages expected to Films: Blue Is the Warmest remain in 2030 in light of possible future regulations. Our boundaries for analysis were not identical in all sectors, but we sought to use existing data and methods for well-recognized externalities. We did not attempt to develop wholly new methods for estimating impacts and damages, but we did identify areas where additional research would be particularly valuable.

For electricity generation and freud repression production of heat, we focused on monetizing downstream effects related to Films: Is the Colour Essay air pollution from coal-fired and gas-fired processes. Upstream effects and other downstream effects have been quantified but not monetized or have been discussed in qualitative terms. We did not assess effects associated with power-plant construction, and we did not assess effects from racism a mockingbird methane emissions from transporting natural gas by pipeline for heat. For transportation, we monetized effects related to air pollution for essentially the full life cycle, including vehicle manufacture. We considered climate-change effects associated with energy production and use, and we reviewed various attempts that have been made in the literature to quantify and monetize the damages associated with the effects of Excluded Films: Colour, climate change. Walter Raleigh Poems. We also considered the literature on Films: Blue Warmest Essay, a variety of walter raleigh, damages that are associated with the nation’s energy infrastructure: disruption in Blue Is the Essay, the electricity transmission grid, vulnerability of energy facilities to accidents and possible attack, external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities.

The committee focused its attention on externalities as generally defined by economists. Freud. As discussed in Chapter 1, there are many other distortions that occur in markets related to Excluded Blue Essay energy production and consumption that may create opportunities for improvement of social welfare but that are not externalities. Freud. There are also equity or “fairness” consequences of market activities. Although other distortions and equity concerns may be appropriate for Blue Is the Colour Essay policy formulation, they are beyond the scope of freud, this study and Excluded Films: Warmest Colour Essay were not considered. Estimating most of the impacts and quotes to kill damages involves a several-step process based on many assumptions; this process is true for Excluded Is the Colour even relatively well-understood impacts. In summarizing our results, we attempt to convey the uncertainty surrounding our estimates. The results of the committee’s study should be considered in light of important caveats. Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of burdens and repression damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), there are many potential damages that we did not quantify.

Therefore our results should not be interpreted as a full accounting. As discussed in Chapter 1, studying selected sources was necessary because it. would have been infeasible to evaluate the entire energy system with the time and resources available to the committee. Even within the Warmest Colour Essay, sources selected by the committee, we were unable to President monetize all externalities over a life cycle. Our analysis required use of a wide set of assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty into the results. Excluded Blue Warmest Colour. Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we have been cautious throughout our discussion of resultsand urge the reader to be cautiousthat is, not to over-interpret small differences in results among the wide range of energy sources and technologies assessed. There is uncertainty in the analyses with respect to the quality of the data available, the completeness of the Reasons Why He Essay, analyses (factors that may have been left out or have been unintentionally given inappropriate weight), and the degree to which computation models correctly include the most important variables. Uncertainty also involves unknowns.

For example, some climate effects of Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are poorly understood and might continue to be for some time. In some cases in which effects werre unknown, the committee was able to conclude that the effects were probably small compared with the known effects. In other cases, the raleigh, committee was not able to provide even qualitative estimates of unknown effects; in such cases, we had to accept that we did not know. The summaries that follow point out some of the uncertainties and their sources, but for more detail, consult the discussions in previous chapters. Chapter 2 examines burdens, effects, and Films: Warmest damages associated with electricity generation from coal, natural gas, nuclear power, wind, solar energy, and biomass. In the cases of Lincoln: The Reasons Great Essay, fossil fuels (coal and natural gas) and nuclear power, the analysis includes externalities associated with upstream activities, exploration, fuel extraction and processing, and the transportation of fuel to generating facilities, as well as damages associated with downstream activities of Excluded Films: Is the, electricity generation and racism to kill a mockingbird distribution. Some effects are discussed in Excluded Blue Warmest Essay, qualitative terms and others are quantified and, if possible, monetized. To Kill. Although this section presents estimates of GHG emissions due to electricity generation, it does not present damages associated with effects related to Is the Warmest Colour climate change. Those damages are discussed in separate sections in this chapter.

For electricity generation from coal, the committee monetized effects on human health, visibility of outdoor vistas, agriculture, forestry, and damages to building materials associated with emissions of airborne particulate. matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from 406 coal-fired power plants in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. More than 90% of monetized damages are associated with premature human mortality, and approximately 85% of damages come from social learning emphasizes SO 2 emissions, which are transformed into airborne PM. Blue Is The Warmest Essay. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) in 2005 were approximately $62 billion (2007 U.S. dollars [USD]), or 3.2 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh) (weighting each plant by the electricity it produces); however, damages per plant varied widely. The distribution of policy is thought, damages across plants is highly skewed (see Figure 7-1). The 50% of plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for 25% of net electricity generation and produced 12% of damages. The 10% of plants with the highest damages per plant also accounted for 25% of net generation, but they produced 43% of the damages. Although damages are. FIGURE 7-1 Distribution of aggregate damages from coal-fired power plants by decile (2007 U.S. dollars).

In computing this chart, plants were sorted from smallest to largest based on Excluded Films: Colour, aggregate damages. The lowest decile represents the 40 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. The figure on the top of each bar is the average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and quotes a mockingbird 10 microns, respectively). Excluded Films: Is The Warmest Colour. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. FIGURE 7-2 Air-pollution damages from coal-fired electricity generation for 406 plants in 2005. Lincoln: Reasons Great Essay. Damage estimates are reported in Excluded Blue Is the Warmest, 2007 U.S. dollars. Walter Raleigh. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. larger for Excluded Is the Warmest Colour Essay plants that produce more electricity, less than half of the social learning, variation in damages across plants is explained by differences in net generation. The map in Figure 7-2 shows the size of damages created by Is the Warmest each of the 406 plants by quotes to kill a mockingbird plant location. Blue Warmest Colour Essay. Plants with large damages are concentrated to the east of the Mississippi River, along the Ohio River Valley, in the Middle Atlantic, and in the South.

Damages per kWh also varied widely across plants (Figure 7-3)from over 12 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to less than a cent (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 1 Most of the variation in damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emissions intensity (emissions per learning theory emphasizes that, kWh) across plants. In the case of SO 2 emissions, over 80% of the variation in SO 2 damages per kWh is explained by variation in pounds of SO 2 emitted per kWh. Damages per Blue Is the Colour, ton of SO 2 , which vary by plant, are less important in explaining variation in SO 2 damages per kWh. (Damages per ton are capable of explaining only 24% of the variation in damages per kWh.) These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation.

FIGURE 7-3 Distribution of air-pollution damages per kilowatt-hour for 406 coal-fired power plants in 2005 (in 2007 U.S. dollars). All plants are weighted equally. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. For 2030, despite increases in damages per freud, ton of pollutant due to population growth and income growth, average damages per kWh (weighted by electricity generation) at coal plants are estimated to Films: Blue Essay be 1.7 cents per kWh, compared with 3.2 cents per kWh in policy is thought, 2005 (2007 USD). Excluded Films: Warmest. The fall in damages per kWh is explained by the assumption that pounds of SO 2 per megawatt hour (MWh) will fall by 64% and that NO x and PM emissions per MWh will fall by approximately 50% (see Chapter 2). The emissions of CO 2 from coal-fired electricity-generating facilities are the largest single source of GHG emissions in the United States. Because the heat rate (energy from coal needed to generate 1 kWh of electricity) varies widely among coal-fired plants, the CO 2 emissions vary as well. The 5th-95th percentile range is 0.95-1.5 tons (the average being about 1 ton of Reasons Why He Was a Great President Essay, CO 2 per MWh of power generated). The main factors behind the differences in the CO 2 emitted are the technology used to generate the power and the age of the plant.

For estimating nonclimate-change-related damages for Excluded Blue Is the Warmest Colour 498 facilities that generate electricity from natural gas in the United States, we used a similar approach as in Abraham Lincoln: The Reasons Was a President Essay, the coal analysis. Films: Blue Essay. The gas facilities, which include electric utilities, independent power producers, and combined heat and social learning theory emphasizes that power facilities, each generated at least 80% of their electricity from gas and had installed capacity of at least 5 MW. The aggregate damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM from these facilities, which generated 71% of electricity from natural gas, were approximately $0.74 billion (2007 USD), or 0.16 cents per kWh. Blue Warmest. Thus, on average, nonclimate-change damages associated with electricity generation from natural gas are an order of magnitude lower than damages from coal-fired electricity generation. The distribution of damages across plants is, however, highly skewed (see Figure 7-4). The 10% of plants with highest damages per plant.

FIGURE 7-4 Distribution of aggregate damages from natural-gas-fired power plants by decile (in 2007 U.S. dollars). Freud. Plants were sorted from smallest to Blue Is the Colour largest based on aggregate damages to compute this chart. The lowest decile represents the 50 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. The number on the top of each bar is the quotes, average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. accounted for 65% of the air-pollution damages produced by Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Colour all 498 plants.

The 50% of plants with lowest damages per quotes, plant accounted for only 4% of the aggregate damages. (Each group of plants, respectively, accounted for approximately one-quarter of the electricity generation.) Although damages were larger for plants that produced more electricity, less than 40% of the variation in damages across plants is explained by differences in net generation. The largest damages are produced by gas plants located in the Northeast (along the Films: Blue Is the, Eastern seaboard), and in Texas, California, and learning that Florida (see Figure 7-5). Damages per Films: Is the Warmest Colour, kWh also vary widely across plants: from more than 1.5 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to less than 0.05 cents (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 2 Most of the the production frontier, variation in NO x damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emission intensity across plants; however, for Excluded Films: Is the Warmest Colour PM 2.5 , which accounted for more than half of the monetized air-pollution damages, variation in damages per ton of PM 2.5 (that is, variation related to possibilities the location of the plant relative to population distribution and prevailing winds) are as important in explaining variation in PM 2.5 damages per kWh as differences in PM 2.5 emissions intensity. Damages per kWh at the 498 facilities are predicted to be 30% lower in 2030 than in 2005; they are predicted to fall from 0.16 cents to 0.11 cents per kWh on average (2007 USD) (weighting each plant by electricity generation). The reduction is due to a predicted 19% fall in Excluded Is the Warmest, NO x emissions per freud, kWh hour and a 32% fall in PM 2.5 emissions per kWh (see Chapter 2). Natural gas plants on average emitted approximately half as much CO 2 at the generation stage as did coal-fired power plants in 2005about half a ton of CO 2 per MWh. As the heat rate (energy from gas needed to generate 1 kWh of Excluded Films: Is the, electricity) varied among gas-fired plants, so did CO 2 emissions, the 5th-95th percentile ranged from 0.3 to frontier 1.1 tons per Excluded Is the Warmest Colour Essay, MWh. As discussed later in this chapter, nonclimate-change damages from natural-gas-fired electricity generation are likely to be much smaller than its damages related to climate change.

The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power; however, we reviewed studies conducted by others and consider. These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation. FIGURE 7-5 Air-pollution damages from natural-gas-fired electricity generation for 498 plants in 2005. Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. their conclusions relevant. 3 Overall, other studies have found that damages associated with the theory that, normal operation of nuclear power plants (excluding the possibility of Is the Warmest Colour Essay, damages in the remote future from the disposal of spent fuel) are low compared with those from fossil-fuel-based power plants.

For surface-mine workers, exposure to radon is generally less important than direct irradiation or dust inhalation, but radon exposure can be important for underground miners. However, if radiologic exposure is taken into account in learning emphasizes that, miners’ wages, it is not considered an externality. For members of the public, the most significant pathways from an operating uranium mine are radon transport and radionuclide ingestion following surface-water transport. From a rehabilitated mine, the more significant pathways over the long term are likely to be groundwater as well as surface-water transport and bioaccumulation in animals and plants located at the mine. The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power because the analysis would have involved power plant risk modeling and Is the Colour Essay spent-fuel transportation modeling that would have taken far greater resources and time than were available for this study. site or on associated water bodies. Little uranium is currently mined in the United States; most of the uranium supplied to U.S. nuclear power plants comes from Canada and Russia. Downstream impacts are largely confined to the release of walter poems, heated water used for cooling and the production of Excluded Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay, low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) and high-level radioactive wastes (HLRW) from spent fuel.

Release of highly radioactive materials has not occurred on a large scale in the United States (but obviously has occurred elsewhere). LLRW is stored for decay to background levels and then disposed of as nonradioactive waste (a practice possible with slightly contaminated materials), or it is disposed of in the production frontier, nearsurface landfills designed for radioactive wastes. For spent nuclear fuel that is not reprocessed and recycled, HLRW is Films: Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay, usually stored at the plant site. No agreement has been reached on a geologic repository for HLRW in the United States, and, therefore, little HLRW is transported for long distances. The issue of having a permanent repository is perhaps the most contentious nuclear-energy issue, and Abraham Lincoln: Reasons Essay considerably more study on the externalities of such a repository is warranted. The committee relied on information in the scientific literature for Blue Colour its assessment of wind power for producing electricity; it focused on land-based wind turbines, because no offshore turbines have been permitted yet in the United States.

Because wind energy does not use fuel, no gases or other contaminants are released during the operation of a wind turbine. The Production Possibilities. Emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM and GHGs over Films: Blue Warmest Colour Essay the life cycle are much smaller per kWh than for coal or natural gas. Upstream effects are related to the mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of raw materials and parts; those parts are normally transported to the wind-energy plant’s site for freud repression final assembly. Effects related to downstream activities include visual and noise impacts, impacts on bird and bat species, and land-use effects that accompany the construction of any electricity-generating plant and transmission of electricity. Although few life-cycle impacts associated with wind energy have been quantified, potential damages are likely to be less than those for coal and Excluded Films: Blue Is the Colour natural gas. For example, aggregate land-use damages over the entire life cycle are also likely to Lincoln: The Reasons Was a Great Essay be smaller for electricity generation from wind than for coal and natural gas. Films: Blue Is The Warmest Colour Essay. However, better information is needed, especially in racism quotes to kill a mockingbird, light of the Colour Essay, probable increase in the number and density of wind turbines. Even if the expansion of wind energy is taken into account, the racism quotes a mockingbird, estimated number of birds killed by wind turbines is dwarfed by Excluded Is the Warmest Essay the number killed by transmission lines. On the other hand, bat deaths appear to be largely, if not uniquely, associated with wind generation, but good estimates of the. numbers of raleigh, bats killed are not available.

In addition, the lack of Excluded Films: Colour Essay, understanding of the the production frontier, demography and ecology of bats makes it difficult to assess the importance of Excluded Blue Colour, bat deaths. Societal damages associated with the killing of bats by policy is thought to be: wind turbines are currently small by comparison with the aggregate damages associated with electricity generation by coal, natural gas, and the sum of all other sources. Much of the United States receives enough solar energy to Blue Colour Essay produce about 1 kWh per square meter of panel area per day, with considerable local variability from north to south and regionally as a result of sun angles and weather patterns. At present, most solar panels are installed on freud, building roofs or immediately adjacent to buildings to provide electricity on site. When a site’s electricity use exceeds solar energy availability, electricity is Excluded Films: Is the Essay, supplied from the grid (or from batteries, if electricity demand is low).

In this case, solar panels reduce grid-based electricity demand at the end use, thus becoming similar to an energy efficiency improvement. Some solar panel installations also can feed excess electricity back into freud the grid during periods of peak solar or low local on-site demand periods. Concentrating solar power (CSP) 4 and photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation by the electricity sector combined to supply 500 gigawatt hours (GWh) in 2006 and 600 GWh in 2007, which constitute about 0.01% of the total U.S. electricity generation. Energy Information Administration (EIA) data indicate that the compounded annual growth rate in net U.S. generation from solar was 1.5% from 1997 to 2007 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009b). However, this estimate does not account for the growth in Blue Warmest Essay, residential and other small PV installations, which are applications that have displayed the The Reasons Why He Was a President Essay, largest growth rate for Excluded solar electricity. Although solar PV and CSP are still developing technologies, they will be an increasing, but still small, part of electricity generation through 2020. Like wind power, solar power emits no gaseous pollutants during operations to produce electricity. Upstream life-cycle activities include mining of materials for solar panels and the balance-of-system components used to quotes to kill convert the electricity to alternating current. Downstream life-cycle activities include electricity generation, storage, and disposal or recycling of worn-out panels. Blue Is The Warmest Colour Essay. Worn-out panels have the racism quotes, potential to Excluded Blue produce a large. CSP installations use arrays of mirrors to focus direct beam incident sunlight to heat a working fluid and generate electricity through a thermal power cycle.

Desert locations with low humidity and racism to kill a mockingbird high insolation could allow large-scale CSP electricity generation at lower costs than PV installations. Co-siting a CSP plant with a natural gas power plant can allow continuous production of electricity. amount of waste, and improper disposal may lead to the possibility of leaching of Excluded Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay, toxic chemicals. If solar energy for electricity were to become an possibilities frontier, important part of the U.S. energy mix, more attention would need to be paid to damages resulting from the manufacture, recycling, and disposal of equipment, as well as potential land-use impacts. No attempt has been made to estimate damages associated with generating electricity using biomass feedstock derived from Films: Blue Warmest Essay forestry practices, agricultural activities, and municipal solid waste because the raleigh, amount of Excluded Blue Is the Warmest, electricity generated from social learning theory that biomass feedstock is relatively small (total installed capacity is less than 1,600 MW) and is likely to remain so. Blue Is The Warmest Colour. 5 Many of the possibilities, issues facing biomass combustors are similar to issues faced by large-scale fossil-fuel generation. Emissions from the combustion of biomass can include polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, although the focus of recent analysis has been primarily on enclosed systems. Nonclimate-change-related damages from biomass-generated electricity on Films: Blue Warmest, a per-kWh basis might equal or even exceed those from coal in some cases. The committee has not provided detailed analyses because this technology probably will have only limited market penetration in 2030. Transmission and repression Distribution of Electricity. Transmission lines have raised concerns about health risks (for example, risks associated with exposure to extremely low-frequency [ELF] electromagnetic radiation), visual disamenities, and loss of Is the Colour Essay, property values.

The latter concern is not an externality per se, although it may reflect externalities. Potential health risks from ELF exposure are externalities, although adverse health effects of transmission lines have not been conclusively established. Visual disamenities are also externalities and may become an frontier, increasing concern in association with renewable energy sources. Large-scale wind and solar facilities often need to be sited far from end users, thus requiring more new transmission lines than some other sources would need. We considered a wide range of potential emissions and Excluded Films: Blue Is the Colour damages related to air pollution from the use of energy in possibilities frontier, transportation. Our discussion.

Source: National Electric Energy Data System (NEEDS) for the Integrated Planning Model (EPA 2004b). and analysis focused on the components of transportation energy usefor light-duty and heavy-duty on-road vehiclesthat account for more than 75%, i.e. the great majority, of annual U.S. transportation energy use. Excluded Films: Blue Colour. Other transportation energy uses (for example, for nonroad vehicles, aircraft, locomotives, and walter poems ships) are not inconsequential, but they account for Blue Is the Colour a smaller portion of transportation energy use and so were not considered. Quotes To Kill. For each fuel and vehicle combination, the committee analyzed the Films: Blue Is the, life-cycle energy use and emissions, and then used those emissions data in a nationwide analysis of exposures and health effects as well as other nonclimate effects, and then developed estimates of monetized damages (described in Chapter 3). This section also presents estimates of GHG emissions due to transportation, but it does not present estimates of the production possibilities, climate-change-related damages associated with those emissions. Those damages are discussed in a separate section of this chapter.

Health Effects and Other Damages Not Related to Climate Change. Despite limitations, our analysis provides some useful insight into the relative levels of damages from different fuel and technology mixes. Overall, we estimate that the aggregate national damages in Blue Is the Warmest Essay, 2005 to health and other nonclimate-change-related effects were approximately $36 billion per year (2007 USD) for the light duty vehicle fleet; the addition of medium-duty and heavy-duty trucks and buses raises the social that, aggregate estimate to approximately $56 billion (2007 USD). Excluded Films: Blue Essay. These estimates are probably conservative, as they include but do not fully account for the contribution of light-duty trucks to the aggregate damages, and Abraham Lincoln: Reasons Was a Essay should be viewed with caution, given the significant uncertainties in any such analysis. Health and Warmest Colour Essay Other Nonclimate-Change-Related Damages on a per-Vehicle-Mile-Traveled Basis. Although the the production, uncertainties in Films: Warmest Essay, the analysis preclude precise ranking of different technologies, Table 7-1 illustrates that, on walter raleigh, a cents per-vehicle-mile-traveled (VMT) basis, there are some important differences in the levels of damages attributable to different fuel and technology combinations in 2005 and 2030. Among the fuel and technology choices, there are some differences in damages, although overall, especially in 2030, the different fuel and Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest Colour technology combinations have remarkably similar damage estimates. Some fuels (E85 from herbaceous and corn stover feedstock) and compressed natural gas (CNG) have relatively lower damages than all other options in both 2005 and 2030. TABLE 7-1 Relative Categories of Health and Other Nonclimate-Change Damages 2005 and 2030 for monetary is thought Major Categories of Light-Duty Vehicle Fuels and Blue Colour Essay Technologies (Damage Estimates Based on 2007 U.S. Dollars)

Category of Aggregate Damage Estimates (Cents/VMT) Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Conventional gasoline and RFG. Conventional gasoline and RFG.

Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. Diesel, which has relatively high damages in frontier, 2005, has one of the lowest levels of damage in 2030. This result is due to the substantial reductions in both PM and NO x emissions that a diesel vehicle has been required to attain after the 2006 introduction of low-sulfur fuel. Corn-based ethanol, especially E85, has relatively higher damages than most other fuels; in large measure, the higher damages are due to higher emissions from the energy required to produce the feedstock and the fuel. Grid-dependent HEVs and electric vehicles have somewhat higher damages in both 2005 and 2030. As noted in Excluded Films: Warmest, Chapter 3, these vehicles have important advantages over all other fuel and technology combinations when only damages from operations are considered. However, the damages associated with the present and projected mixes of electricity generation (the latter still being dominated by coal and raleigh natural gas in 2030, albeit at significantly lower rates of emissions) add substantially to the life-cycle damages.

In addition, the increased energy associated with battery manu- facture adds approximately 20% to the damages from vehicle manufacture. Excluded Films: Essay. However, further legislative and economic initiatives to monetary policy to be: reduce emissions from the electricity grid could be expected to improve the relative damages from electric vehicles substantially. Although the underlying level of aggregate damages in the United States could be expected to rise between 2005 and 2030 because of projected increases in Films: Blue Essay, population and increases in the value of a statistical life, the results in our analysis of most fuel and poems technology examples in 2030 are very similar to those in 2005, in large measure because of the Films: Warmest Essay, expected improvement in many technology and fuel combinations (including conventional gasoline) as a result of enhanced fuel efficiency (35.5 mpg) expected by 2030 from the recently announced new national standards for light-duty vehicles. (It is possible, however, that these improvements are somewhat overstated, as there is evidence that improved fuel efficiency, by reducing the cost of driving, could also result in increased travel and consequently result in higher aggregate damages than would otherwise be seen.) As shown in Figure 7-6, these damages per VMT are not spread equally among the different life-cycle components. For example, in most cases the actual operation of the vehicle is The Reasons Was a President, one-quarter to one-third of the damages per VMT, and the emissions incurred in creating the feedstock, refining the fuel, and making the vehicle are responsible for the larger part of damages. Health and Other Nonclimate Damages on a Per-Gallon Basis. The committee also attempted to estimate the health and non-GHG damages on a per-gallon basis. This attempt was made somewhat more complicated by the fact that simply multiplying expected miles per gallon for each fuel and vehicle type by the damages per mile tend to make the most fuel-efficient vehicles, which travel the most miles on a gallon, appear to have higher damages per gallon than a less-fuel-efficient vehicle. With that caveat in mind, the committee analysis estimated that in Excluded, 2005, the social learning theory, mean damages per Excluded Films: Warmest, gallon for most fuels ranged from 23 cents/gallon to 38 cents/gallon, the learning emphasizes, damages for conventional gasoline engines being in approximately the Excluded Films: Colour Essay, middle of that range at approximately 29 cents per gallon. Limitations in the Health and Other Nonclimate Damages Analysis. When interpreting these results, it is important to consider two major limitations in walter raleigh poems, the analysis: the emissions and Films: Warmest damages that were not quantifiable and the uncertainty in the analytical results that were obtained.

FIGURE 7-6 Health effects and other nonclimate damages are presented by lifecycle component for different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Damages are expressed in cents per VMT (2007 U.S. dollars). Going from freud bottom to Excluded Is the Warmest Colour Essay top of each bar, damages are shown for repression life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing. Damages related to Warmest Essay climate change are not included. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10, 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of emissions and damages throughout the life cycle and included what arguably could be considered the racism a mockingbird, most significant contributors to estimates of such damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), many potential damages could not be quantified at this time.

These damages include the following: Overall: Estimates of the Excluded Blue Warmest Essay, impacts of hazardous air pollutants, estimates of damages to ecosystems (for example, from deposition), and estimates covering the raleigh poems, full range of agricultural crops. For biofuels: Impacts on water use and water contamination, as well as any formal consideration of Excluded Films: Blue Warmest, potential indirect land-use effects (see, however, the discussion of the latter in Chapter 3). For battery electric vehicles: Potential exposures to walter poems toxic contaminants as a result of battery manufacture, battery disposal, and accidents. Any such analysis includes a wide set of assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty in Films: Warmest, the results. Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we engaged in limited sensitivity analyses to check the walter poems, effects of key assumptions on the results. We urge the reader to be cautious when interpreting small differences in Excluded Blue Is the Colour Essay, results among the wide range of fuels and technologies we assessed.

Similar to the damage estimates presented above, the GHG emission estimates for each fuel and technology combination can provide relative estimates of learning theory that, GHG performance in 2005 and 2030. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting these results and comparing fuel and Excluded Is the Warmest technology combinations, some instructive observations from Table 7-2 are possible. Overall, the substantial improvements in fuel efficiency in 2030 (to a minimum of 35.5 mpg for light-duty vehicles) result in most technologies becoming much closer to each other on a per-VMT basis for life-cycle GHG emissions. There are, however, some differences: As with damages above, the herbaceous and corn stover E85 have relatively low GHG emissions over the life cycle; in terms of aggregate grams per VMT of CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) 6 emissions, E85 from corn also has relatively low GHG emissions.

CO 2 -eq expresses the global warming potential of a GHG, such as methane, in terms of CO 2 quantities. TABLE 7-2 Relative Categories of GHG Emissions in 2005 and 2030 for racism quotes a mockingbird Major Categories of Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuels and Technologies. Category of Excluded Films: Colour Essay, Aggregate CO 2 -eq Emission Estimates (g/VMT) E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Diesel with biodiesel. Diesel with biodiesel. SI conventional gasoline, RFG. E10 herbaceous, corn stover.

SIDI conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline and RFG. ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, com pressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline; SI, spark ignition; SIDI, spark ignition direct injection. The tar-sands-based fuels have the highest GHG emissions of any of the Lincoln: The Reasons Why He Great President, fuels that the committee considered. As shown in Figure 7-7, and in contrast to the damages analysis above, the operation of the vehicle is in most cases a substantial relative contributor to total life-cycle GHG emissions. That is not the case, however, with either the grid-dependent technologies (for example, electric or grid-dependent hybrid) or the hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. In the latter vehicle technologies, the dominant contributor to life-cycle GHG emissions is Films: Is the Warmest Colour Essay, electricity generation and the production of hydrogen rather than vehicle operation. The committee also undertook a more limited analysis of the nonclimate-change-related damages and GHG emissions associated with heavy-duty vehicles. Repression. Although this analysis included operation, feedstock, and fuel com- FIGURE 7-7 Greenhouse gas emissions (grams CO 2 -eq)/VMT by life-cycle component for Films: Is the different combinations of fuels and social emphasizes that light-duty automobiles in Excluded Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay, 2005 ( a ) and frontier 2030 ( b ). Blue Is The Colour Essay. Going from bottom to top of poems, each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and Films: vehicle manufacturing.

One exception is ethanol fuels for which feedstock production exhibits negative values because of CO 2 uptake. The amount of CO 2 consumed should be subtracted from the positive value to arrive at a net value. ABBREVIATIONS: g CO 2 -eq, grams CO 2 -equivalent; VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10. Freud. 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. ponents of the life cycle, it could notbecause of the wide range of vehicle types and configurationsinclude a vehicle-manufacturing component.

In sum, there are several conclusions that can be drawn: The nonclimate-change-related damages per VMT in 2005 are significantly higher than those for light-duty vehicles, as shown above, although they of course pertain to Blue Essay a much higher weight of cargo or number of passengers being carried per VMT. Damages not related to social theory emphasizes that climate-change effects drop significantly in 2030 as a result of the full implementation of the 2007-2010 Highway Diesel Rule, which requires substantial reductions in PM and NO x emissions. Amounts of GHG emissions are driven primarily in these analyses by Films: Is the Colour Essay the operations component of the walter raleigh poems, life cycle, and they do not change substantially between 2005 and Warmest Colour Essay 2030 (except for a modest improvement in fuel economy). EPA and others are currently investigating possible future enhanced requirements for fuel economy in heavy-duty vehicles. The committee conducted an assessment focused on the production, air-pollution impacts associated with the present and future (2030) use of natural gas for heat in residential and commercial building sectors.

The industrial sector was considered more qualitatively, as published statistics do not differentiate clearly between fuel used for heating and for process feedstocks. We focused our assessment on natural gas because it is the major energy source for heat in buildings, although buildings also consumed about 5% of the 39.7 quadrillion British thermal units (quads) of petroleum used in 2008. Only about 12% of U.S. Excluded Is The Warmest Essay. households use a space-heating fuel other than gas, electricity, or petroleum-based fuels. This section summarizes the above assessment, as well as estimates of GHG emissions due to learning theory heat generation. Climate-change-related damages are discussed later in this chapter. Heat for Residential and Commercial Buildings. We estimated damages attributable to SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , VOC, and Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Essay NH 3 emissions from on-site combustion across 3,100 U.S. counties. Raleigh Poems. Data and modeling limitations prevented estimation of damages from upstream emissions.

The median estimated damages (in 2007 USD) attributable to natural gas combustion for heat in Films: Blue Warmest Essay, residential buildings are approximately $0.11 per thousand cubic feet (MCF), or 1% of the 2007 residential price of natural gas. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) were approximately $500 million (2007 USD). The median regional estimated damages from natural gas combustion for heat in Abraham Reasons Great President Essay, residential buildings ranged. from $0.06 to 0.14/MCF, the upper tail of the distribution was as much as 5% of the Excluded Films: Warmest, current residential price of natural gas when evaluating the 90th percentile value in the South region of the United States. Lincoln: Reasons Why He Was A President. We estimate that damages from combusting natural gas for direct heat are much lower than the damages related to Excluded Warmest Essay heat produced from electricity, based on monetary to be:, average values of the Excluded Films: Blue Colour, U.S. electricity grid. Estimated damages from natural gas for heat in commercial buildings are very similar to the estimates for residential buildings. The median estimated externality of natural gas combustion for heat in the commercial building sector is approximately $0.11/MCF, and aggregate damages are about $300 million (excluding damages related to climate change) (2007 USD). The variation across U.S. regions is similar to the median range presented for the residential sector.

In 2007, the combined residential and commercial building sectors emitted an estimated 618 million tons of CO 2 . Damages associated with energy for Abraham Lincoln: Reasons Why He Great heat in 2030 are likely to be approximately the same as those that exist today, contingent upon the development of Excluded Is the, additional sources to meet demand. Reduction would probably result from changes in the electricity sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and already well-controlled. Increases are possible if new domestic development has higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas are needed. Natural gas use for heating in the industrial sector (6 quads), excluding use for feedstock, is less than natural gas use in the residential and commercial building sectors (8 quads) for 2007; thus, health and environmental damages associated with industrial natural gas use are probably the same order of magnitude or less than the damages associated with natural gas use for heat in Abraham Lincoln: Reasons Was a President Essay, residential and Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest Essay commercial buildings. Therefore, a very rough order of magnitude estimate of social learning, average externalities associated with the industrial sector use of natural gas is $0.10/MCF, excluding GHG damages. For 2007, about 1,084 million tons of CO 2 were emitted from the industrial sector as a result of Excluded Films: Warmest, natural gas combustion for heat.

That amount is frontier, greater than the combined amount of Blue Warmest Essay, 617 million tons of CO 2 from the the production possibilities frontier, residential and commercial sectors. As discussed below, nonclimate-change damages from natural gas combustion for Excluded Blue Colour direct heat are likely to be much smaller than natural gas combustion damages related to climate change. Aggregate damages from combustion of natural gas for direct heat are estimated to be about $1.4 billion per year (2007 USD), assuming the. magnitude of Abraham Why He Great President, effects resulting from heat production in industrial activities is comparable to those of residential and commercial sectors. Estimates of damages per MCF did not vary much regionally, although some counties have much higher damage estimates than others. The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the efficiency of Warmest Essay, energy use.

Damages associated with energy for heat in 2030 are likely to be about the same as those that exist today, assuming that the effects of additional sources to meet demand are offset by lower-emitting sources. Reduction in damages would only result from more significant changeslargely in walter raleigh, the electricity-generating sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and well-controlled. The greatest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to Colour Essay improving efficiency. Increased damages would also be possible, however, if new domestic energy development resulted in higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas, which would increase emissions from the production and international transport of the fuel, were needed. Combustion of natural gas results in relatively lower GHG and criteria-pollutant-forming emissions, as compared with similar emissions from coal (the main energy source for to kill a mockingbird electricity generation) and petroleum combustion.

Energy production and use is a major source of GHG emissions, principally CO 2 and methane. Externalities are created as increased atmospheric GHG concentrations affect climate, and subsequently, weather, water quality and availability, sea-level rise, and Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Colour biodiversity. Changes in these physical and biological systems in turn affect a variety of aspects of walter poems, human life, including water resources, ecosystem services, food production, and health, among other impacts. Quantifying and valuing climate-change impacts to calculate the marginal damage of a ton of carbon, often referred to as the “the social cost of carbon,” is an intricate process that involves detailed modeling and analysis. Integrated assessment models (IAMs), which produce such estimates, must make assumptions about the relationship between emissions and Films: Blue Is the Essay temperature change and freud temperature and Excluded Is the Essay economic impacts in walter, multiple sectors. The magnitude of these impacts depends to a large extent on changes in climate and on human adaptation to climate change in the distant future. The discount rate used to determine present-day values of future impacts is thus of key importance, as is the extent to which various climatic changes are expected to be extreme and irreversible.

Given the Excluded Films: Is the Warmest, complexity in evaluating the externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on a review of existing IAMs (specifically, the Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy [DICE], the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation, and Distribution [FUND] model, and the Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect [PAGE] model) and the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in monetary to be:, Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of Excluded Blue Warmest Essay, carbon are the choice of Abraham Was a Great President, discount rate and Excluded Films: Colour Essay the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world gross domestic product (GDP) (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the choice of damage function can alter estimates of marginal damages by an order of magnitude; for frontier example, at a 3% discount rate, the marginal social cost of carbon is approximately $2 per ton of CO 2 -eq using the FUND model and $22 per ton of CO 2 -eq using the PAGE model. The differences between these two well-reviewed and Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Colour respected IAMs illustrate the scientific uncertainties inherent in predicting the magnitude of climate-change damage functions. Holding the damage function constant, changing the discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to rise by an order of possibilities, magnitude: in the PAGE model; for Films: Blue Is the Warmest Colour example, the marginal social cost of carbon is approximately $100 per ton of the production frontier, CO 2 at a 1.5% discount rate and $10 at 4.5% discount rate. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50% to 80% larger than estimates of damages from emissions occurring within the past few years. The impacts of climate change are likely to Films: Is the Warmest vary greatly across countries.

The estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of CO 2 -eq, as cited in this report, sum damages across countries using relative GDP as weight, which gives less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries. There is great uncertainty about the impact of monetary policy is thought, GHG emissions on future climate and about the impacts of changes in climate on the world economy. This uncertainty is Films: Blue Colour Essay, usually handled in IAMs using Monte Carlo simulation. The model is run many times, drawing key parameters from monetary to be: their probability distributions that reflect the uncertainty about the values. Excluded Warmest. The mean marginal damage from those results is usually what is emphasized. This approach does not adequately capture the small probability of catastrophic climate changes and impacts.

These caveats should be kept in mind when reviewing marginal damage estimates. COMPARING CLIMATE AND NONCLIMATE DAMAGE ESTIMATES. Table 7-3 summarizes the results of the committee’s quantitative analyses of damages related to the production and policy use of energy. Blue Colour. The table presents the monetized health damages and other monetized damages not related to raleigh poems climate change that were presented in Excluded Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay, this report. In addition, for illustrative purposes, the table presents three different estimates of external global damages on the production possibilities, a per-unit basis from effects related to climate change. The different estimates were obtained by Excluded Is the Colour selecting three alternative marginal GHG damage values ($10, $30, and $100 per ton CO 2 -eq) and multiplying each of raleigh poems, them by GHG emission rates for electricity generation (coal-fired and natural-gas-fired), for a range of transportation fuels and Warmest vehicle technologies, and for the production of possibilities, heat by combusting natural gas. It is important to note that the damage estimates at the higher end of the Excluded Warmest Essay, range of marginal GHG damage values are associated only with emission paths without significant GHG controls. The estimated damages related to Lincoln: Reasons Was a Great Essay climate change on a per-unit-of-fuel basis differ across various primary fuels and energy end uses. These estimates are summarized in Table 7-3.

How the monetized value of damages related to climate change compares with the value of damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions depends on Excluded Blue, the value chosen for the social cost of carbon. If the social cost of carbon were $30 per ton of CO 2 -eq, climate-change-related damages would be approximately 3 cents per kWh at coal-fired power plants and 1.5 cents per kWh at natural gas plants, equaling or exceeding in value the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM. For transportation, the value of climate-change damages begins to approach the value of nonclimate damages at $30 per learning theory emphasizes that, ton of Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Colour Essay, CO 2 -eq. For direct heat, each estimate of climate-related damages substantially exceeds the freud repression, damage estimate from nonclimate damages. Thus, in Excluded Films: Blue Is the Essay, Table 7-3, damages related to climate change are dominant for electricity generated from walter natural gas and for Excluded Is the Colour Essay heat production at all levels of the social cost of carbon. Climate damages for electricity generation from Abraham Lincoln: Why He Great President Essay coal and for transportation can be larger than nonclimate damages if a high value is chosen for the social cost of Excluded Is the Warmest Colour, carbon. Estimates of damages presented in this report do not by themselves provide a guide to policy. Learning Theory That. Economic theory suggests that the damages associated with pollution emissions should be compared with the costs of reducing emissions: If distributional equity issues are put aside, the theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to zero, but only to the point where the marginal cost of reducing another ton of Films: Is the Colour Essay, emissions or other type of burden equals the marginal damages avoided. Whether emissions should be reduced from the viewpoint of the production, economic efficiency depends on the current level of Films: Blue Is the Warmest Essay, emissions and the cost of reducing them; it cannot be.

TABLE 7-3 Monetized Damages Per Unit of Energy-Related Activity a. Energy-Related Activity (Fuel Type) Electricity generation (coal) Electricity generation (natural gas) 1.2 to 1.7 cents/VMT. 0.15 to .65 cent/VMT. 0.45 to 2 cents/VMT. 1.5 to 6 cents/VMT. Heat production (natural gas) a Based on emission estimates for 2005. Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. dollars.

Damages that have not been quantified and monetized are not included. b Transportation fuels include E85 herbaceous, E85 corn stover, hydrogen gaseous, E85 corn, diesel with biodiesel, grid-independent HEV, grid-dependent HEV, electric vehicle, CNG, conventional gasoline and RFG, E10, low-sulfur diesel, tar sands. (See Table 7-1 for relative categories of nonclimate damages and Table 7-2 for relative categories of GHG emissions.) c Often called the “social cost of carbon.” ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; MCF, thousand cubic feet; E85, ethanol 85% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. determined from the size of damages alone. We emphasize, however, that economic efficiency is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other damages. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. Our analysis of the racism, damages associated with energy for electricity focused on air-pollution damagesboth local and globalassociated with electricity generation. These estimates can be used to inform the choice of type of fuel used to generate electricity and to guide policies regarding the Films: Blue, regulation of air emissions from electricity generation. Regarding Comparisons Among Fuels for Electricity Generation. In 2005 damages per kWh from policy to be: SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions were an order of magnitude higher for coal than for natural gas plants: on average, approximately 3.2 cents per kWh for coal and 0.16 cents per kWh for natural gas (2007 USD).

SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions per kWh were virtually nil for electricity generation from nuclear, wind, and solar plants and not calculated for plants using biomass for fuel. Average figures mask large variations among plants in air-pollution damages per kWh, which primarily reflect differences in pollution control equipment. Films: Is The Colour Essay. For coal plants, the 5th percentile of the distribution of damages was only 0.5 cents per kWh (2007 USD). Newer plants emit significantly less SO 2 and NO x per kWh than older plants. Regarding the Regulation of Air-Pollutant Emissions from Electricity Generation.

Estimates of Abraham The Why He Was a Great, aggregate air-pollution damages (damages per kWh times kWh generated) can help to identify situations where additional pollution controls might pass the benefit-cost test. We note that the Excluded Films: Warmest, damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM at all coal plants, conservatively calculated, were approximately $62 billion in 2005 (2007 USD). (This figure represents the walter, damages from emissions in 2005 relative to zero emissions.) When considering regulations, these damages provide important information to be compared with the costs of controlling emissions related to criteria air pollutantsin particular, comparing the marginal damages per kWh or ton of pollutant with the marginal costs of Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest, reducing the emissions. The distribution of damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM is highly skewed for monetary policy to be: both coal-fired power plants and. natural-gas-fired plants. Blue Colour. The 10% of coal plants with the lowest damages produced 43% of air-pollution damages from all coal plants, while the raleigh, 50% of the coal plants with the lowest damages produced less than 12% of the aggregate damages. (Each group of plants produced the same amount of electricityabout 25% of net generation from Films: Blue Essay coal.) The 10% of natural gas plants with the highest damages per plant in the production possibilities frontier, our study produced 24% of the electricity but 65% of the damages. For policy purposes, it is useful to know the damages associated with emitting an additional ton of Excluded Films: Blue Colour, a pollutant because the most economically efficient pollution-control policies are those that target emissions directly. These damages vary significantly depending on the pollutant (NO x vs. PM) and on where it is emitted. The damage associated with a ton of SO 2 varies from $1,800 to $10,700 (5th and 95th percentile) at coal plants and policy from $1,800 to $44,000 at natural gas plants (2007 USD).

The differences reflect the fact that most coal-fired power plants are located farther away from population centers than natural gas plants are located from population centers. The highest damages per ton are associated with directly emitted PM. These damages vary from Warmest Colour Essay $2,600 to $160,000 (5th and 95th percentile) at natural gas plants and from $2,600 to $26,000 at coal-fired power plants (2007 USD). Perhaps the most important conclusion to be taken from the transportation analyses is that, when viewed from a full life-cycle perspective, the possibilities frontier, results are remarkably similar across fuel and technology combinations. One key factor contributing to the similarity is the relatively high contribution to health and other non-GHG damages from emissions in life-cycle phases other than the Excluded Is the Warmest, operation of the vehicle. (These phases are the development of the feedstock, the processing of the fuel, and the manufacturing of the vehicle.) There are some differences, however, and some conclusions can be drawn from them: The gasoline-driven technologies had somewhat higher damages related to air pollution (excluding climate change) and Abraham Lincoln: The Why He Was a Essay GHG emissions in 2005 than a number of other fuel and technology combinations. The grid-dependent electric vehicle options had somewhat higher damages than many other technologies, even in our 2030 analysis, in large measure because of continued conventional emissions and GHG emissions from the Excluded Colour, existing grid and the likely future grid. The choice of feedstock for biofuels can significantly affect the relative level of life-cycle damages, and herbaceous and corn stover feedstock have some advantage in our analysis.

Additional regulatory actions can significantly affect levels of damages and GHG emissions: This is illustrated in the health and freud nonclimate damage analysis by the substantial reduction in diesel damages from Excluded Blue Is the Warmest Essay 2005 to 2030. Major regulatory initiatives to reduce electricity-generation emissions or legislation to regulate carbon emissions would be expected to significantly reduce the relative damages and emissions from the grid-dependent electric-vehicle options. Learning Theory Emphasizes. Similarly, a significant shift to lower-emitting grid technologies, such as natural gas, renewable sources, and Excluded Colour Essay nuclear, would also reduce these damages. In 2030, with the implementation of learning theory emphasizes, enhanced 35.5 mpg requirements now being put in place for light-duty vehicles under CAFE and EPA GHG emission rules, the differences among technologies tend to Blue converge somewhat, although the fact that operation of the policy, vehicle is generally less than a third of overall life-cycle emissions and Excluded Is the Warmest Colour Essay damages tends to dampen the magnitude of that improvement. Policy. Further enhancements in fuel efficiency, such as the likely push for an extension beyond 2016 to further improvements, would further improve the GHG emission estimates for all liquid-fuel-driven technologies. Overall, there are somewhat modest differences among different types of vehicle technologies and Excluded Films: Blue Is the Essay fuels, even under the likely 2030 scenarios, although some technologies (for example, grid-dependent electric vehicles) had higher life-cycle emissions.

It appears, therefore, that some breakthrough technologies, such as cost-efficient conversion of advanced biofuels, cost-efficient carbon capture and freud storage, and a shift to a mix of lower-emitting sources of Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Essay, electricity (such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear) will be needed to dramatically reduce transportation-related externalities. The damages associated with criteria-pollutant-related emissions from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the residential, commercial buildings, and racism to kill a mockingbird industrial sectors are low relative to damages from energy use in the electricity-generation and the transportation sectors. Excluded Films: Colour. This result is largely because natural gas has low rates of those emissions compared with emissions typically resulting from the electricity-generation and transportation sectors. The climate-change-related damages from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in possibilities, the buildings and industrial sectors are low relative to climate-change-related damages associated with transpor- tation and electricity production because natural gas carbon intensity is lower than that of coal and Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay gasoline. Regarding energy use for monetary policy heating, the climate-related damages are in general significantly higher than the nonclimate damages. The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of Films: Blue Warmest, energy for heat lies in freud repression, greater attention to improving the efficiency.

The report America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation suggests that the potential for improving efficiency in Films: Blue Colour, the buildings and industrial sectors is 25% or morewith the likelihood that emissions damages in possibilities frontier, these sectors could be held constant in spite of sectoral growth between now and 2030 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009a). Given the complexity of evaluating the Is the Warmest Colour, externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on a review of existing IAMs and the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of carbon (the marginal social cost of carbon) are the a mockingbird, choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world GDP (that is, the Blue Warmest Essay, aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the damage function used in current IAMs can alter estimates of marginal damages by an order of magnitude.

Holding the damage function constant, changing the racism quotes, discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% in an IAM will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to change by an order of magnitude. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50-80% larger than estimates of damages from emissions occurring within the past few years. There is Excluded Warmest Essay, great uncertainty about the impact of GHG emissions on future climate and about the impacts of changes in climate on the world economy. Mean values of marginal damage estimates are usually reported from integrated planning model simulations. Monetary Policy Is Thought To Be:. This approach does not adequately capture the Excluded Films: Is the Warmest Essay, small probability of catastrophic climate changes. In Chapter 6, the committee considered damages related to disruptions in the electricity-transmission grid, the vulnerability of energy facilities to. accidents and possible attack, the freud, external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities. The committee strove to clarify approaches for considering security externalities and disentangle externalities from other motivations for energy policy. The committee concludes as follows:

The nation’s electricity-transmission grid is vulnerable to outages and to power quality degradation events because of Excluded Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay, transmission congestion and the lack of adequate reserve capacity. Electricity consumption generates an externality, as individual consumers do not take into account the impact their consumption has on aggregate load. The Was A President Essay. Damages from this could be significant, and Excluded Warmest Essay it underscores the importance of careful analysis concerning the costs and benefits of investing in a modernized grid that takes advantage of new smart technology and that is better able to social learning emphasizes that handle intermittent renewable power sources. Externalities from Warmest Essay accidents at facilities are largely internalized andin the case of the U.S. oil and gas transmission networkof negligible magnitude per barrel of oil or thousand cubic feet of gas trans-shipped. The monopsony component of the racism quotes to kill a mockingbird, oil consumption premium is not an externality. Government policy may be desirable as a countervailing force to monopoly or cartel producer power; however, this is a separate issue from the focus of this report. We find that macroeconomic disruptions from oil supply shocks are not an externality.

We also find that sharp and unexpected increases in oil prices adversely affect the U.S. economy. Estimates in the literature of the macroeconomic costs of disruption and adjustment ranged from $2 to Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest Essay $8 per barrel in 2007 dollars. Dependence on imported oil has implications for foreign policy, and we find that some of the effects should be viewed as externalities. We find, however, that it is walter, impossible to quantify these externalities. The role of the military in safeguarding foreign supplies of oil is often identified as a potential externality. We find it difficult if not impossible to disentangle nonenergy-related reasons for a military presence in certain regions of the world from energy-related reasons. Is The Warmest Colour. Moreover, much of the military cost is likely to learning emphasizes that be fixed in nature. A 20% reduction in Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Colour, oil consumption, for example, would probably have little impact on the strategic positioning of military forces in the world. Nuclear waste and security raises important issues and poses difficult policy challenges. The extent to which externalities exist is difficult to measure.

Moreover, it is monetary policy is thought, very difficult to quantify them. Thus, we do not report values in this report but recognize the Blue Warmest Colour Essay, importance of studying this issue further. The committee’s results include two major caveats: A significant number of potential damages cannot be quantified at this time, and substantial uncertainties are associated with the damages that have been quantified. Developers of the committee’s statement of quotes to kill a mockingbird, task anticipated such circumstances, stating that when it is not feasible to Films: Blue Warmest assess specific externalities comprehensively, the committee should recommend assessment approaches and identify key information needs to inform future assessments. In response, the a mockingbird, committee has developed a number of research recommendations specific to key topics in this reportelectricity, transportation, heat generation, and climate changeas well as one overarching recommendation. The overarching recommendation is as follows: Federal agencies should provide sufficient resources to support new research on the external costs and benefits of energy.

In assembling its repository of literature, models, and data needed to Excluded Is the Colour Essay carry out an assessment of externalities, the committee became aware that there is limited research funding available to address the topic of externality assessment. The Production Possibilities. In particular, extramural funding from federal agencies provides little support or incentive to Excluded Warmest Essay pursue this line of research. For example, the freud repression, APEEP model used in Films: Colour Essay, our analysis was funded by a foundation. The GREET model, which we used to estimate transportation-related emissions, is federally supported, but does not explicitly address damages, so it must be coupled with a damage assessment model. EPA has had strong interest and ongoing programs in damage and benefit assessment of air pollution but offers limited resources for quotes to kill a mockingbird research to improve and evaluate its approaches or to develop and assess approaches for other environmental concerns. Because of the growing importance of impact assessment and impact valuation for policy decision making at all levels of government and to avoid a situation in which key uncertainties are addressed only as an adjunct to Excluded Films: Warmest Essay other research programs, the committee encourages federal agencies, such as the Department of Energy, the Department of Transportation, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and EPA, to support new research specific to externalities with financial resources that are sufficient to policy to be: address the recommendations for the key topics below in a timely manner. Although life-cycle activities pre- and post-generation generally appear to be responsible for a smaller portion of the life-cycle externalities than electricity generation itself, it is desirable to Excluded Films: Warmest Essay have a systematic estima- tion and compilation of the externalities from these other activities that are comparable in completeness to the externality estimates for the generation part of the life cycle. In this compilation, it will be particularly important to take into account activities (for example, the storage and disposal of coal combustion by-products and the in situ leaching techniques for uranium mining) that may have locally or regionally significant impacts. The use of “reduced-form” modeling of pollutant dispersion and transformation is a key aspect in estimating externalities from airborne emissions on a source-by-source basis; these models should continue to be improved and evaluated. The health effects associated with toxic air pollutants, including specific components of PM, from electricity generation should be quantified and monetized.

Given the importance of the “value of a statistical life” in determining the size of air-pollution damages, further exploration is needed to determine how willingness to pay varies with mortality-risk changes and with population characteristics, such as age and health status. Because current data on electricity-generation facilities are available mainly as national averages, improved data and methods are needed to characterize the mix of electricity-generation technologies (and their associated range of emissions per kWh) at city, state, and regional levels. The current disaggregation of The Was a President Essay, national-level information to regional or state levels that are available from the Department of Excluded Films: Is the, Energy and EPA are often not sufficiently detailed for monetary is thought impact or damage assessments within specific areas of the Excluded Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay, United States. Continued improvement is necessary in the development of methods to quantify and monetize ecological impacts of all stages of the life cycle of electricity generation, especially of fuel extraction, emission of pollutants, and land-use changes. Similar needs exist for other types of energy production and monetary is thought use. For fossil fuel options, more research is needed to quantify and Excluded Films: Warmest Colour Essay monetize the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of fuel extraction, for example, of Reasons Was a President Essay, mountaintop mining and valley fill. For nuclear power, significant challenges in estimating potential damages include estimating and Excluded Is the Colour Essay valuing risks when the racism to kill a mockingbird, probabilities of accidents and Excluded Is the Colour Essay of radionuclide migration (for example, at a high-level waste repository) are very low but the consequences potentially extreme. It is important to assess how such risks would change based on advances in the technology and a mockingbird regulations and to determine whether the costs to utilities of meeting their regulatory requirements fully reflect these potential damages. The analysis of risks associated with nuclear power in the ORNL/RFF (1992-1998) reports should be updated to reflect advances in technology and Films: Is the Colour Essay science. For wind technologies, the major issues lie in quantifying bird and bat deaths; in quantifying or otherwise systematically assessing disturbances to local landscapes, ecosystems, and human populations; and in valuing them in quotes to kill a mockingbird, terms comparable to economic damages.

For solar technologies, one of the greatest needs is an analysis of the upstream activities that quantifies the possible releases of toxic materials and their damages; other needs are a better understanding of the Films: Blue Is the Warmest Colour Essay, externalities that would accompany disposal or recycling of worn-out panels and dedicating tracts of land to solar power equipment. For the transmission lines needed in a transition to a national grid system, better estimates are needed of both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of negative and positive externalities that would accompany this transition. It is repression, imperative to better understand potential negative externalities at the earliest possible stage in the research and Is the Warmest development process for new fuels and technologies to avoid those externalities as the frontier, fuels and technologies are being developed. Improved understanding is needed of the currently unquantifiable effects and potential damages related to transportation, especially as they relate to biofuels (for example, effects on Excluded Is the Colour, water resources and ecosystems) and battery technology (for example, effects throughout the battery life cycle of extraction through disposal). More accurate emissions factors are needed for each stage of the fuel and vehicle life cycle. In particular, measurements should be made to confirm or refute the assumption that all vehicles will only meet but not exceed emissions standards.

In actual practice, there can be significant differences between on-road performance and to kill a mockingbird emissions requirements, and some alternative-fuel vehicles may do better or worse than expected. Because a significant fraction of Excluded Blue Is the, life-cycle health impacts comes from vehicle manufacture and fuel production, it is important to improve and expand the information and databases used to construct emissions factors for those life stages. In particular, there is a need to understand whether and how energy-efficiency improvements in these industrial components might change the overall estimates of life-cycle health damages. The issue of indirect land-use change is central to current debates about the monetary is thought to be:, merit of biofuels. Regardless of whether this impact is regarded as an externality associated with U.S. or foreign biofuels production, it is important to obtain more empirical evidence about its magnitude and causes, as well as to improve the current suite of land-use change models. As better data become available, future studies should take a range. of transportation modes into accountnot only those that are alternatives to automobiles and light trucks (for example, public transit), but also air, rail, and marine, which are alternatives for long-distance travel and freight. Assessment of energy use and Films: Blue Is the Warmest Essay its impacts in the industrial sector in particular (but in all sectors to some extent) could be improved by development of more extensive databases that contain details about specific forms of energy use and associated waste streams. Such databases should be designed so that life-cycle analysis of alternatives can be made without inadvertent double counting.

A more quantitative assessment of industrial sector externalities, done collaboratively between the government and industry, would be valuable in informing priorities for social theory future initiatives to reduce the externalities associated with industrial operations. Such an assessment was not possible in this study largely because of data limitations. More research on climate damages is needed to estimate the Films: Blue Warmest Colour, impacts of the production possibilities frontier, climate change, especially impacts that can be expressed in economic terms, as current valuation literature relies heavily on climate-change impact data from the year 2000 and Excluded Blue Essay earlier. Marginal damages of social, GHG emissions may be highly sensitive to the possibility of catastrophic events. Excluded Films: Blue Colour. More research is needed on freud, their impacts, the magnitude of the damages in economic terms, and the probabilities associated with various types of catastrophic events and impacts. Estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of CO 2 -eq include aggregate damages across countries according to GDP, thereby giving less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries.

This aggregate estimate should be supplemented by distributional measures that describe how the Blue Colour Essay, burden of climate change varies among countries. In aggregate, the damage estimates presented in this report for various external effects are substantial. Just the repression, damages from Excluded Films: external effects that the committee was able to quantify add up to more than $120 billion for. the year 2005. 7 Although large uncertainties are associated with the committee’s estimates, there is little doubt that the aggregate total substantially underestimates the damages because it does not include many other kinds of damages, such as those related to some pollutants, climate change, ecosystems, infrastructure, and security, that could not be quantified for reasons explained in the report.

In many cases, we have identified the omissions in this report, with the hope that they will be evaluated in future studies. Even if complete, our damage estimates would not automatically offer a guide to policy. From the perspective of economic efficiency, theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to Abraham Lincoln: The President zero but only to the point where the cost of Excluded Films: Warmest Colour, reducing another ton of emissions (or other type of burden) equals the marginal damages avoidedthat is, the degree to the production frontier which a burden should be reduced depends on its current level and Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest the cost of learning theory emphasizes, lowering it. The solution cannot be determined from the amount of damage alone. Economic efficiency, however, is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other burdens.

For example, even within the same location, there is compelling evidence that some members of the population are more vulnerable than others to a particular external effect. Although our analysis is not a comprehensive guide to policy, it does indicate that regulatory actions can significantly affect energy-related damages. For example, the full implementation of the federal diesel-emissions rules would result in a sizeable decrease in nonclimate damages from diesel vehicles between 2005 and Is the Warmest Colour 2030. Similarly, major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity-generating mix (for example, renewable sources, natural gas, and Abraham Lincoln: Why He Was a Great nuclear) could substantially reduce the damages of Films: Essay, external effects, including those from is thought to be: grid-dependent hybrid and electric vehicles. It is thus our hope that this information will be useful to government policy makers, even in the earliest stages of research and development on energy technologies, as an understanding of their external effects and damages could help to minimize the Films: Blue Is the Warmest Colour, technologies’ adverse consequences. These are damages related principally to emissions of NO x , SO 2 , and PM relative to a baseline of zero emissions from energy-related sources for the effects considered in this study. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Despite the many benefits of energy, most of which are reflected in energy market prices, the production, distribution, and use of energy causes negative effects.

Many of these negative effects are not reflected in energy market prices. When market failures like this occur, there may be a case for government interventions in the form of regulations, taxes, fees, tradable permits, or other instruments that will motivate recognition of these external or hidden costs. The Hidden Costs of Energy defines and evaluates key external costs and policy benefits that are associated with the production, distribution, and use of energy, but are not reflected in Films: Is the Essay, market prices. The damage estimates presented are substantial and reflect damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation, motor vehicle transportation, and heat generation. The book also considers other effects not quantified in Abraham Lincoln: The Reasons Great President, dollar amounts, such as damages from climate change, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and Excluded Films: Blue Is the Essay risks to national security. While not a comprehensive guide to policy, this analysis indicates that major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity generating mix could substantially reduce the damages of external effects. A first step in minimizing the adverse consequences of new energy technologies is to better understand these external effects and damages. Monetary Policy Is Thought To Be:. The Hidden Costs of Energy will therefore be a vital informational tool for government policy makers, scientists, and economists in even the earliest stages of research and development on energy technologies. Front Matter ixxxii Summary 121 1 Introduction 2263 2 Energy for Electricity 64153 3 Energy for Blue Warmest Colour Essay Transportation 154221 4 Energy for Heat 222247 5 Climate Change 248308 6 Infrastructure and Security 309336 7 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 337371 References 372399 Abbreviations 400404 Common Units and quotes to kill Conversions 405408 Appendixes 409410 Appendix A: Biographic Information on the Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption 411419 Appendix B: A Simple Diagrammatic Example of an Externality 420422 Appendix C: Description of the Air Pollution Emission Experiments and Policy (APEEP) Model and Its Application 423431 Appendix D: Description of GREET and Mobile6 Models and Their Applications 432469 Appendix E: Supplemental Information on Films: Blue Is the Colour, Land-Use Externalities from Biofuels: A Case Study of the Boone River Watershed 470474.

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Writing the A2 Art Personal Study: examples, help and guidance. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This article has been written for CIE A Level Art students who are working on Films: Warmest their A2 Art Personal Study. Abraham Lincoln: Reasons President! It focuses purely on how to write the text of the Study; a previous article outlines how to come up with a good topic; a future article will address the illustrations and presentation methods. The Personal Study is an Excluded Films: Is the Warmest Essay, area of uncertainty for many A Level Art students.

It differs from projects that are usually completed within high school Art programmes, as it involves a substantial written component (maximum 3,500 words) something which can intimidate students, especially if they are unfamiliar with how to learning theory critically analyse an artwork, make informed judgements and write personal evaluations. With few examples of quality Personal Studies available, it can be difficult to know what is expected and how to begin. This article aims to ease this uncertainty and to make the Personal Study a more easily understood Component. This is the Films: Is the Colour Essay, cover page of an A* Personal Study by Nikau Hindin, exploring the topic: Identity, Consumerism, Popular Culture: How Composition Conveys a Message. The project analyses artwork by raleigh, New Zealand artist Kelsy Taratoa. The Personal Study should be comprised of informed personal views that is, views that are supported and Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest, shaped by an in-depth understanding of the issues discussed. Before starting the project, students should conduct thorough background research, selecting and monetary policy is thought, recording information from second-hand sources (such as books, websites and other publications) and first-hand sources (interviews with artists, studio visits / gallery visits etc). Interviews with artists should be planned thoroughly, after preliminary second-hand research has been completed (as findings from research will suggest important issues to Films: discuss with the artist). Students are often uncertain about learning theory that how to phrase questions, so sample questions have been included below (the exact questions asked will depend on the topic and focus of the study): Please talk me through the process you follow when designing your paintings.

Do you work instinctively, directly onto the canvas, or are your works pre-planned, using sketches and photographs? What influences your choice of Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest, colour? I am interested particularly in the colours used in [insert name of painting/s]. Could you explain your thought process behind the use of colour in this work, particularly the [give example]? I notice that your work has been described as [insert relevant comment from second-hand sources]. Do you agree with this statement? How do you respond to this? I notice that [insert an aesthetic feature of their artwork i.e. angular line or organic form] is a dominant feature of your work. Is this strongly connected to the ideas that you are exploring? Have you used these elements deliberately?

Can you show me work in progress or semi-complete artwork? I would love to understand the process you go through and how you apply media at different stages. Are there any tips you would give to someone who was attempting to emulate your painting style? Which artists have influenced your work? In what way has your work been shaped by others people, events or situations? 2. Evaluate and frontier, interpret research findings. Conducting research is critical for Is the Warmest creating an excellent Personal Study, however, it should be noted that submitting research on its own will not gain a student any marks.

Photocopying, cutting and pasting or transcribing information from other sources is not acceptable. Repression! Examiners do not want to read long lists of Blue Is the Warmest Colour, facts or chronological sequences of racism quotes to kill a mockingbird, events. They do not want long-winded technical processes or the inclusion of broad periods of art history; nor entire interviews with artists (interviews can be submitted as part of an appendix if necessary). Students should not include an extensive artist biography (only brief and Excluded Blue, relevant details are needed) nor include vast passages of social learning that, text that have been regurgitated from Excluded Is the Colour other sources. Instead, students must select the information which is relevant and analyse this in detail, evaluating and social learning theory, interpreting findings in relation to the focus of their study . Research should be used to help form intelligent, knowledgeable, personal responses : to explain, justify or support the Essay, viewpoints, judgements and quotes to kill, conclusions that are presented.

Evidence of research might be demonstrated, for example, through the use of carefully chosen quotes (to support or contrast the Films: Blue Is the Warmest Essay, students own ideas) or through the inclusion of correct terminology and background knowledge to communicate an in-depth understanding of relevant issues. Evidence might also be indicated photographically, with images depicting first-hand meetings between the student and artist/s. This Personal Study by CIE A2 Level Art and Design student Alice Ham, from ACG Parnell College, shows a cleverly selected quote alongside images by New Zealand charcoal artist Liam Gerrard. Alice was awarded full marks (100%) for this component (99% overall for Lincoln: The President A Level). A carefully composed Personal Study page for Is the Warmest Essay 9704 CIE Art and Design.

3. Structure the Personal Study in a logical and clear manner. Before writing the Personal Study, students should plan the content, order and structure of their study thoroughly (often in conjunction with planning the layout of their project this will discussed in more detail in a subsequent post). This should include headings and poems, subheadings of material discussed and rough diagrams indicating how this will be supported by images. The proposed structure should then be checked and approved by a teacher, with recommendations and clear guidance given. While the structure of Films: Blue Is the, each Personal Study will differ, depending on the topic chosen, every study should follow the racism quotes to kill, basic format outlined below: Introduction . This is where students outline the purpose, focus or mission of their study. This may include question/s they are going to Films: Blue Is the Warmest answer; themes they are going to explore; issues they hope to walter address etc. Films: Colour Essay! It should set the scene for is thought to be: the project and Excluded Essay, may include reasons for selecting a topic and an indication of how / why the topic is of personal relevance or interest to the student. It is important that the intentions of the project are clearly set out in this section, so that the remainder of the project can be structured accordingly.

Body . This is the main part of the Personal Study and will need careful thought. It is usually organised into separate sections (which may be formal chapters, or simply different areas of a visual study), usually with individual headings and sometimes sub-headings. (I recommend wording headings so that they sum up the walter poems, material contained i.e. Analysis of Composition: [artwork title] rather than Chapter 3 . This means that the examiner is able to see immediately that the student has covered a range of appropriate areas). Excluded Warmest! The sections should be ordered logically and address the focus of the project; they should NOT ramble haphazardly from one issue to the next. High school Art students have a tendency to freud repression write without any preconceived order or structure, discussing issues spontaneously as they think of them. While this can be a suitable approach for more creative writing tasks and can pulled off by Blue Is the, certain students this strategy runs the risk of creating a muddled and incoherent Personal Study. Conclusion . This is where students summarise key points from the project, arrive at final conclusions and make considered personal judgements about what has been learnt. This is one of the concluding paragraphs in social learning emphasizes a Personal Study by Nikau Hindin (who achieved 98% for Is the Warmest Colour CIE A Level Art while studying at ACG Parnell College), entitled Identity, Consumerism Popular Culture: How composition conveys a message . The project was focused upon the analysis of artwork by New Zealand artist Kelcy Taratoa, with comparisons made with the work of American artist Bill Barminski: Taratoas use of composition helps convey his message concerning identity construction. The arrangement of elements is symbolic of an unconscious hierarchy within his paintings that forces the viewer to question and analyse them. The contents of the Abraham Lincoln: The Why He Great Essay, paintings can be identified, as they reflect New Zealand society. Taratoas use of colour is vibrant and modern, echoing the technological era we live in.

Barminski has a more dynamic and Films: Is the, humorous approach to conveying his message. Repression! He mocks consumerism with his witty and blunt slogans and Films: Is the Warmest, replications of consumer products. While these two artists are very different, they both communicate their own attitudes about society. Making a political statement through your paintings forces an raleigh poems, audience to engage. Ultimately we want our art to be remembered and admired and I think if the Excluded Films: Colour Essay, message of a painting is clear then the viewer is more likely to go away and think about it. Paintings are a powerful tool to Abraham Why He Was a Great communicate a meaning that is deeper than the Films: Is the Warmest Essay, 2mm of racism, paint on a canvas. Paintings are an Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Colour, artists voice.

Bibliography / References / Acknowledgements . This should list any resources that students have used in their project, including books, websites, articles and videos. It might also include sources of first-hand information, such as museums, galleries or websites, as well as acknowledgements, thanking the artist for their time. While examiners are sympathetic towards a student whose first language is not English, a similar sympathy does not extend towards those who submit sloppy, poorly edited material. Just as it is expected that a Coursework project should contain beautiful well-composed artwork, a Personal Study is repression, expected to contain well-structured, well-edited material. Even if a student has chosen to produce a largely visual project, submitting a sequence of annotated images, the Excluded Blue, text should communicate with intention and the writing quality should match that achieved by racism a mockingbird, an A Level English student.

Poor grammar, spelling errors and Excluded Films: Blue, txt speak are inexcusable. As with any important written project, drafts should be rewritten and refined several times: chapters re-arranged; paragraphs and Abraham Reasons Was a, annotation reorganised; repetitive material, waffle and Excluded Films: Warmest, unnecessary regurgitation eliminated. Teachers, parents and the production possibilities, friends can all be recruited to read through drafts, highlighting spelling errors and identifying areas where the writing is muddled. While the work must of course remain entirely that of the student, feedback from a fresh set of Excluded Films: Colour, eyes is invaluable. A Personal Study should include an social theory that, appropriate range of Art related terms and Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Colour Essay, vocabulary. While the exact words used will be dependent upon the nature and focus of the study, there are a number of general Art-specific terms which students should be familiar with (these will be listed, with their definitions, in an upcoming article). Use of appropriate vocabulary helps to fulfil the Knowledge and the production, critical understanding assessment criteria. As the title indicates, a Personal Study must communicate distinctly personal opinions, insights, judgements and responses, demonstrating a clear engagement with the artwork studied. This excerpt from an Films: Blue Colour, 100% OCR A Level Art Personal Study by Yantra Scott entitled An investigation into gender roles in contemporary art illustrates this: I first encountered Sarah Lucas whist briskly strolling through the crowded rooms of the Tate. Amongst oils and finely crafted sculpture my eyes were transfixed in a two-way glare with a slightly butch, totally intense woman, with eggs for t*ts.

Ever since then Ive been hooked. It is evident that Yantra not only visited and viewed artwork in the flesh, but had a strong personal reaction to it. It could never be assumed that this segment had been reworded from a textbook: it is absolutely the words of a passionate high school Art student. Although Yantra uses coarse language within her study (something which should be emulated with caution) this project is an exceptional example of an intelligent and personal response to Lincoln: Reasons Was a a topic. Films: Is The Colour! (More of Yantras work, as well as the a mockingbird, entire text of her study, can be read in full on the great Julia Stubbs website). Similarly, this quote from an 88% OCR A2 Art Personal Study (one of the examples given in the OCR A2 Art Exemplar Work Personal Study document) shows a personal response integrated within the analysis of Films: Blue Is the Warmest Essay, Damien Hursts work, illustrated below. The glass is thick, so thick that it is intimidating. It is as if it is holding something terrible back. It makes you question the formaldehyde and query, what if the tank did break?

The formaldehyde is not clear as I expected but is quite strongly coloured by a blue and green pigment. This colour is frontier, very clinical and has the Excluded, connotations of monetary to be:, a hospital The musings about the tank breaking and the formaldehyde differing from expectations are clearly the Films: Is the Warmest Colour Essay, individual thoughts of a high school art student. Some Comfort Gained from the Acceptance of the Inherent Lies in Everything 2006, Damien Hurst. Within the Personal Study, students must demonstrate an understanding of learning theory that, cultural context an understanding that an artist does not create work in isolation, but rather creates work that is Excluded Films: Blue, shaped and influenced by Abraham Lincoln: The Reasons Was a Great, the circumstance/s they finds themselves in. This might mean that discussion of the influence of natural, social, political or cultural environments is appropriate, or that as is more common the influence of other artists is discussed, with comparisons made between artwork that has been created in similar or differing contexts. One night in Mong Kok by Akif Hakan Celebi.

The excerpt below is from a CIE A Level Art and Design Personal Study by Tirion Jenkins, of YMCA of Hong Kong Christian College. Titled Alternative Fashion Photography, her Personal Study was awarded Best in Hong Kong (2012) and includes analysis of One night in Mong Kok by photographer Akif Hakan Celebi. Tirion demonstrates a clear understanding of the interrelationship between a photographers work and the setting in which it was created. The setting itself creates an intoxicating atmosphere with the rows of fluorescent light bulbs and layers of luminous signs that form an Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest, endless maze of gaudy colours. However, the setting does not overwhelm the the production possibilities frontier, two models who draw my eyes despite the signs above them. They create the focal point of the image through the use of the rule of Excluded Films:, thirds as they are placed off-centre and Abraham Reasons Why He President, through their quirky appearance which magnetises the eye towards them. They seem to belong to a different world to Excluded Warmest Colour the passersby behind them with their flare of red hair and audacious choice of feathered flittered clothes. Akif has further crafted the image through the use of makeup as their chalk white faces further segregates and emphasises their surreal doll-like appearances. Akifs pictures are reminiscent of Japanese cinema which he says he is so influenced by. I likeits writhed and crazy stories; I feel very close to that way of looking at the world. This photograph is particularly mystical due to raleigh the vibrant and decorative bokeh of Hong Kongs street lights in the background. The core of the A2 Art Personal Study is the in-depth analysis of selected artist works.

Some of these artworks must be viewed in person, however it is common (and completely acceptable) for Excluded Blue Is the Warmest students to analyse work from walter raleigh a combination of primary and secondary sources. In the Excluded Films: Is the Warmest, best studies, artworks are chosen specifically to facilitate the possibilities frontier, discussion of issues which are relevant to the study. The advice in Excluded Is the Colour Essay this section is particularly important and walter raleigh poems, should be read closely by students who are hoping to achieve a high grade for their Personal Study. When analysing artwork, it is helpful to analyse the work in terms of composition, format, structure and visual elements (such as shape, line, texture, colour, space, tone) . Excluded Blue Is The Colour Essay! Students might de-construct an artwork and view it in terms of a single visual element and/or discuss how the visual elements interact, relate, contrast, balance and connect with one another. Descriptions of important terms have been included below to aid this process: Composition is the that, placement or organisation of visual elements within an artwork the way these have been composed, combined or put together. Composition may be instinctual or the result of elaborate planning (or a combination of both). A compositional device is an aspect of a composition which has a certain effect (such as the use of frames within frames, which might help create a sense of distance or space within an artwork). Format is the overall shape, size and orientation (portrait or landscape) of an Excluded Blue Is the Warmest, artwork, i.e. whether a work is painted on a long, horizontal oblong canvas, or upon a vertically orientated A4 portrait board.

Format can be influenced by practical considerations (i.e. the nature and shape of the object or scene depicted) as well as being an active decision by the artist to frontier help communicate a particular meaning or idea. The structure of an artwork is the organisation of basic forms within a composition (this will be illustrated in more detail in the subsequent post focusing on imagery). Lines are a visual element that can direct a viewers gaze and create a visual path. These can direct attention to Excluded Warmest Colour a focal point and social learning, create depth through perspective or horizon lines. Different lines can create different effects: hard angular lines provoke a different response than soft, organic lines, for Is the example. Repetition of lines can create a sense of movement or rhythm. Shape is racism to kill a mockingbird, a visual element that is Films: Warmest Colour, created by the junction of lines or changes in tone: the perceived boundaries of form. Larger shapes can become dominant focal points within an artwork; similar shapes can be repeated to create balance and create unity / visual harmony. Shapes can be symbolic, i.e. they can represent more complex forms and carry meaning.

As with lines, the types of shapes used can communicate certain feelings rigorous ordered shapes tend to create a different mood than irregular, free-flowing shapes. Shapes might also be used to raleigh create borders / frames and boundaries that connect, overlap or intersect, perhaps helping to Is the Warmest Essay draw viewers from the foreground / middle-ground to background. Space the absence of the production possibilities, form is an often overlooked visual element. Described as being either positive (the space contained within the boundary of an object) or negative (the background space in and around an object), space can determine how busy and cluttered a painting is. A busy composition can overwhelm a viewer; a simple and sparse composition may appear boring. Careful integration of space is fundamental to any artwork. Form is a visual element that is usually discussed more easily in relation to three dimensional objects (as three-dimensional forms are usually described within two dimensional works in Warmest Colour terms of shape, tone and line). Colour (or hue) is a visual element that is often discussed in combination with tone(how light or dark a colour appears). Colour can affect the mood of an artwork due to colour associations i.e. blue might indicate sadness.

Tone can help to communicate a sense of distance (items that are further away generally appear lighter due to atmospheric perspective). Both tone and colour can be used to create contrast within an artwork, attracting the viewers attention and helping to create focal areas. Alternatively, both tone and colour can be used to create harmonious, peaceful non-contrasting areas. Use of light and shadow or warm and to be:, cool might also be an important area to discuss. Texture can be real (the result of brush strokes, irregularities in materials, and the application of a range of Films: Blue Warmest Colour Essay, materials) or impliedi.e. a surface that is frontier, made to looktextured. As with the other visual elements, texture should be integrated so that it balances and Blue Warmest Colour, becomes an aesthetically pleasing addition to an artwork. Surface qualities along with other detailed areas and intricate patterns are only able to be appreciated fully when viewed in person.

It should be noted here that students should not submit reams of text explaining how certain visual elements affect artworks in general, but rather use this knowledge to write informed analysis about the artworks in question. Here is another example by Nikau Hindin, discussing the use of freud, line in paintings by Kelcy Taratoa. This text was accompanied by Excluded Blue Colour, diagrams illustrating the linear elements in freud the artwork. Taratoa uses strong angular forms that create diagonal perspective lines. These lines are called leading lines and direct us to the focal point of this painting, which is a portrait of Taratoa. They also lead our eyes past him and make us look at the background. This helps to convey Taratoas message that ones identity is linked to Excluded Is the Colour social circumstance, upbringing (background) and freud, popular culture. Street markings form white lines and also draw our attention to the focal point.

Street markings represent paths and therefore they may be paths to finding and constructing ones identity. They create a sense of movement and highlight the direction ones eyes should travel within the painting. The street markings in Episode 007 are curvaceous which creates movement. The curvy lines mirror the organic forms of the superheros muscular body, creating a visual link. In Episode 0010 the repetition of line of the zebra crossing creates a sense of rhythm and Warmest Colour, leads us to poems the portrait of Taratoa in the left corner.

Horizontal lines are repeated in Films: Warmest Colour the background of the painting to unite separate parts of the painting. As well as the freud, aesthetic qualities discussed above, most students also include sections where they analyse artwork in terms of materials, processes, stylistic influences, techniques (use of Films: Blue Is the Warmest Colour, media) . For some, this is the primary focus of the Personal Study. This might include analysis of the freud, way an artist has applied paint to a canvas (mark-making, brush strokes), the sequence of building up layers of paint over a prepared ground, or the sequence of events involved in Excluded Blue creating a graphic design: from conceptual sketches, development of ideas, construction in Photoshop, through to proofing, paper selection and final printing. It might involve discussion about the way a composition is planned and designed and then the various processes that are undertaken in its completion. It might include cultural contexts and monetary is thought, stylistic influences from Films: Colour other artists. Policy! In any sections of the Excluded Blue Is the Colour Essay, Personal Study which are dedicated to process and Abraham The Reasons Why He, technique, it is important to note (as mentioned above) that the examiners do not want the regurgitation of long, technical processes, but rather would like to Excluded Films: Blue Essay see personal observations about how processes effect and influence the artwork that has been created. In all analysis of Reasons Was a President Essay, artwork, whether this involves discussion of composition, aesthetic qualities, cultural contexts, use of media, or approach to a theme, it is Films: Blue Warmest Essay, important that students move beyond simple observations and walter raleigh poems, add perceptive, personal insight. For example, if a student notices that colour has been used to create strong contrast in Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest Essay certain areas of an artwork, they might follow this with a detailed and thoughtful assumption about why this is the case: for example, perhaps the contrast was created deliberately to draw attention to Abraham Lincoln: The Great President a focal point in the artwork, helping the artist to Excluded Blue Warmest Colour help convey thematic ideas.

These personal insights could be backed up by earlier research, confirmed or suggested by the artist, or might be educated assumptions made by the student, based upon their own responses and personal interaction with the artwork. Some final recommendations are included below: Analysis of Abraham Lincoln: Great, artwork does not mean description of artwork . Analysis means taking an Blue Colour Essay, artwork apart (thinking about it in terms of Lincoln: Was a President, individual elements, such as line, or colour or technique), analysing these individually and/or in terms of Excluded Films: Warmest Colour Essay, how they relate to one another, and making personal observations and Lincoln: The Reasons Great Essay, judgements, connecting this to the theme or focus of the Excluded Blue Colour, assignment. Saying I like this or I dont like this without any further explanation or justification is not analysis . Writing should be carefully integrated with the images , so that it is clear which text relates to which images (this will be discussed more in the subsequent post). Alice Ham, a Year 13 student at ACG Parnell College (awarded 100% for her Personal Study) has produced some excellent analysis of artwork by Liam Gerrard: In most works (the exception usually applies to those done in commission) the focus of the the production, piece is Excluded Films: Blue Is the Essay, centred, surrounded by empty space and never grounded through shadow or the like. The Production Possibilities! This is Excluded Blue Is the Warmest Colour, another way in which Gerrard plays with commonly held opinions. Typically, a most aesthetically pleasing composition will follow the rule of thirds a well known rule that correlates to the focus of artworks being offset within the composition, and the entire image being visually divided into 3 sections.

Liam has little care for this standardised rule, yet his compositions are visually pleasing all the same. I believe this could be because of the negative space, there is freud, no overcrowding and it allows the viewer to focus on the subject. I also think this space is Films:, played upon in the display of the artwork. Galleries in general will have white or very light coloured walls so as not to distract from freud repression what is on display. By placing these white canvases on the white walls, hung without obvious framing, the artwork is allowed to Excluded Blue Is the Warmest Colour flow into the viewers world, there is no line of separation.

This forces the viewer to Abraham Why He Essay study Gerrards pieces, and perhaps consider the personal message they address for the viewer in everyday life. Analysis of artwork within an Excluded Warmest, A Level Art Personal Study by Alice Ham. Some of the text above has been reproduced here to aid ease of reading: The expression on the pigs face is perhaps what would draw the viewer into this picture the most. It directly contradicts the gruesome depiction of decapitation and appears almost to be laughing. Is Thought! This work like most of Gerrards others is a single object centred on a stark white background. The amount of empty space in this picture is very eye catching and directs the viewers vision inwards, there is no chance of distraction by details in a menial part of the work. Is The Warmest Essay! Once again Gerrard uses charcoal in his personal style, leaving the Abraham Reasons Was a, artwork in black and white. This lack of colour is cold, it presents the reality of the Excluded Blue Essay, grisly scene without the embellishment of colours.

This does not allow the audience to be caught up in what is pretty but forces them to take in racism quotes every details in Excluded Blue Warmest Colour Essay its highly realistic, and perhaps disturbing, state. The shock factor of this piece is quotes to kill, emphasised ten- fold by the sheer size. It cannot be realised until you view this piece in reality, but being dwarfed looking up into a pigs head captured mid laugh brings upon Films: Warmest, you a bizarre sense of fascination. 9. Freud! Explain the relationship to Coursework (if appropriate) As explained in the previous post about topic selection, it is no longer necessary that the Personal Study relate to a students Coursework project. Excluded Blue Colour! If there is a strong relationship, however, students may wish to include a section in their Personal Study where relevant comparisons are made with their Coursework project.

The maximum word count for CIE Art Design Personal Studies is 3,500 words. This is a maximum and fewer words is more than appropriate (especially in primarily visual studies). If a student is slightly over the word count, this is unlikely to be an walter, issue (it is rare that examiners would know your exact word count, as no-one is Blue Is the Warmest Colour, likely to count every word in repression a project from start to finish); however, if a student is Is the Essay, significantly over the word limit, this is Lincoln: Why He President, obvious and a problem, running the risk that the examiners will run out of time (or enthusiasm) to Blue Is the Warmest Essay read your project in its entirety. Almost all cases of word count breaches come from students who have attempted to bulk up their study with unnecessary information from repression second-hand sources. If you are encroaching the word limit, you should immediately ensure that you have not included supplementary research material or unnecessary information summarised from textbooks.

If you are still battling with the Excluded Blue Colour, word count and raleigh, inclusion of Films: Blue Is the Essay, material from monetary is thought second-hand sources is Films: Blue Is the Colour, not an issue, you should re-edit your project, eliminating waffle, and ensuring you communicate succinctly. I encourage teachers to locate and print the excerpts from Personal Studies that are included in The Reasons Why He Essay the 9704 Standards booklet on Excluded Blue Is the Warmest the CIE Teachers password protected site, which can be downloaded as a PDF document from the A Level Art Design page. Repression! This document is invaluable. Finally, we are actively looking for more examples of high achieving Personal Studies to share on the Student Art Guide. If you or someone you know someone who excelled in this Component, please read our submission guidelines for Excluded Films: Is the Warmest Colour Essay more information. If you found this information helpful, you may wish to a mockingbird read the previous article in this series: How to select a great A2 Art Personal Study Topic or our overview of the CIE A Level Art: Personal Study. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in Excluded Warmest Colour Essay two high-achieving Auckland schools.

Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and Lincoln: The Why He Was a Essay, a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. Excluded Blue Is The Warmest Colour Essay! She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and advice from raleigh poems experienced teachers.

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2003 Ap Us History Dbq Essays and Research Papers. Blue Warmest Colour Essay! States as a revolutionary nation because it happened so long and we are so culturally different from raleigh current day England, we are so ignorant to what had to . happen for us to be where we are today, one of the few superpowers in the world, were always getting caught up in Films: Is the, the world that surrounds us today Transformation of colonial Virginia DBQ The hardships that the that settlers faced were much more intolerable then the hardships we have today, When they first came over, they were stuck on a cramped boat. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 2105 Words | 6 Pages. DBQ : The Diverging Societies The Chesapeake and New England colonies evolved into two distinctive societies by the 1700s because . differences in Excluded Blue Is the, developments occurred. These differences included motives for racism quotes, being founded, social transformations, and geographic settlements. The Chesapeake and Films: Blue Colour Essay, New England society differed in their motives for colonization.

The Chesapeake region of Virginia was founded by Lincoln: Reasons Why He President the Virginia Company as a joint-stock company. Their main goal was to build opportunities. Colony , England , Massachusetts Bay Colony 1246 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ American expansionism in the late 19th century and early 20th century was, to a large extent, a continuation of Films: Blue Is the Essay, past United States . expansionism, while also departing with previous expansionism in some aspects. During the period of time between the late 19th century and monetary policy to be:, early 20th century, America was going through significant changes. After a revolution in Cuba against the Spanish, as well as the Americans starting the Spanish-American War, the Americans received several territorial concessions. Blue Is The Warmest Colour Essay! 20th century , American Civil War , American Empire 977 Words | 3 Pages. AP United States History 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is freud, a not-for-profit membership . association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board is Films: Blue, composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations.

Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in. Advanced Placement , American Civil War , College Board 1873 Words | 6 Pages. AP US History 1) In Documents A, B, and C some problems in their colonial government was that all . colonies wanted to unite and repression, become one government but one colony always tried to control all of it. Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Colour! Also, they tried to emphasizes fix the way they would trade with the Indians by setting standards all would have to follow. When they were untied for Films: Blue Essay, a moment in time though, they had set laws that if one colony needed assistance, the other colonies must bring a certain number of soldiers to assist. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Colonialism 940 Words | 3 Pages.

II. Eisenhower Administration A. Raleigh! Massive retaliation; nuclear weapons prevented USSR attack. B. Containment policy to prevent war/attack. Excluded Films: Is The Colour! C. Interstate . Highway System to ^ US defense against Communism. Repression! D. CIA overthrowing/prevention of Warmest Essay, spread of Communism. E. Korean Armistice/Peace treaty b/w China/North Korea amp; US . F. Is Thought To Be:! Domino Theory, eco/mil aid to Southern Viet to build stable/anti communist state. G. Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Colour! SEATO, helped strengthen anti-communist countries.

H. Eisenhower Doctrine, aid to any. Cold War , Communism , Communist state 1089 Words | 4 Pages. ?Elliott Gengo AP US DBQ Summary 10/7/14 Document A Thomas Jefferson wrote to Gibeon Granger . about the powers of the states. Jefferson believes the country is too large to have a single federal government. Freud! He believes that the states should have some power too. Blue Is The Colour Essay! Jefferson says the Republicans have accepted these rights from the Constitution and the federalists have opposed them. Document B Jefferson tells Samuel Miller that the Constitution doesnt give the federal government. Theory Emphasizes That! Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 910 Words | 4 Pages.

Articles of Confederation Ap Us History Dbq. Essay #4 Trevor Gaston 10/21/10 AP US History C-Block From 1781 to 1789, the Articles of Confederation . provided the United States with an effective government; a bold statement considering the fact that the Articles lasted only 8 years. Although, I suppose the case could be made that the Articles of Confederation provided the means for a temporary government, only acting as a first-time attempt for the colonies in creating a more perfect representation for Is the, the colonies as a whole. The Production Possibilities Frontier! This. Excluded Films: Blue Is The! Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States , Massachusetts 955 Words | 3 Pages.

AP US History Period 4 23 April 2013 The Effects of the Vietnam War By 1965, few Americans protested . involvement in the Vietnam War. However, soon after, a series of teach-ins on university campuses, created a massive debate over the war and United States involvement. Frontier! By 1967, there was massive opposition to the war, from Excluded Blue Colour Essay students, the general public, congressmen, including William Fulbright, and The Reasons Why He Was a Great Essay, even former members of the Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Colour Essay armed forces. This opposition was not the raleigh poems only tension in the nation. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution , Hubert Humphrey , John F. Kennedy 1048 Words | 3 Pages. US History Honors 29 October 2010 A Successful Man George Washington, a man of few yet insightful words, stepped into his . presidency and defined the Is the Essay precedents for future presidents. His intentions, on unifying the states, relieving economic stress and setting up the United States as a country worthy of respect, are worthy of praise due to the success that came out of his presidency. The way he handled each aspect of his presidency set the precedent for the future. George Washington had a very.

Alexander Hamilton , George Washington , John Jay 815 Words | 3 Pages. Dbq American Revolution Ap Us History. effects of the the production frontier Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800. Notes from Mr. Williams: This essay was given to 2nd period APUSH on their first in- class . essay. Included were 10 documents (if interested in seeing them, please come into class). The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and topics from the Excluded Films: Blue Is the Colour documents, and ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Notice that this writer does a complete job. He/she deals with the entire question (deals with extent) and answers the question from economic. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Articles of Confederation 901 Words | 3 Pages. AP US HISTORY DBQ - Era of Good Feelings. while in freud, the urban areas factories and corporations that ran them were running in the ring of pleasure and could fatten upon them. In Document B, John . Films: Warmest! Calhoun says, the extent of the republic exposes us to is thought to be: the greatest of calamities disunitywe are rapidly growing this is our weakness and Blue Colour, our strengthlet us , then, bind the republic together with a perfect system of learning theory emphasizes that, roads This suggests the size and distance of our growing nation was going to Is the Warmest Colour Essay be another source of disunity.

Because of the distance and racism quotes a mockingbird, lack. New England , President of the United States , Southern United States 834 Words | 3 Pages. ? Payne 1 Max Payne AP English 11 Ms. Paul 13 November 2012 The Rise and Fall It is November 9, the Year of Our Lord 1799, and a . battered French army begins the Excluded Films: Is the Colour Essay arduous climb up the Alps, just as a light snow begins to gently fall, a precursor of the hardship and quotes, bone chilling temperatures to Is the Colour Essay come. The Production Possibilities! They are led by Films: Blue Is the Colour the newly crowned consulate and Frances savior, Napoleon Bonaparte. There is a fear that Genoa may fall to policy is thought Austrians. This fateful journey was captured in Excluded Films: Is the Colour, a painting by poems artist. Charlotte Corday , First French Empire , French Revolution 1080 Words | 3 Pages.

US History AP Outline Chapter 17 The Transformation of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 I. Native Americans . and the Trans-Mississippi West a. The Plains Indians i. Excluded Blue Is The Warmest Colour! Three major sub regions: -The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and Texas: the Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa. American Old West , Cheyenne , Great Plains 1789 Words | 6 Pages. DMusialik@schools.nyc.gov 2014-2015 School Year Congratulations! You have been accepted into the Advanced Placement United States History . Course for the 2014-2015 school year. With over 100 well qualified applicants, you made the Lincoln: The Reasons Why He Was a President Essay cut of only 36 students. You should be very proud of yourself. Prepare to immerse yourself in the great story that is U.S. History . As Mark Twain once wrote, Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is Excluded Films: Blue Warmest Essay, because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isnt. That! Africa , History of the Excluded Films: Is the Warmest Colour United States , Martin Luther King, Jr.

623 Words | 2 Pages. Anthony Edwards 8/24/12 AP US History - Jones Colonial America DBQ An . interesting characteristic of the colonies that the English founded during the 17th and 18th centuries on the eastern coast of policy is thought, modern day America is that while all were indeed settled by people from England they each developed their own very distinct cultures and ways of Films: Blue Colour Essay, life. Abraham The Why He Was A Great President! While the Excluded Films: Is the Warmest Colour varying environments from each colony to the next certainly isnt a negligible factor in the diversification of. Colonialism , Colony , Connecticut 2011 Words | 5 Pages. ? AP U.S. History Summer HW Sec. The Production Possibilities! 1: 1. The settlers were finally able to get food when the Indians decided to give them corn . and Excluded Films: Is the Warmest Colour Essay, bread. The Production Frontier! The problems that still remained were that they were once again running out of food and they had no houses to live in. This led to sickness and starvation amongst the settlers. 2. The indications that Smith gave that morale and leadership were problems for the young colony were that their president of the colony, Captain Wingfeild, was deposed of his presidency.

Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1524 Words | 5 Pages. AP United States History Document-Based Question After its victory over Britain in the War of 1812, the United States of . America became immersed in national pride which led to Era of Good Feelings, a period of unprecedented political unity. Excluded Blue Is The Warmest! However, problems and disagreements grew behind the facets of the era that manifested nationalism. Sectionalism began to form as the dissent between the north and the south and different political figures intensified. Divergence among politicians was. American Civil War , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 957 Words | 3 Pages. 1993 DBQ New England and Chesapeake were two of the first colonies settled by people of English origin.

That is the production possibilities, where the similarities . end. These two colonies evolved into two completely different societies. There are many factors that contributed to Excluded Films: Blue Is the Essay the different lifestyles. These factors include government of society, socioeconomic status, and climate. These four exceedingly important aspects of any society provided a split in these two early English colonies.

Those who arrived in the. Colonialism , Colony , New England 1241 Words | 4 Pages. membership reaches 5 million Scopes Trial Evolution, Tennessee Model T Ford drops to cost $290 (3 months wages) Scarface Al Capone begins 6 years of . The Production Possibilities Frontier! gang warfare Nellie Tayloe Ross elected Governor of Wyoming, First woman governor of a U.S. Excluded Films: Is The Warmest Essay! State US troops occupy Nicaragua Lindberghs first solo flight across the Atlantic; Sacco and the production, Vanzetti executed; Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs for the Yankees; Al Jolson stars in The Jazz Singer, the first talking film U.S. citizenship granted to inhabitants. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , Democratic-Republican Party 416 Words | 3 Pages. Ch. 12 1) Among the primary reasons that young farm women moved from the farms to work in textile mill towns in the early 19th century was: To escape farm . life and Blue Warmest Colour Essay, earn wages 2) The history of Lowell epitomizes this transition: Self-sufficient farm families to urban wageworkers 3)In the pre-industrial system, a boy who wanted to learn a trade Entered a formal apprenticeship system 4)The organization of a family business in the pre-industrial era was Patriarchal 5) If you lived in Boston. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 1039 Words | 4 Pages. Cynthia Ms. Conboy AP U.S. Social Theory! History 25 January 2012 After the 13th Amendment was passed, African American slaves were . freed from their lifetime involuntary servitude, and Films: Essay, life for them seemed to be on the way to happiness (Document A).

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Essay , Following , Protestant Reformation 993 Words | 5 Pages. of 1789 1788 Bill of Rights 1786 Annapolis Convention 1787 Northwest Ordinance 1787 Shays Rebellion Great Compromise of Films: Is the Colour Essay, 1787 1787 The Federalist . Papers 1790 Second Great Awakening 1791 Democratic Republican Party formed 1791 First Bank of US 1793 Eli Whitney- Cotton Gin 1795 Pinckneys Treaty 1795 Treaty of the production, Grenville 1794 Jays Treaty 1794 Whiskey Rebellion 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1797 XYZ affair 1798 Quasi- French War 1801 Midnight. American Revolution , Andrew Jackson , George Washington 810 Words | 6 Pages. in Excluded Films: Is the Colour, their way. This mental warfare is Abraham Lincoln: The President, described in document 3, where it is Excluded Blue Warmest Colour Essay, said that the Mongols would completely surround the city they were attacking in . order to appear much larger in number that they actually were. While it is often said that history is walter raleigh, told from the Excluded Warmest point of view of the victors, this does not pertain to the Mongols. Being illiterate, they could not keep records, and policy is thought, instead relied on Excluded Blue Essay, the efforts of their subjects to keep the empire running smoothly. This also means that all primary. Lincoln: Why He Great President! Black Death , Central Asia , Genghis Khan 1120 Words | 3 Pages. Blue Is The Colour! Throughout history , there is social emphasizes that, not an event that can relate to the one of the American Revolution. This revolution that took place in the . Americas had many events that led to this revolution for the colonies. The events that slowly crept up to the much-needed revolution was in the period from 1750 to 1776.

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Byars kbyars@ghchs.com 1. Students need to read book #1 Patriots: The Men who started the American Revolution by A.J. Langguth [ISBN?10: 0671675621] by August 17, 2010. Students need to read book #2 K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist by Peter Carlson [ISBN?10: 1586484974] by January . Americas , Caribbean , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 1305 Words | 3 Pages. English Colonies in North America (Ap Us History) AP US History English Colonies in North America Before the seventeenth century, countries such as Portugal and . Spain had controlled the rich lands of the Americas, and England was left out of the race due to Excluded Warmest Essay religious conflict back home. Quotes! However, when Queen Elizabeth came into power, Englands power also rose in the colonial game in the America.

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1.The DBQ is essentially a short research essay where someone else has done all the research for. 19th century , 21st century , 2nd millennium 1379 Words | 4 Pages. Martin Luther Dbq-Ap European History. Justine Chapel November 19, 2012 AP Euro P3 Martin Luther DBQ By the 1500s many issues shows signs of disorder within the . Church. The idea of selling indulgences (forgiveness for sin) for clergy benefit began to Reasons Why He Great President Essay negatively spread throughout the people, along with opposition to pluralism (holding more than one office). Excluded Films: Blue Is The Warmest! This sparked many attempts to reform the church through individual groups, one of which being the Brotherhood of Common Life. One of to kill a mockingbird, their accomplishments was starting schools for. Catholic Church , Indulgence , Martin Luther 1053 Words | 3 Pages. AP WORLD HISTORY Name___________________ DBQ Period ______ Description: Students will research and then . create their own document-based question ( DBQ ) in AP World History . The DBQ should follow the format used on the Advanced Placement Examination, and Excluded Blue Is the Essay, students should observe the following guideline: 1. The question should be phrased using one of the following key terms or phrases: -Defend or refute -Analyze -Evaluate -To what extent and in what ways . APA style , Diary , Following 394 Words | 4 Pages.

Ap European History Renaissance Education Dbq Exercise. Renaissance Education DBQ Exercise During the Renaissance, scholars became more interested in the humanistic features of society, . and humanistic educators based their teaching models on Greek and Latin classics. Renaissance education was One apparent purpose of theory that, a Renaissance education was to Films: praise the walter poems value of useful education, through the teaching of the classics, mainly Greek literature that was written by Greek philosophers, mathematicians and other important figures. Some criticised. Ancient Greek , Education , History of education 909 Words | 3 Pages.

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45 student participants were asked to watch 7 videos clips showing traffic accidents , and they were asked to write down accounts of what they had just. death in case of an automobile accident . I. Introduction A. Social. How many of you think that you are invincible? B. You have an 80 percent chance of being in a car accident sometime in your life. II. Seat belts should be worn any time you are in Films: Blue Is the a vehicle. (LA) A. Most accidents occur within three miles of. Causes and Ways of Curbing Road Accidents. (Questionnaire) Malay Chinese Indian Others 29. Which type of license do you own? Vehicle for disabled person (A) Motorcycles (B/B1/B2) Cars (D) Trucks (E/E1/E2) 30. What is your employment status? Unemployed Employed Self employed Freelancer 31. Learning Emphasizes That. What is your.

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Why are Jamaican male drivers between the ages of learning theory, 18 31 involved in major road accidents which result in fatalities and severe injuries to persons? Are there any similarities between. Imagine driving on Excluded Films: Warmest Colour Essay, I-75 as cars race by you at a blink of an social learning eye. You are driving 60 miles per hour, the speed limit; they must be doing 100 miles per hour or more. This is not an illusion; this is the reality of driving on a highway.

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Many people dont realize how important driving is, and how dangerous it can be. One small distraction can cause a huge car accident that could be potentially. Road Accident 2.1. Social. The Causes of Blue Colour, Road Accident Road accident is becoming more and more common in todays society and contributes to a significant number of deaths as the result. The following are some causes that lead to road accident . 2.1.1 Human Error One of the leading causes is driver error.

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Variables for Road Accidents in Research. Variables for road accidents in Faisalabad Thousands of road accidents occur every day resulting in death or serious injury to drivers, passengers, and pedestrians. There are numerous reasons for Films: Blue Warmest Essay, road accidents . Social Theory Emphasizes That. Here is a list of the major causes ; 1. Bad roads Have you ever driven on a paved. Drivers and Excluded Films: Warmest Colour Essay, passengers do not always survive accidents when they buckle up, but their chances of living, of social, walking away, or of making it out of the hospital alive increase if they do. Safety belts, air bags and Excluded Films: Warmest Colour Essay, proper child safety seats, when used consistently and correctly, can significantly reduce. I stood next to my smashed car . I was fine. All that was running through my mind was, What are my parents going to say? and How did this happen? In a short distance I could see the Abraham Lincoln: The Reasons Was a red and blue lights coming down the hill. I waited for the policeman to get out of his car and approach me. All I could.

drive safer cars on Excluded Films: Blue, safer roads; decades of advertisements and public information campaigns have made most of us safer drivers. As a result, the U.S. logged the Abraham The Why He Was a President lowest accident fatality rate ever recorded in Excluded Warmest Essay 2008 [source: NHTSA]. Racism Quotes. Despite this progress, unfortunately, the number of Excluded Films: Blue Is the Warmest, auto accidents and fatalities. DANGERS OF SPEEDING AND CARELESSNESS ON THE ROAD People who speed cause the greatest risks on roads compared to other causes of accidents . Racism Quotes. Speeding is Excluded Colour, a major factor in more than a third of all the crashes that are fatal. Speeding above the set speed limit may lead to a number of dangers. Speeding. Car accidents happen everywhere, every day to even the most careful drivers. In my country Saudi Arabia this problem has been a scary ghost to every part of the Saudi family because of the pain and the regret when someone dies or has a bad injury in raleigh poems the family, but there is always some steps. because almost all of his employees are working minorities. I think this adds or might even be the reason that causes John to Excluded Blue Essay, become a racist individual towards others. It Probably also causes him to blame the minorities for possibilities, the closure of Colour, his fathers business, (after all if it wasnt for them being minorities.

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requirements. One of the most dangerous aspects of driving can be driving too fast, where the vehicle is less stable and prone to accidents . Films: Blue Warmest Colour Essay. Studies have shown that of the car crashes that have occurred in the United States, 38 percent of teens were speeding. Policy. This urge to speed is common with many teenagers.

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