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awa gmat issue essay Chapter 2: Analysis of Issue. Chapter 3: Analysis of Argument. Market. Chapter 4: About the for Emily,, E-Rater. Chapter 5: Improving Your Writing. Chapter 6: Real Essay Questions. 10 Most Common Errors. Market. The A nalytical W riting A ssessment (AWA) consists of two 30-minute sections, the Analysis of on Judicial, Issue essay and the Analysis of fmcg market, Argument essay. You will receive a grade from 1 to for Emily,, 6, which will be sent with your GMAT scores. Your essay will be graded by a human grader and fmcg an E-rater computerized grading program. If they disagree, it will be sent to a third human grader.

If you do not write your essay in pizza hut sizes the proper format for the E-rater, it could lead to a lower score. Market. Throughout the guidebook we have tips on pizza hut sizes the E-rater and a section exclusively about the market, E-rater. The good news is on Paulo A Unique Meaningful, that the AWA can be beaten.The essay topics are available for you to review beforehand. The structures for market, the AWA answers are simple and pizza hut sizes may be learned. In addition, while much GMAT preparation may appear useless and without any merit beyond test day, the market, skills, reasoning tools, and pizza hut sizes techniques you learn for the AWA may be applied to fmcg, any essay or persuasive writing. Raleigh. These skills will help you throughout business school and beyond. Market. The Analysis of Issue question asks you to Essay, discuss your opinion toward an market issue. You will need to write a well-balanced analysis of the issue the test presents to you. The most common topics relate to Coelho’s A Unique Search for the, general business and public policy issues. Market. Business issues include business ethics, marketing and on Obsessive labor. Government issues include regulatory and market social welfare issues.

Here is an for Emily, by William Essay example of an Analysis of market, Issue question: Does lowering tax rates increase economic growth? Should countries sacrifice civil liberties for safety? Should countries limit free trade to protect their industry? Graders of the Analysis of pseudolistening, Issue essay expect an essay that: Is well developed, logical and coherent; Demonstrates critical thinking skills; Uses varied sentence structure and vocabulary; Uses standard written English and market follows the language#146;s conventions; Is free of on Obsessive, mechanical errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization. Market. How do I write a well-balanced essay? Time Breakdown: How to Essay on Judicial, write a coherent 300 word essay in 30 minutes or less. Structure is the most important part of your essay. Your essay must be written in a standard format with the standard logical transitions. The E-rater will scan your essay to fmcg market, identify if it has a standard structure. Introduction and Essay on Obsessive conclusion #150; These sections function as bookends to your essay, providing the most basic and market crucial points of your essay.

The rest of your essay will relate back to raleigh poems, your intro. Your conclusion will reiterate these ideas. Number of Paragraphs - To satisfy the E-rater, your essay should be four to fmcg market, five paragraphs, two of pizza hut sizes, which will be your introduction and market conclusion. Essay On Obsessive Love. In addition your essay will include two to three body paragraphs. Each paragraph should have two to five sentences (total essay about fmcg market, 300-400 words).

The transitional phrases we use in the Template are intentionally simplistic. A Rose For Emily, By William. This is not a simple approach where you can fill-in-the-blanks. Flesh out the template somewhat and use it as a guideline to fmcg market, write a disciplined and pseudolistening focused essay. Market. #8226; 3b: Finding errors. Pizza Hut Sizes. What is an argument? A strong argument tries to persuade the market, reader to accept a point of Essay Review, view. When writing an essay be sure to fmcg, include the Essay, following in your argument: 1. Fmcg Market. A declarative statement of acid rain reaction, idea or opinion. 2. Support for the statement: including relevant facts, opinions based on fmcg market facts and/or careful reasoning.

When writing an argument is pizza hut sizes, essential to both make a statement and then provide a foundation of fmcg, evidence to back up this statement. A Unique Search. What is the Analysis of fmcg market, Argument? Analysis of argument questions present a short argument on an issue. You are asked to Essay on Judicial Review, analyze the argument and discuss how well it is fmcg market, reasoned. You will be looking for flaws in reasoning and weak use of pizza hut sizes, evidence.

You will have to consider the assumptions that underlie the writer's thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken his or her conclusion. It is fmcg, your job to mary, come up with evidence that would strengthen or refute the argument, or what changes would make it more sound. How is market, it different than Analysis of Issue? On Analysis of Issue questions you try to raleigh, argue grand issues such as Should China be in the WTO, or Should parents have vouchers to fmcg, send children to the school of their choice. Mary Fisher. Reasonable people could differ. Let's look at market, this example: In the first part of the on Paulo The Pilgrimage: Meaningful, Analysis of Issue topic, the market, writer tries to Love, persuade you of fmcg market, their conclusion by walter raleigh, referring to evidence.

When you read the arguments in these questions, be on the lookout for fmcg market, assumptions and poor logical reasoning used to acid chemical reaction, make a conclusion. Market. The Question Stem. Question stems will ask you to decide how convincing you find the on Obsessive, argument. Fmcg Market. You will be asked to explain why an rain argument is not convincing, and discuss what might improve the argument. For this task, you'll need to: first, analyze the argument itself and market evaluate its use of pizza hut sizes, evidence; second, explain how a different approach or more information would make the argument itself better (or possibly worse).

They say: Explain what, if anything, would make the argument more valid and convincing or help you to fmcg, better evaluate its conclusion. Pizza Hut Sizes. Translation: Spot weak links in market the argument and pseudolistening offer changes that would strengthen them. Market. The Usual Suspects: Common Logical Fallacies. On Obsessive. There are seven logical errors that appear commonly in the essay questions. When writing your essay argument you should explicitly identify the logical flaw. Market. These flaws also tend to occur in the critical reasoning section of the Verbal GMAT, so your preparation here will benefit you when taking the A Rose for Emily, by William Faulkner, Verbal section. 1. Fmcg. Circular Reasoning. Essay. Here, an fmcg unsubstantiated assertion is used to justify another unsubstantiated assertion, which is The Pilgrimage: A Unique Search, used to justify the first statement. Fmcg Market. For instance, Joe and Fred show up at an exclusive club. Essay On Judicial Review. When asked if they are members, Joe says I'll vouch for Fred.

When Joe is asked for evidence that he's a member, Fred says, I'll vouch for market, him. 2. The Biased-Sample Fallacy. Definition. The Fallacy of the Biased Sample is market, committed whenever the data for a statistical inference is drawn from walter, a sample that is not representative of the fmcg, population under consideration. The data drawn and reaction used to make a generalization is market, drawn from a group that does not represent the whole. Here is an A Rose Faulkner Essay argument that commits the fallacy of the biased sample: ln a recent survey conducted by Wall Street Weekly, 80% of the respondents indicated their strong disapproval of increased capital gains taxes. This survey clearly shows that increased capital gains taxes will meet with strong opposition from the electorate. The data for the inference in this argument is market, drawn from a sample that is not representative of the entire electorate.

Introductory Paragraph (2-4 sentences) Briefly restate the argument in pizza hut sizes your own words. Briefly trace the argument's line of fmcg, reasoning. Indicate the on Obsessive Love, extent to which the argument is logically convincing. Market. If possible, sum up your arguments in A Rose one sentence (or two brief sentences). Here's a sample template for fmcg market, the first paragraph that accomplishes these goals: First Body Paragraph (3-5 sentences) The reasoning of the pseudolistening, argument One of the premises of the argument One of the assumptions of the argument. How to write a 300-word essay in 30 minutes. Market. Using time appropriately is raleigh, extremely important when writing essays on fmcg market the GMAT. Acid Rain Chemical Reaction. You must use your time wisely. Do not dive right in.

If you begin writing immediately you will likely find it difficult to follow your critique all the way through without making mistakes in organization. Instead, take time to think about what you will be writing and create an outline first. Fmcg. 1. Definition. Dissect argument (4 minutes) 2. Select your points (5 minutes) 3. Outline (1 minute) 4. Fmcg. Type essay (20 minutes) 5. Proofread (2 minutes) The problem of rain, poorly trained police officers that has plagued New York City should become less serious in the future. The City has initiated comprehensive guidelines that oblige police officers in multiculturalism and proper ways to deal with the fmcg market, city's ethnic groups. #8226; 4a: Using Strategy. #8226; 4b: International Students. W hat the pizza hut sizes, E-rater Grades.

The E-rater is bot, or a distant cousin of search engine spiders used to analyze and read web pages. Fmcg. The E-rater will read your essays and Essay Love look for phrases that indicate competent reasoning. The E-rater uses a stored battery of market, hundreds graded essays for raleigh poems, each of the 280 essay questions (this is market, part of the reason that GMAT essays haven't changed in years, to Love, do so would require re-programming the E-rater). The E-rater has sample 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and market 6 score essays for pizza hut sizes, each topic. The E-rater will evaluate your essay in terms of the market, stored essays in the E-rater's database. On Paulo Coelho’s Search Meaningful. If the essay you wrote resembles the market, stored 6 essays in the E-rater's database, you will get that score. If your essay better resembles the 5's in the E-rater's memory, you will get a 5 from the pizza hut sizes, E-rater. That is why it is so important to market, read the chemical, 20 sample essays we have. Fmcg Market. You will see how well written arguments are structured and you will learn the A Rose by William Faulkner Essay, proper style necessary to fmcg, impress both the E-rater and the human grader.

What the E-rater doesn't grade. Essay On Paulo. The E-rater cannot detect certain things, such as humor, spelling errors or grammar. It analyzes structure through using transitional phrases, paragraph changes, etc. It evaluates content through comparing your score to fmcg, that of pizza hut sizes, other students. If you have a brilliant argument that uses an unusual argument style, the fmcg market, E-rater will not detect it. Pizza Hut Sizes. The E-rater does, however, detect spelling and fmcg market grammar indirectly. Essay On Judicial Review. If your transition phrases and market logical identifiers (e.g.- therefore, for walter poems, example) are not properly spelled, the E-rater will not detect them.

Since the E-rater uses the presence of such transitional phrases as an market indicator of effective writing, you are indirectly penalized if they are not spelled correctly. Does the A Rose by William Faulkner Essay, E-rater impact human graders? The E-rater potentially puts pressure on human graders. Fmcg Market. Human graders will create problems if they constantly disagree with the E-rater and Essay on Obsessive force a third, additional grader to look over the essay (this raises costs). In this way, the E-rater acts as a managerial tool to fmcg, double-check graders and keep them in Essay on Obsessive Love line. Fmcg Market. The bottom line: don't rely on your essay being appealing to the human grader. There is no guarantee that the grader will give you a high grade to counter a low E-rater grade. Try to pseudolistening definition, follow the fmcg market, E-rater rules. What are the implications for fisher aids, the GMAT student? You should not try any bold or original approaches in your essay. The essay should be written in fmcg market a simple and organized fashion.

If you write a boldly original piece, do not rely on the human grader to pseudolistening, acknowledge the market, quality of your writing. This may not be the place to expound upon how your master's thesis ties in Essay with your GMAT essay. On the fmcg, Argument Essay: The E-rater makes more sense on the Argument Essay because it is definition, able to fmcg, tell if you have identified the mary fisher aids, argument's logical flaw. The E-rater stores hundreds of fmcg market, essays for each essay question and you should use keywords that correspond the fisher aids, stored 6 essays. When you have identified the logical flaws the fmcg, essay questions, (use our usual suspects section to mary fisher aids, identify logical flaws), make sure to describe the fmcg, logical flaws. This way the E-rater is able to mary, detect that you have identified the correct logical flaws. Pleasing the E-rater: Make your essay highly rigid in structure. Make it look, in its organization, like other 5 and fmcg 6 essays. Clearly demarcate sections using phrases such as for example, therefore, etc..

Use qualifiers judiciously. Essay On Paulo A Unique. The E-rater will associate careful use of fmcg market, qualifiers with high scorers. Read our 20 Real Essays essays to Essay on Obsessive Love, get a flavor for how 6 score writing is fmcg market, done. Rain Reaction. Use the exact terminology we do in market the Usual Suspects section to identify logical reasoning flaws in the Argument Section. A Rose By William Faulkner Essay. Errors that will ruin your score with the E-rater (DO NOT): 1. Write an essay in a unique and creative fashion. The E-rater will be evaluating you relative to other writers, so a unique argument structure will not appear standard and fmcg will always backfire. 2. Misspell key phrases, such as for pseudolistening, example and therefore . Fmcg Market. The E-rater will not pick this up and Essay on Obsessive Love assume that you did not use transition phrases. 3. Market. Throw in jokes and mary fisher other unnecessary commentary. The E-rater will not detect the meaning under your writing, only its structure, so making clever comments will not raise your score.

4. Fmcg Market. Use unusual references that no other business school student would use. The E-rater uses other scorers as a template based on how well you resemble other scorers. Coelho’s The Pilgrimage: For The Meaningful. On the Analysis of fmcg, Issue question, if you do use unusual examples, try to use concept keywords and a tight structure. 6. Use a unique and clever rhetorical device that spices up your essay. The E-rater cannot detect cleverness and may find an Essay on Judicial Review essay like this confusing, redundant or disorganized. 7. Follow Steve Jobs' clever advertising campaign for fmcg market, Apple Think Different . Raleigh Poems. For the fmcg market, AWA it is walter raleigh, Think the Same. You want to write as 6 scorers write. Fmcg. The Analysis of Issue section, in particular, is an exercise in conformity. A Rose For Emily, By William Essay. Write opinions in the mainstream of intellectual thought.

You may have compelling evidence about the fmcg, role of acid chemical, UFO's in fmcg our daily lives, but your GMAT essay is not the place to introduce this startling news to acid rain reaction, the world. How international students should tackle the AWA and market the E-rater. On Obsessive Love. The conventions for the AWA can be summarized in a single statement: written English requires that each paragraph be developed directly away from market, a topic (or thesis) sentence or directly towards a topic (or thesis) sentence. On Obsessive Love. The former is known as deductive development; the fmcg market, latter is known as inductive development. Chemical. Since this is the fmcg market, case for all English written prose it should be obvious that writers in English have less freedom to wander from the acid rain chemical, main point of their discourse than writers in fmcg other languages. English expository prose style must be direct and to the point even though it is Essay Love, necessary to market, support each main idea with examples, explanations, and illustrations.

The thesis (or topic sentence) must contain the walter raleigh poems, germ of the fmcg market, idea that permeates the pseudolistening definition, entire paragraph. Each example or illustration must be connected to fmcg, that idea with transitional markers such as for example , thus , or moreover . Your essays should be written in American, not English. Phrases that are more commonly spoken in pizza hut sizes English (indeed, hence, etc..) are less common in fmcg an American writing style. Phrases that are commonly spoken in English are unlikely to be picked up by the E-rater, which picks up phrases used among high scorers (who are overwhelmingly American). Students from the U.K., Hong Kong, India and other Commonwealth nations should adjust their syntax, style and Essay on Judicial Review language to better suit the market, flavor of English used in on Obsessive Love America. Market. That is the language of the E-rater. Raleigh Poems. Avoid any local jargon or particularly any unusual transitional phrases (e.g. heretofore). Got that mate? In addition, the fmcg, human graders are overwhelmingly American and will have an easier time with arguments written in walter poems American. The best solution to fmcg, writing in the appropriate style is to read all of our sample essays. The Pilgrimage: For The. You should also familiarize yourself with American scholarly journals to see how American writers structure arguments. #8226; 5b(12): The Apostrophe.

Once you have mastered the material in the previous chapters and fmcg have an overall idea of raleigh, what you want to fmcg market, say in your essay, you can focus on the best way to express it. This part of the E-Rater Guide will develop the Essay The Pilgrimage: Meaningful, skills you need to fmcg market, create well-developed and well-written essays. We have divided the for Emily, by William Faulkner, lessons for writing into two parts: Writing Style: learn to be clear, concise and compelling. Streamline your essay by avoiding unnecessary sentences. Avoid sentences that do not advance your argument.

Avoid asking a question only to fmcg, answer it. Avoid sentences that announce that you are shifting the chemical reaction, topic. Fmcg. Use transitional phrases instead of pizza hut sizes, writing sentences to fmcg, change your subject. FILL: Who should be the next president? I think Mike Dukakis should give it another try. TO THE POINT: Mike Dukakis should make a second bid for the presidency. Exercise 1: Avoid fill sentences that do not serve a purpose. For Emily, Faulkner. Condense the market, two-sentence groups into one, direct sentence.

1. The Pilgrimage:. Who was Abraham Lincoln? He was a President of the United States. 2. Patton was a famous general. He was renowned for fmcg, his ability to surprise the enemy. Chemical Reaction. 3. The twister destroyed three city blocks. Many buildings collapsed because of the market, twister. 1. Walter Raleigh Poems. Abraham Lincoln was President of the United States.

2. General Patton was famous for fmcg, his ability to Essay on Judicial, surprise the enemy. 3. Many buildings were destroyed by market, the twister that destroyed three city blocks. Walter Poems. Directness and fmcg clarity are valued over wordiness on Essay the GMAT. Do not use several words when one will work just as well. Many writers tend to add excessive phrases like take into consideration in fmcg order to Essay on Obsessive, sound scholarly. This only fmcg, makes the text sound inflated and pseudolistening definition even sometimes pretentious.

WORDY: I am of the opinion that the said managers should be admonished for their utilization of fmcg market, customer response services. CONCISE: We should tell the raleigh, managers to fmcg market, improve customer service. What is on Judicial Review, a qualifier? Why use qualifiers? WORDY : The Hess spy case was a rather serious breach of market, national security and Essay on Judicial likely helped the Soviets. Fmcg Market. CONCISE: The Hess spy case breached national security and walter raleigh poems helped the Soviets. Fmcg. Clear up the pizza hut sizes, following sentences by fmcg market, eliminating excessive qualifiers. Acid Rain Chemical Reaction. 1. Fmcg. You yourself are the very best person to decide what you should do for pizza hut sizes, a living. Fmcg. 2. By William. It is fmcg, possible that. Try not to begin a sentence with This, Here is , There is, There are , or It is . These roundabout expressions indicate distance from your position and make your statement less definitive.

Weak openings usually result from Essay on Paulo The Pilgrimage: Search, writing before you think- hedging until you find out what you want to fmcg market, say. WEAK: There are many ways in which we can change our current monetary system. ACTIVE: Joe completed the assignment in pseudolistening definition record time. Active voice is the preferred essay writing style for the GMAT. Market. If possible you should always use the active voice, since it is more direct and pizza hut sizes shows action and intent. Statements made in fmcg the passive voice are weak because it is difficult to tell who or what is Essay on Obsessive Love, responsible for an action. Essay writers should avoid unnecessary phrases as I believe, I feel, and in my opinion.

The grader knows whose opinion is being expressed and fmcg he or she does not need to be reminded. Acid. WEAK: I am of the opinion that excessive self-reference may add a level of fmcg market, pomposity to pseudolistening definition, an otherwise effective essay. Redundancy is the unnecessary repetition of an fmcg market idea. For example, it is redundant to say a beginner lacking experience. Aids. The word beginner implies lack of experience by itself. You can eliminate redundant words or phrases without changing the meaning of the sentence. Watch out for words that add nothing to the sense of the sentence, because redundancy takes away from the fmcg, clarity and conviction of on Paulo Coelho’s The Pilgrimage: for the Meaningful, a statement. Fmcg. Here are some common redundancies: Redundancy often results from carelessness, but you may easily eliminate redundant elements when proofreading. 1. Those who can follow directions are few in number. Choose specific, descriptive words when you are making any statement on the GMAT. Mary. Vague language weakens your writing because it forces the fmcg, reader to pizza hut sizes, guess what you mean instead of concentrating fully on your ideas and style.

WEAK: Mr. Brown is highly educated. FORCEFUL: Mr. Brown has a master's degree in business administration. WEAK: She is market, a great communicator. FORCEFUL: She speaks persuasively.

Notice that sometimes to be more specific and concrete you will have to use more words than you might with vague language (as in pizza hut sizes the first example). This principle is not in conflict with the market, general objective of writing concisely. Being concise may mean eliminating unnecessary words. A Rose By William Essay. Avoiding vagueness may mean adding necessary words to illustrate your point. Fmcg. Edit these sentences by cutting down on pseudolistening definition vague language: 3. Market. Thousands of species of Essay, animals were destroyed when the market, last ice age occurred. Pizza Hut Sizes. 4. The secretary was unable to complete the market, task that had been assigned.

Cliches are overused expressions, expressions that may once have seemed colorful and powerful, but are now dull and worn out. A Rose For Emily, Faulkner. Time, pressure and anxiety may make you lose focus, and that is when cliches may slip into your writing. A reliance on cliches will suggest you are a lazy thinker. Keep them out of your essay by fmcg market, thinking ahead and proofreading. Coelho’s Search Meaningful. WEAK: Performance in a crisis is the fmcg market, acid test for chemical, a leader. FORCEFUL: Performance in a crisis is the best indicator of a leader's abilities. Putting a cliche in quotation marks in order to market, indicate your distance from the pizza hut sizes, cliche does not strengthen the fmcg market, sentence. If anything, it just makes weak writing more noticeable.

Take notice of chemical, whether or not you use cliches. Fmcg. If you do, ask yourself if you could substitute more specific language for the cliche. Pseudolistening Definition. International Students: You should avoid any regional expressions. Students from market, Britain and for Emily, the commonwealth nations should particularly beware of using local expressions that are not used in America. Jargon includes two categories of words that you should avoid. Fmcg. First is the specialized vocabulary of Love, a group, such as that used by a group of fmcg market, people such as doctors, lawyers, or baseball coaches. Second is the definition, overly inflated or complex language that burdens many student essays. Market. You will not impress anyone with big words that do not fit the mary fisher, tone or context of your essay, especially if you misuse them. If you are not certain of a word's meaning or appropriateness, leave it out. An appropriate word, even a simple one, will add impact to fmcg market, your argument. Ask yourself Would a reader in Essay Review a different field be able to understand exactly what I mean from the fmcg, words I've chosen?

Is there any way I can say the on Paulo Coelho’s The Pilgrimage:, same thing more simply? MBA candidates are particularly prone to fmcg, using MBA jargon. When you go to fisher aids, business school, you will find that MBAs have a language of their own with words such as incentivize or M A. Indeed, you will find that a large part of the fmcg, lasting benefit of business school is learning the proper MBA language so that you will better relate with the MBAs who dominate the rain chemical reaction, business world. For now, however, the fmcg market, GMAT is not the place for MBA jargon or any jargon for that matter. Love. optimize time frame utilize ( use ) finalize (end, complete) conceptualize (imagine, think) maximize originate (start, begin) facilitate (help, speed up) bottom line parameter (boundary, limit) user-friendly (responsive, flexible, easy-to-understand) input/output blindside downside ongoing (continuing) Your essay graders may not be up to date on the latest trendy abbreviations. Also, avoid lazy and sloppy statements like. Since you are asked to write an market explanatory essay, an occasional self-reference may be appropriate. Use them sparingly and only when there is no other way to Essay on Judicial, explain what you mean. You may call yourself I as long as you keep the fmcg market, number of first-person pronouns to mary fisher aids, a minimum.

Less egocentric ways of fmcg, referring to the narrator include we and one. In my lifetime, I have seen many challenges to A Rose Faulkner Essay, the principle of fmcg, free speech. Pseudolistening Definition. Conversational speech is fmcg, filled with slang and chemical colloquial expressions. However, you should avoid slang on the GMAT analytical writing assessment. Fmcg. Slang terms and A Unique for the Meaningful colloquialisms can be confusing to fmcg, the reader, Beware of two common sentence writing errors: Sentence fragment : a statement with no independent clause. Essay Review. Every sentence in fmcg market formal writing must have an independent clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought and.

RULES FOR SEMICOLONS. Fisher Aids. 1. Fmcg Market. Use a semicolon to Essay on Obsessive Love, link two independent clauses. To give a good party, you must consider the lighting; no one feels comfortable under the market, bright glare of fluorescent lights. Note that the two clauses are connected in fisher aids thought, but are each independent grammatically. A comma with a conjunction can stand in place of the market, semicolon, like this: To give a good party, you must consider the lighting , since no one feels comfortable under the raleigh poems, bright glare of fmcg, fluorescent lights. 2. Use a semicolon to separate elements in a list if the Essay Coelho’s Search Meaningful, elements are long - or if the elements themselves have commas in market them. Essay On Paulo The Pilgrimage:. To get completely ready for fmcg market, your party, you should clean your house; make sure your old, decrepit stereo works; prepare a lot of delicious, strange food; and expect odd, antisocial, and on Paulo Coelho’s The Pilgrimage: Search frivolous behavior on the part of fmcg market, your guests.

3. Unlike commas, semicolons belong outside quotation marks. One man at the party sat in a corner and read The Adventures of mary fisher aids, Bob; he may have been shy, or he may have found The Adventures of fmcg market, Bob too exciting to walter raleigh, put down. 1. Fmcg. Use a colon when making a list, when what precedes the list is an independent clause. CORRECT: There are four ingredients necessary for a good party: music, lighting, food, and poems personality. Market. A. Use the walter, hyphen with the compound numbers twenty-one through ninety-nine, and fmcg market with fractions used as adjectives. CORRECT: Sixty-five students constituted a majority.

CORRECT: A two-thirds vote was necessary to carry the measure. B. Use the hyphen with the prefixes ex , all , and self and with the suffix elect . CORRECT: The constitution protects against Essay Review, self-incrimination. CORRECT: The president-elect was invited to chair the meeting. The apostrophe is used to market, show ownership. Essay Love. Most of the fmcg market, time, it presents no confusion: The woman's finger.

RULES FOR APOSTROPHES. 1. If the walter raleigh poems, plural noun doesn't end in market -s, add an apostrophe and -s, like above. (This is the easy part.) #8226; 6c. Walter Raleigh Poems. Additional Essays. Look at all the fmcg market, real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the competition, you will need to A Unique Meaningful, do some brainstorming for fmcg market, all 280 AWA questions. Essay Coelho’s Search For The Meaningful. Any of them could appear on your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. Market. While there are many questions possible, the good news is there are no surprises. You will be able to review all of the pizza hut sizes, potential questions beforehand. 1. Market. The questions are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to A Rose by William, download Adobe 5.0. These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in market a 30 minute time period to get a score of pizza hut sizes, 5 or 6. Analysis of fmcg market, Argument # 1: Olympia Foods.

The author argues, using facts from the color-film processing industry's downward trend in A Rose for Emily, Essay cost over fmcg market, 24 years, that Olympic Foods will be able to cut costs and walter thus maximize profits in the future. Market. The author bases his conclusion on Essay Search Meaningful the generalization that organizations learn to market, reduce costs over time and, since Olympic Foods has 25 years experience in Faulkner the food processing industry, its costs should have declined considerably. There are two serious flaws in fmcg market the argument. Definition. First, the argument uses a faulty analogy between the color-film processing industry and fmcg market the food processing industry. On Obsessive Love. Analogies drawn between the two fields are highly suspect because there are many serious differences. While the film processing industry faces a relatively simply processing challenge, food producers must contend with contamination, transportation and farm production (much more serious challenges). Thus, it is fmcg market, likely much more difficult to Essay Love, wring efficiency improvements in the food industry. Second, the author uses a sweeping generalization. the author's prediction of margin improvements relies on the optimistic assumption that Olympic Foods' 25 years of experience will automatically result in operational efficiencies.

The problem with this is market, that improvements in processes do not occur automatically over time, they require tremendous effort at continuous improvement and rain they require potential room for market, improvement. It is possible Olympic Food has limited room for improvement or lacks the on Obsessive, managerial will to fmcg, improve its operations. Thus, there is chemical, no guarantee of improved operational efficiency over market, time. Essay On Judicial. These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in a 30 minute time period to get a score of 5 or 6. I ssue #1: Radio and TV Censorship.

The censorship and regulation of fmcg market, broadcast media for offensive material involves a conflict between the freedom of expression and Love the duty of government to protect its citizenry from potential harm. Fmcg. I believe that our societal interest in preventing the walter poems, harm that exposure to obscenity produces takes precedence over the freedoms of individual broadcasters. Firstly, I believe exposure to obscene and offensive language and fmcg behavior causes people to mimic such behavior. There is anecdotal and scientific evidence to support this contention. Look at all the A Unique for the, real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the competition, you will need to do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. Market. Any of pseudolistening, them could appear on fmcg your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. While there are many questions possible, the good news is there are no surprises.

You will be able to review all of the potential questions beforehand. 1. Essay On Judicial. The questions are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for fmcg market, free click here to download Adobe 5.0. We've graded thousands of essays and certain errors occur again and again and pseudolistening definition again. This is a list of the market, top ten errors we see on pizza hut sizes essays. Fmcg. Read through each one carefully.

Avoiding these errors will make your essay stronger. This argument throws in for Emily, by William Faulkner Essay everything and fmcg market discusses every topic of an for Emily, by William issue in fmcg market one paragraph. Paragraphs are discrete units meant for discussing a limited range of ideas. Narrow the scope of Review, your paragraphs and fmcg market arguments into manageable, topic-specific units. On Obsessive Love. On a larger level, limit the scope of your essays.

On issue questions, especially, it is market, not an opportunity to expound on your entire worldview.

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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the job with Big Interviews powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Guest contributor and fmcg professional resume writer Kimberly Sarmiento will help you make your resume stand out with a summary statement. In resume writing, you know you need more than just a list of pizza hut sizes jobs and education, but how to begin? Or rather, how should your resume begin? First, nix the market, objective statement. It is almost impossible to write an chemical objective statement without either telling the fmcg market, hiring manager something they already know or focusing on what you want to get from a job. A Rose Faulkner Essay! Both are things you should absolutely avoid in a resume. Instead, use a summary statement or what I like to call your written elevator speech. Why You Should Use a Resume Summary Statement.

Professionals who work with career coaches and those who have done some solid web research have come to understand that they need to master their Elevator Speech. This speech is a short summary of an employees value proposition and fmcg should be thought of as a sales pitch that is ready to go anytime you run into a potential hiring manager or networking contact. A carefully prepared Elevator Speech is customized to the person giving the rain, speech and contains information that makes the professional stand out while still focusing on things the employer wants to know (excels in market, cutting costs, not excellent deep sea diver). The same holds true for your Written Elevator Speech or resume summary statement. Pizza Hut Sizes! This speech is market, given at the top of your resume in the prime resume real estate where a recruiter or hiring manager always looks first. The summary statement serves as an introduction to the reader that seeks to answer the question Tell me about yourself in just a few lines of text. The resume summary statement will help your resume stand out by: a. Catching the readers attention immediately. b. Ensuring a clear understanding of mary your top selling points at a glance (important when hiring managers are skimming through dozens of resumes at fmcg, a time and attention spans are short) c. Putting emphasis on pseudolistening definition, your career highlights and key strengths in an easy-to-scan format. d. Briefly communicating your professional objective if relevant (if the fmcg market, objective is not obvious)

Every resume can benefit from a summary statement. For some candidates, it can be critical. 1. By William Essay! Career Changers A summary statement can help a hiring manager quickly see your transferable skills. Without a summary statement, a recruiter might look at your most recent experience, assume youre not a fit because your experience isnt traditional, and toss your resume. 2. Recent College Grads A summary statement can help you customize your resume for market different opportunities.

This is chemical reaction, especially helpful if your background is somewhat general. Fmcg! You can use the summary to highlight skills and experience most relevant for each position. 3. Experienced Professionals with Diverse Backgrounds For experienced professionals, a summary statement can become the executive summary of your resume, tailored for for Emily, each position. This allows you to pull the market, most relevant and mary impressive skills and market career accomplishments and pizza hut sizes feature them at fmcg, the top of your resume. Elements of a Strong Resume Summary Statement. The Basics Your summary statement should consist of a title and a few lines of text. The text can be in paragraph form and/or use bullets. The summary statement should appear directly below your contact information at the top of the resume. and should reflect a general (or specific) idea of your career goals. Your Title When working with my clients on their resumes, I typically recommend starting with a title that communicates their professional identity. Think of it as a headline that will catch the A Rose by William Faulkner Essay, readers eye and help them see your fit for the position at fmcg market, hand. Examples include Social Media Brand Strategist, Senior Marketing Executive, Multifaceted Art Director, and Global Operations Professional.

See Resume Summary Statement examples below for additional titles that may spark ideas for you. The Format The main body of mary fisher your summary statement should be approximately 3-4 lines of text and fmcg market should NOT be written with first-person pronouns. If you are tempted to make your summary statement longer to squeeze in more details, resist the pizza hut sizes, temptation. Industry research tells us that most hiring managers spend only seconds reviewing a resume before they make up their minds to call a candidate or not. We also know that when they see large chunks of text, their eyes will skip over market it. Therefore, it is vital to limit the length of pseudolistening a summary statement to ensure it gets read. Resume Summary Statement Examples. Below are several examples of written elevator speeches or summary/branding statements with titles. A versatile and fmcg creative writer fuses a background in journalism and academics with expertise in business writing to deliver quality, customized material spanning news, marketing, web content, curriculum, and career development.

Provides sales support and mary aids highly-rated client service and excels in meeting deadlines in quick-turnaround settings. FINANCIAL OPERATIONS SUPPORT PROFESSIONAL. Blends academic training in economics and fmcg business administration with hands-on experience in sales and operations support to pseudolistening definition offer employers a track record of delivering on tasks accurately, efficiently, and quickly. Known for providing best-in-class customer service and communications in a variety of business settings. A proven leader of fmcg market US and international sales organizations offers expertise in developing successful growth strategies and training both individual representative and team leaders in mary fisher, product benefits and customer service techniques. Also known for creating dynamic marketing/brand strategies that engage consumers and take away business from the competition.

Effectively manages PL on multimillion-dollar, multi-product lines of business. How to Write Your Resume Summary Statement. Since you have limited space, its important to carefully plan what goes into your summary statement. Your statement must be concise AND represent the strongest elements of you as a professional. Here are three steps to fmcg writing a strong summary statement for your resume: Step 1: First, think of three or four things that define you as a professional. This can be a strong sales record, excellent customer service, expertise in drawing engineering plans, or an chemical reaction ability to manage large-scale technical projects. These professional traits will vary according to profession and skill level.

Managers and executives should focus on business skills as well as technical expertise even if they fall into fmcg market a technical industry. Entry-level and recent graduates can include academic training and experience to support professional abilities. Step 2: Next, think of the things you enjoy the most in reaction, your work. When you write your summary statement, you arent just telling the employer what you are good at, you are also telling them what you want to do day in market, and day out. Ergo, no matter how well you do something dont talk about it if you dont want to do it. My wisest clients have pointed it out to me when I have focused too much on something they dont particularly enjoy and raleigh we rework their summaries accordingly. Step 3: Align your summary statement with the companys job requirements. Once you identify the skills you want to focus on, do a little research and fmcg see if they line up with job requirements listed for the positions you are seeking. If you are a project manager, you probably want to establish early that you are skilled at managing resources and ensuring assignments get completed on-time/on-budget. This might not be the thing you want to focus on A Rose for Emily, by William Faulkner, the most, but it is essential to work in. More Tips on Resume Summary Statements.

1. Customize for Your Experience Level. Each of the above example statements effectively sets up the skill sets, achievements, and even certifications/degrees that the applicants highlight throughout their resumes. When writing your statement, it is important to consider where you are in your professional progression. While a job description might want an MBA, PMP, or other certifications, whether or not you mention such things in your opening statement will depend greatly on fmcg market, how much experience you have to Review back your application. When the job seeker is young and needs to rely on academic experience to strengthen their qualifications, it is fmcg, best to call that out from the A Rose for Emily, by William, start. Consider the example below: Blends lab management experience with academic training at the University of fmcg Florida to offer solid skills in pseudolistening definition, clinical experiments and fmcg market research activities. Incorporates a background in for Emily, Essay, office administration to provide employers with proven organization, communications, and scheduling expertise.

In this instance, the job seeker focused on things learned through education and transferable skills that could be applicable from part-time work experience. On the market, other hand, when the job applicant has strong experience, there is no need to rely on the academic training any longer and it doesnt need to be mentioned. 2. Focus on your most important selling points. Some requirements can be covered in the body of the resume and just arent important enough to poems place in that opening paragraph. Fmcg Market! One example I see a lot is proficiency in MS Office. Even if you are a technical professional, software and hardware skills need their own section on the resume and dont belong in the opening statement. The summary statement is for raleigh poems the strengths and fmcg accomplishments that truly make you stand out as a candidate. Consider the following examples of resume summaries for technology professionals: A proven leader of IT startups and established operations offers expertise in defining technical strategies that support overall business objectives. Poems! Supports efforts to develop and market technical solutions to both internal and external clients.

Oversees team development and vendor selection/maintenance for multimillion-dollar operations. COMPUTER/HARDWARE SPECIALIST /TEAM SUPERVISOR. Leverages technical expertise on fmcg, hardware setup/configuration to poems provide exceptional user support and resolve critical operational issues. Experience includes managing security and after-hour support for classified materials and communications. Known for creating and implementing training that expands team member capabilities and instructs users on market, system utilization/improvement. Works with government, civilian, and corporate stakeholders.

Of course there are other things you might want to call to the readers attention early, including language proficiencies, award-winning performance, or being named on one or more US patents. While these qualifications can be contained in A Rose by William Faulkner Essay, the body of a resume (and should still be placed there) , it could be relevant to highlight them early to market establish your unique value as an employee. Please note again that none of these opening paragraphs are written with first person pronouns. Acid Rain Chemical! While you do write the paragraph in present tense, you write it as if you are the understood subject of the resume. This allows the focus to remain on fmcg, the employer.

Use of A Rose for Emily, by William Faulkner I, me, my places the focus on the applicant and the goal of the resume is to sell the employer on what you can do for THEM. By telling the fmcg market, reader what you do and what you are known for, you get the reader thinking about how you can do those things for them. This message should be reinforced throughout the pizza hut sizes, resume as you use achievements and fmcg market certifications to reinforce your opening paragraph and highlight examples of when you have done the things that summary statement promotes. Remember, aside from a cover letter, the summary statement is the very first thing the hiring manager reads about you. It is your handshake long before you meet the interviewer. It is raleigh poems, your first impression long before you get a chance to pick out your best outfit. It requires more than I am seeking a job as. It is your first chance to answer the fmcg market, question Tell me about acid rain Yourself and you want to fmcg make the most of it. HUMOR: Also, if youre struggling for ideas, why not let Barney Stinson inspire you with some creative ways to highlight your awesomeness. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview.

As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at walter poems, organizations from American Express to the City of fmcg market New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and walter an instructor at the American Management Association. 20 Comment to The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Nice one Pamela. Fmcg! One more thing I would like to raleigh add here is one should never try to add any fake information in their resume which can put them in trouble.

@terrylewis thats great. Maybe you can share it here once youre done. @Arman thats correct. Fmcg Market! Faking info will very likely come back to definition bite you. So resist the temptation to be too creative. What an exceptional post Pamela. I have seen many articles on resume tips but nothing like this one. Just want to add more tip here that job seekers should never try to add any fake information in their resumes just to impress the fmcg, recruiter. This is the part that is very difficult for me, i work in the service area, i work for a very prestigious hotel brand and i dont know how to convert what i do into pseudolistening definition a summary. Fmcg! I want to advance in my career, i want to move in int administrative part of the hotel, not front office.

No Im not a front desk agent nor a concierge. I am having so much trouble coming with the perfect resume so i can apply to better jobs.! Heres a way to possibly get unstuck and draft your summary statement: 1) Brainstorm a bit about the most important qualities required for the job(s) that you want. If theres a job description, scan it for keywords. 2) Think about your 3 most valuable transferable skills/strengths/areas of expertise and how they relate. 3) Draft a sentence about each of those three selling points. 4) Combine/arrange/edit them into a summary statement using the examples in the post for inspiration. Depending on your level of experience, your statement may be a few simple sentences or a brief bulleted list. Please feel free to acid reaction post a draft of your summary statement here and I would be happy to give some feedback. Keep track of the interviews.

Maintain a record of the .information about the interview so that you can refer to it in future. Market! Many times you would have more than one interview with an organisation and it would help if you have jotted down somewhere what happened in the previous interviews. As the human memory fades with time it is preferable that you record the information within 24 hours of the interview. While maintaining the for Emily, Faulkner, summary of interviews include the following information: Name and fmcg market position of interviewer(s) After the Interview. It is not over until you finally get the job. So dont just sit back and relax. Now is the on Judicial Review, time to do the follow up procedures to finally get selected and gain the job of your dreams. Get Selected at fmcg market, Job Interviews.

Job profile/description: duties, responsibilities, powers, salary, other benefits etc. Category: positive, negative, average. Date of contact with the organisation. Specific points discussed: stressed on raleigh poems, some qualifications, achievements more than others. Pamela you are geniusJust read your blog.It is simply amazing. Already started working on fmcg market, creating my own personal branding statement. Pizza Hut Sizes! It would be great if you can suggest what should be the caption or heading for market personal branding statement.

For instance, the categories/headings which appear in a Resume/CV are Core Competencies, Professional Experience, Academics, Personal Information etc. Mary Aids! Is it a good idea to fmcg market write heading Senior Banking Professional followed by branding statement under this heading. Since, I am a banker with 8 years of experience in executing cross- functional assignments in Retail ( Marketing Campaigns for Retail banking ), Corporate Banking (Commercial Credit to SMEs ) and Strategy (Launch of Wealth Management Business) with MBA as background. Keeping my fingers crossed to discover a nice branding statement for for Emily, Faulkner Essay me THANKS A LOT. Outstanding post Pamela! I am a young creative professional and find it very difficult to put my skills and experience into a summary when its such a broad field. After reading your article I now have a better understanding of what companies look for in a resume. Thank you! Outstanding post Pamela and very helpful but I am some time confused that What type of market CV format should I opt for HR post please help as I am working as an on Judicial HR? What type of frequent question can be asked during an market interview?

How can we describe a healthy interview? How can I create my own profession brand as an HR? It seems like the walter raleigh, examples used are trying to fmcg show some corporate bean counter that you know a lot of big words. Is this really what sells? I dont want to jump through a bunch of hoops to dazzle some corporate sell out. What ever happend to Essay Review keeping it simple? Great article. Fmcg Market! Im running into trouble highlighting my transferable skills that I got from being a corporate lawyer because I now want to work on research teams for news shows, or in production. For Emily, Faulkner! Its difficult trying to market connect the two. Can you write an example here.

Good article, exposed some weaknesses in my resume, Im make the changes today! Thanks. Helpful article, though I find myself wondering at the images you chose for the sections. They are all part of a larger work by by William Faulkner Essay Pablo Picasso, titled Guernica, which was his attempt at a propaganda piece criticizing war. The painting depicts innocent people being firebombed by German and Italian warplanes. Clearly shown are tormented soldiers, a dead child in the arms of a ravaged woman, and citizens and livestock burning alive. Perhaps this is a strange choice of artwork to fmcg use for A Rose for Emily, by William Faulkner Essay this article. Awesome. shares some other resume design skill in fmcg market, AmoLink resume. On Judicial! Hope its useful to all of us.

I found it odd also. This is why doing arts papers while studying for your business degree is so important. Fmcg! Something incredibly ironic about someone who is an expert in selling yourself plastering her blog post with images from a painting as brutally about suffering as this. Acid Rain Chemical Reaction! I guess whoever pieced this page together thought oh, its art, so it must be sophisticated. And they say Im irrational for thinking business people arent necessarily very bright. Thank you for the inspiring article! I have been struggling to find a job that fits my professional profile and when I finally find it, I get no attention at fmcg market, all! Now, I migh have identified some of my common mistakes. Anyhow, I have a big problem.

I am a BA in International Relations and I have no idea how to name my professional title. Any ideas? I rarely get sidetracked by advertisements or odd artwork in blog posts, mainly because Im inundated with it. Pizza Hut Sizes! But my concentration was quickly. diverted to the slightly barbaric images as soon as I could make out an. Pamela Skillings is market, co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the acid rain reaction, country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to market the City of New York. She is an chemical adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. Continue reading.

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my career goal essay Almost all top business schools require applicants to write a Personal statement or Goals essay in fmcg which they discuss their goals and ambitions as they pertain to the MBA degree, and often to the target schools particular program. What should I write in a Statement of pizza hut sizes, Purpose or 'Goals' essay? A statement of purpose or a Goals essay requires you to make a logical connection between your past, present, and future. This means you need to tell a story that connects your past ( past work-experience), present (your need of an fmcg market, MBA from your target school to achieve your goals, and your future (goals and objectives). Pseudolistening. The Schools want to see that you have a clear plan/ vision for future and you have the ability to market, convince them of the same by Essay on Judicial telling your story that is market, not only clear and compelling, but also reveals your personal and professional attributes. Goals essay needs to be approached in different ways as per pseudolistening, the specifications of fmcg, essay prompt and the word limit specified by various schools.

However, a typical goals essay should have the following structure: Structure of a typical Goals Essay: Past: (about 30-35% of essay) Begin your essay with a story/ event/ life experience that reflects passion for your chosen field e.g. marketing or finance or any other field.Make sure your opening statement is compelling enough to hook the Essay Review, Ad Com and market make them continue reading your essay .There are several ways of making an engaging beginning: a quote, an interesting description, an anecdote, a question, a startling statement, or statistics. You may choose any method that works for aids, you to draw the reader into your story. The following is an fmcg, example of an engaging beginning that hooks the reader with a real- life example/anecdote: My love and passion for finance dates back the time when I was only 13 years old and used to ponder at the stock prices in the newspaper for Essay Review, countless hours. Later, at 15, and only one week into my first job at a bank, I purchased my first stock.

Today, at 25, banking and fmcg market finance still enthuse me. Every morning, I go to work motivated and raleigh with a smile, enjoying my commute time reading finance books. After drawing the fmcg, reader's attention by your story of passion, continue with your story and provide details about acid reaction how you have pursued your interest/passion and progressed along your career path these 3-4 years (or whatever your work experience is). Be specific in explaining how you have risen in positions/ responsibilities and salary in market order to pseudolistening definition, illustrate that your abilities are recognized and rewarded by your company. Future: (about 25-30 % of essay) Now explain how your past experience have shaped your future goals and objectives and fmcg market what are your plans for the future. Be clear and decisive for Essay on Judicial Review, short term goals (even if you are not 100% sure. Show that you have put some thought into it. For example, you should precisely state if you are a career enhancer and your short term goal is to rise to the next level in your current company, or if you are career changer and market your objective is to learn new skills through MBA so you can change your career path. After you have specified your short term goals, go ahead and discuss your long term goals.

It is ok to be more broad and idealistic for long term goals, but explain steps (A to A Rose for Emily, by William Faulkner Essay, B to C) to fmcg market, make sure there is pizza hut sizes, a logical connection between short term and market long term goals. For example, you should not say that your long term goal is to be CEO of acid reaction, xyz company if your past experience, current skills set and your short term goals do not at all seem to be leading to that direction. Present: (about 25-30 % of fmcg, essay) After having discussed your future goals, explain how an MBA fits in the puzzle of the grand scheme of your career path. In other words, elaborate why you believe that an MBA is the next logical step in your career path. Be specific when explaining how certain specific skills acquired during MBA will bring you closer to the fulfillment of your goals. For example, if your goal is to be an definition, entrepreneur, explicitly state how an MBA will teach you the required skills of handling competitive threats, allocating resources, and making decisions. Also, explain why now is the right time for you to fmcg market, do an MBA for further advancement in your career. Most schools (UCLA, kenan Flagler, LBS ) specifically want to pseudolistening, know why MBA now? However, even if they don't ask Why MBA, I would recommend that you should answer this question as this would help demonstrate the fmcg market, clarity of your vision. Why Target School? Once you have satisfactorily answered Why MBA? and Why MBA now? your next step is to explain 'why target school'.

Discuss how you will use their resources to by William Faulkner, achieve your goals? Remember, schools always want to hear compelling reasons for each candidates need for their particular MBA program. (10-15 % of essay) When the School asks 'Why We'? When the schools specifically ask you why you are interested in them (UCLA, Tuck, Columbia, Chicago etc.), you need to provide a detailed explanation (depending on the word-limits specified by them) how their specific resources will help you meet your objective. You may refer to a conversation with a student or a professor which will not only make your essay an interesting and engaging read, but will also validate your genuine enthusiasm for fmcg market, this schools. In short, make a convincing argument of how their offerings (classes, faculty, clubs, alumni, other programs etc.) are closely related to your goals. Go online, visit campus, classes, talk to professors, students, and pizza hut sizes alumni, and discuss your experiences of visiting classes, programs, professors, if you can. When the School doesn't ask 'Why We'? Even when the school asks a generic question Why do you need an MBA to reach your goals? it is in fact, also asking you Why do you need an MBA from our school? and How will you use our resources to achieve your goals? Therefore, it still makes sense to make a brief statement about your interest and need of their specific offerings. Contribution to the target School: Often a school will ask applicants what they will bring to their MBA program if they are selected as students (Ross, Cornell Fuqua, Kenan Flagler etc.). Market. In this case, you can refer to aids, such possible contributions as participation or leadership in particular club, in classroom discussions or team work.

You can also state that your international background would bring global perspective to teams or course work, or your personal characteristics like humor or enthusiasm will facilitate bonding between class mates or team groups. Even if the school doesnt ask you to discuss your contribution, you can still mention (if space permits) what you will bring to the school and market why you are a good match for their program? Summing up, think of answering Goals question by making logical connections between your past (past experience), and future (future goals and objectives) present (need of an MBA). Explain how your personal and professional experiences have shaped your goals, how an MBA from your target school would help you achieve your goals, and how you will add significant value to mary fisher, the school with your skills and experience. Fmcg. Furthermore, while telling your story, you need to Essay, make sure it reveals your personal characteristics e.g. leadership, persistence, intelligence, creativity, diligence, integrity ability to fmcg, work in definition teams etc. Fmcg. Lastly, and most importantly, since schools word their 'Goals' question differently based on what they are looking for in their potential students, you need to make sure to definition, structure and modify details of your story as per the essay prompt. Almost all top business schools require applicants to write a Personal statement or Goals essay in fmcg which they discuss their goals and ambitions as they pertain to the MBA degree, and often to the target schools particular program. What should I write in a Statement of Essay, Purpose or 'Goals' essay? A statement of fmcg, purpose or a Goals essay requires you to make a logical connection between your past, present, and future. This means you need to tell a story that connects your past ( past work-experience), present (your need of an walter raleigh, MBA from your target school to achieve your goals, and your future (goals and fmcg objectives).

The Schools want to see that you have a clear plan/ vision for future and you have the ability to convince them of the raleigh, same by telling your story that is not only clear and compelling, but also reveals your personal and professional attributes. Goals essay needs to market, be approached in different ways as per the specifications of essay prompt and walter raleigh poems the word limit specified by various schools. However, a typical goals essay should have the market, following structure: Structure of a typical Goals Essay: Past: (about 30-35% of essay) Begin your essay with a story/ event/ life experience that reflects passion for your chosen field e.g. marketing or finance or any other field.Make sure your opening statement is compelling enough to hook the Ad Com and make them continue reading your essay .There are several ways of making an engaging beginning: a quote, an interesting description, an walter, anecdote, a question, a startling statement, or statistics. You may choose any method that works for you to draw the fmcg market, reader into your story. The following is an example of an engaging beginning that hooks the reader with a real- life example/anecdote:

My love and passion for finance dates back the time when I was only 13 years old and used to ponder at the stock prices in mary the newspaper for countless hours. Fmcg Market. Later, at 15, and only one week into my first job at a bank, I purchased my first stock. Today, at 25, banking and finance still enthuse me. Every morning, I go to work motivated and with a smile, enjoying my commute time reading finance books. After drawing the Essay on Judicial Review, reader's attention by your story of passion, continue with your story and fmcg market provide details about how you have pursued your interest/passion and progressed along your career path these 3-4 years (or whatever your work experience is). Be specific in definition explaining how you have risen in positions/ responsibilities and salary in order to illustrate that your abilities are recognized and rewarded by your company. Future: (about 25-30 % of essay) Now explain how your past experience have shaped your future goals and objectives and what are your plans for the future.

Be clear and decisive for short term goals (even if you are not 100% sure. Show that you have put some thought into it. Market. For example, you should precisely state if you are a career enhancer and your short term goal is to rise to poems, the next level in your current company, or if you are career changer and market your objective is to learn new skills through MBA so you can change your career path. After you have specified your short term goals, go ahead and discuss your long term goals. It is ok to Faulkner, be more broad and idealistic for long term goals, but explain steps (A to market, B to C) to make sure there is a logical connection between short term and mary long term goals.

For example, you should not say that your long term goal is to be CEO of xyz company if your past experience, current skills set and your short term goals do not at all seem to market, be leading to that direction. Present: (about 25-30 % of essay) After having discussed your future goals, explain how an MBA fits in the puzzle of the grand scheme of pseudolistening definition, your career path. In other words, elaborate why you believe that an MBA is the fmcg, next logical step in your career path. Review. Be specific when explaining how certain specific skills acquired during MBA will bring you closer to the fulfillment of your goals. Fmcg Market. For example, if your goal is to be an entrepreneur, explicitly state how an pseudolistening definition, MBA will teach you the required skills of fmcg, handling competitive threats, allocating resources, and by William Faulkner Essay making decisions. Also, explain why now is the market, right time for you to do an MBA for further advancement in Review your career.

Most schools (UCLA, kenan Flagler, LBS ) specifically want to know why MBA now? However, even if they don't ask Why MBA, I would recommend that you should answer this question as this would help demonstrate the clarity of fmcg, your vision. Why Target School? Once you have satisfactorily answered Why MBA? and Why MBA now? your next step is to explain 'why target school'. Discuss how you will use their resources to pseudolistening definition, achieve your goals? Remember, schools always want to market, hear compelling reasons for each candidates need for raleigh, their particular MBA program. Fmcg. (10-15 % of raleigh, essay) When the fmcg, School asks 'Why We'? When the schools specifically ask you why you are interested in pizza hut sizes them (UCLA, Tuck, Columbia, Chicago etc.), you need to provide a detailed explanation (depending on fmcg the word-limits specified by them) how their specific resources will help you meet your objective. You may refer to a conversation with a student or a professor which will not only make your essay an interesting and engaging read, but will also validate your genuine enthusiasm for this schools. In short, make a convincing argument of aids, how their offerings (classes, faculty, clubs, alumni, other programs etc.) are closely related to your goals.

Go online, visit campus, classes, talk to professors, students, and fmcg market alumni, and discuss your experiences of visiting classes, programs, professors, if you can. When the School doesn't ask 'Why We'? Even when the school asks a generic question Why do you need an MBA to reach your goals? it is in fact, also asking you Why do you need an MBA from our school? and How will you use our resources to achieve your goals? Therefore, it still makes sense to A Rose for Emily, by William Faulkner Essay, make a brief statement about your interest and fmcg market need of pseudolistening definition, their specific offerings. Contribution to the target School: Often a school will ask applicants what they will bring to their MBA program if they are selected as students (Ross, Cornell Fuqua, Kenan Flagler etc.). Fmcg. In this case, you can refer to fisher, such possible contributions as participation or leadership in particular club, in fmcg classroom discussions or team work.

You can also state that your international background would bring global perspective to teams or course work, or your personal characteristics like humor or enthusiasm will facilitate bonding between class mates or team groups. For Emily, By William Faulkner. Even if the school doesnt ask you to discuss your contribution, you can still mention (if space permits) what you will bring to the school and fmcg market why you are a good match for definition, their program?

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1-3-1 essay style The remainder of this essay writing tutorial is based on a short sample #039;divorce essay#039; (about 1,000 words). To complete all of the associated tasks, it is easiest if you have the sample essay in front of you. A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is fmcg market, borne out pizza hut sizes, clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in fmcg three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in pizza hut sizes the number of market, single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is for Emily, by William Essay, why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to market critically examine a number of walter raleigh, sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework.

One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. Fmcg Market! For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. Pizza Hut Sizes! They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301). Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the fmcg market product of more fundamental changes in society.

Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in mary Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in market divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. Mary Aids! One example of market, these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to pizza hut sizes become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to Hart, the contradiction of fmcg, these two roles has lead to Essay conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown.

It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the market obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable.

This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to mary fisher be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the market experience of aids, social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in market some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. Pizza Hut Sizes! (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of fmcg, men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into by William Essay, practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system.

Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to fmcg the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of walter, all persuasions have shown an market increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in walter raleigh this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Fmcg Market! Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the raleigh poems norm rather than the exception.

As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the fmcg market disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents. This situation suggests that in studying the acid rain chemical modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Fmcg Market! Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Pseudolistening! Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and market G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds).

Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Definition! Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. (1995).

Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Fmcg Market! Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Pseudolistening Definition! Johnson, V. (1981). The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Family Matters . No.

48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems? Questions? Comments?

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Free Environmental Studies essays. Renewable energy is now capturing a good share of the worldwide headlines because of concerns about market declining supplies of fossil fuels, escalating population and industrialization triggering ever-increasing demand of fuels. Worldwide ethanol demand is increasing continuously. Conventional crops such as corn and sugarcane are unable to meet the global demand of bioethanol production due to their primary value of pizza hut sizes food and market, feed. Therefore, lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feedstocks for bioethanol production and mary, they are too cost effective, renewable and abundant. Bioethanol from this agricultural waste could be a promising technology, though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and efcient pretreatment methods for total delignication of lignocellulosics. In this review are discussed efficient and available technologies for bioethanol production from market agricultural waste. Keywords: Bioethanol, Pretreatment, Bioethanol production, Biomass, Lignocellulosic biomass, Agricultural waste.

Fossil energy sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, etc are important factors for the worlds present economy development, they make everything work from fuel to electricity and other goods. (Uihlein A. et al., 2009). The last few decades brought with them excessive consumption of fossil fuels, especially in large urban areas, and a high level of definition pollution. (Ballesteros I et al., 2006). The global production of oil is decreasing significantly from year to year and thats due to the expansion of human population and increasing of industrial property, which is also generating a high energy consumption. (Campbell CH, Laherrere JH, 1998). Renewable sources , as wind, water, sun, biomass, geothermal heat might be the future, the alternative needed for fmcg market the energy industry wheres the fuel production and the chemical industry may have as an alternative for the near future the biomass (Lynd LR, Wang MQ, 2003). The renewable biomass fuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, etc., derived from sugarcane, corn, switchgrass, algae, etc. can become the perfect substitutes for all petroleum-based fuels.

Each persons share of electricity and raleigh, fuel used in making food and goods and their transport represint the energy consumption rate. A possible motor fuel on fmcg market organic farms in the short and medium terms is represented by biogas. This alternative fuel can be produced by walter raleigh poems anaerobic digestion of organic material. When it is used as biofuel, the CO2 present in it is removed for increasing the energy content and it can be stored at high pressure. Biogas can be a substitute as fuel for boilers, propane and natural gas and in rural areas for electricity generation. Biogas energy usage expansion has continued across the European Union. Fmcg Market. According to mary fisher, Eur ObservER, about fmcg market 13. 4 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of walter biogas primary energy were produced during 2013, which is 1.2 Mtoe more than in fmcg 2012 representing a 10.2% growth. However, the biogas sectors momentum was more sluggish than in 2012 (16.9% between 2011 and pseudolistening, 2012, giving an additional 1.8 Mtoe) and it is expected to lose some of its impetus in 2014 in a number of countries whose sector expansion controlling policy changes will limit the future use of energy crops. 52.3 TWh (TeraWatt hour) of biogas electricity produced in 2013 in the European Union. The growth of biofuels consumption for use in transport in the European Union (EU-28) has dwindled in the past few years and finally dropped by about 1 million toe (6.8%) between 2012 and 2013 according to EurObservER, to market, a consumption level of 13.6 million toe.

Nevertheless, sustainable biofuel consumption, certified and thus eligible for inclusion in European targets increased slightly by 1.1% to 11.8 Mtoe (EurObservER Database 2013). To meet carbon dioxide reduction targets specified in the Kyoto Protocol, countries across the globe have elaborated for future energy demands, state policies toward the increased and economic utilization of biomass. This were considered as well to decrease reliance and dependence on A Rose for Emily, by William the supply of fossil fuels. Biomass can be a huge source of transport fuels such as bioethanol and is commonly used to generate power and fmcg market, heat, especially through combustion. In present ethanol is the most widely used liquid biofuel for motor vehicles (Demirbas A., 2005, Lewis SM, 1996). The importance of pseudolistening definition ethanol is increasing due to global warming and climate change. Bioethanol has been receiving widespread interest at the international, national and regional levels. Fmcg. The global market for bioethanol has entered a phase of rapid, transitional growth and many countries around the world are shifting their focus toward renewable sources for power production because of depleting crude oil reserves. The trend is extending to transport fuel as well. Ethanol has potential as a valuable replacement of gasoline in walter raleigh poems the transport fuel market. However, the cost of bioethanol production is more compared to fossil fuels.

Source: United States Energy Information Administration. Figure 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by fmcg market Year. Table 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by Year. year production consumption. 2000 297.37 283.15.

2001 317.26 261.85. 2002 362.96 303.34. 2003 454.31 355.49. 2004 501.94 437.80. 2005 578.03 494.44. 2006 701.94 623.52. 2007 910.48 797.22. 2008 1201.22 1092.45. 2009 1296.34 1252.60.

2010 1487.61 1376.94. 2011 1448.46 1349.63. Current ethanol production based on corn, starch and sugar substances may not be desirable due to their food and feed value. Pizza Hut Sizes. Economy of the ethanol production process from grains is fmcg, depen- dent on Essay the market of its by-product e distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) e as animal food. The market of DDGS may not expand like that of ethanol in the future (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Cost is an important factor for large scale expansion of bioethanol production. Fmcg Market. The green gold fuel from lignocellulosic wastes avoids the chemical reaction, existing competi- tion of food versus fuel caused by grain based bioethanol production (Bjerre et al., 1996). It has been estimated that 442 billion liters of bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass and that total crop residues and wasted crops can produce 491 billion liters of bio- ethanol per fmcg year, about 16 times higher than the actual world bioethanol production (Kim S., 2006). Lignocellulosic materials are renewable, low cost and are abundantly available. Definition. It includes crop resi- dues, grasses, sawdust, wood chips, etc. Extensive research has been carried out on ethanol production from lignocellulosics in the past two decades.

Hence bioethanol production could be the route to the effective utilization of agricultural wastes. Rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw, and sugarcane bagasse are the major agricultural wastes in terms of fmcg market quantity of biomass available (Kim S., 2006). Current industrial processes for bioethanol production use sugarcane (Southern hemisphere) or cereal grain (Nothern Hemisphere) as feedstocks; but they have to compete directly with food sector (Wheals et al, 1999). Although these are the acid reaction, predominant feedstocks that are used today, projected fuel demands indicate that new alternative, low-priced feedstocks are needed to reduce ethanol production costs (Palmarola-Adrados et al, 2005). The largest potential feedstock for ethanol is lignocellulosic biomass, which includes materials such as agricultural residues (corn stover, crop straws, sugar cane bagasse), herbaceous crops (alfalfa, switchgrass), short rotation woody crops, forestry residues, waste paper and other wastes (municipal and industrial) (Kim and Dale, 2005). Market. Bioethanol production from pseudolistening these feedstocks could be an attractive alternative for disposal of these residues (Wymam, 2001). Importantly, lignocellulosic feedstocks do not interfere with food security. Moreover, bioethanol is very important for both rural and urban areas in terms of energy security reason, environmental concern, employment opportunities, agricultural development, foreign exchange saving, socioeconomic issues etc.

To avoid conflicts between food use and industrial use of crops, only wasted crops are assumed to market, be available for producing ethanol. Wasted crops are defined as crops lost during the year at all stages between the farm and walter poems, households level during handling, storage and transport. The agriculture residue includes corn stover, crop straws and sugar cane bagasse. The full utilization of some crop residues may give rise to soil erosion and decrease soil organic matter. Therefore, a 60% ground cover by residues, instead of 30%, is recommended due to fmcg market, uncertainties of A Rose for Emily, by William local situation (Kim and market, Dale, 2004). Most wasted biomass comes from A Rose for Emily, Essay rice, corn, and wheat. The US, Asia and the European Union are leading producers of fmcg agricultural by-products, such as straw from rice, corn and cereal crops. Surplus straw offers an ideal feedstock for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol, presenting no competition to the production of pseudolistening definition food or animal feed. Nor is any additional land use required to fmcg, produce bioethanol based on these types of feedstock, as they are automatically created as a by-product during existing production of rice, maize and cereals. As a result, about 240 million tons of cereal straw are produced each year as an agricultural by-product in the EU alone.

Only a small part of this is pizza hut sizes, currently utilized. Long term studies have shown that up to 60% could be taken of the field and are thus available for further uses. By processing this amount of straw, about 25% of the predicted EU demand for petrol could be replaced by market cellulosic ethanol in 2020, solely out of surplus material. This means that cellulosic ethanol can play a key role along Europe??s path towards sustainable and climate-friendly road transport. Figure 2. A Rose For Emily, Faulkner. Lignocellulosic feedstocks of market different regions worldwide.

In the US, corn stover is the mary fisher, main residue available for conversion into cellulosic ethanol, the second most important feedstock being cereal straw. The Billion Ton study released by the Department of fmcg Energy estimates the volumes of corn stover and cereal straw available in A Rose by William Essay a sustainable way at 190-290 million tons. In Brazil, where sugar cane has already been used to produce bioethanol for many years, some 545 million tons of sugar cane are forecast for the 2011-2012 harvest, which will in turn give rise to approx. 73 million tons of bagasse. Even after deduction of the amounts used to generate energy in existing plants, around 11 million additional tons of cellulosic ethanol could be produced.

This is equivalent to about 50% of Brazil??s current ethanol production (Clariant International Ltd, 1995 2012). The most important processing challenge in the production of market biofuel is pretreatment of the biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three main constituents namely hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Pretreatment methods refer to the solubilization and separation of one or more of these components of biomass. It makes the remaining solid biomass more accessible to further chemical or biological treatment (Demirbas, 2005). The lignocellulosic complex is made up of a matrix of raleigh poems cellulose and lignin bound by hemicellulose chains. Fmcg. The pretreatment is done to break the matrix in order to reduce the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose and increase the fraction of amorphous cellulose, the most suitable form for enzymatic attack. Pretreatment is undertaken to bring about a change in walter raleigh poems the macroscopic and microscopic size and structure of biomass as well as submicroscopic structure and chemical composition. It makes the lignocellulosic biomass susceptible to quick hydrolysis with increased yields of monomeric sugars (Mosier et al, 2005). Goals of an effective pretreatment process are formation of sugars directly or subsequently by hydrolysis to fmcg, avoid loss and/ or degradation of pseudolistening definition sugars formed to limit formation of inhibitory products to fmcg, reduce energy demands and to fisher aids, minimize costs.

Physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological treatments are the four fundamental types of pretreatment techniques employed. In general a combination of these processes is used in the pretreatment step. 3.1. Physical pretreatment. Physical pretreatment can increase the accessible surface area and fmcg market, size of pores, and decrease the crystallinity and degrees of polymerization of cellulose. Raleigh. Different types of physical processes such as milling (e.g. ball milling, two-roll milling, hammer milling, colloid milling, and vibro energy milling) and fmcg market, irradiation (e.g. by A Rose for Emily, by William Faulkner gamma rays, electron beam or microwaves) can be used to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis or biodegradability of lignocellulosic waste materials. Milling can be employed to fmcg market, alter the fisher aids, inherent ultrastructure of lignocelluloses and degree of crystallinity, and consequently make it more amenable to cellulase (Mais et al, 2002).

Milling and size reduction have been applied prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or even other pretreatment processes with dilute acid, steam or ammonia, on several lignocellulosic waste materials, MSW and activated sludge (Muller et al, 2007). Among the milling processes, colloid mill, fibrillator and dissolver are suitable only for wet materials, e.g. wet paper from domestic waste separation or paper pulps, while the extruder, roller mill, cryogenic mill and hammer mill are usually used for dry materials. The ball mill can be used for either dry or wet materials. Grinding with hammer milling of waste paper is a favorable method (Walpot, 1986). Milling can improve susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the size of the materials, and degree of crystallinity of lignocelluloses (Fan et al, 1980) , which improves enzymatic degradation of these materials toward ethanol or biogas. Without any pretreatment, corn stover with sizes of 5375 ??m was 1.5 times more productive than larger corn stover particles of 425710 ??m (Zeng et al 2007). Irradiation by e.g. Market. gamma rays, electron beam and microwaves can improve enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. The combination of the pseudolistening definition, radiation and other methods such as acid treatment can further accelerate enzymatic hydrolysis (Kumakura and Kaetsu, 1984). Irradiation has enhanced enzymatic degradation of cellulose into glucose. However, pre-irradiation is more effective in air than in acid solution (Mamar and fmcg, Hadjadj, 1990).

3.2. Physico-chemical pretreatment. Pretreatments that combine both chemical and physical processes are referred to as physico-chemical processes (Chandra et al, 2007). 3.2.1. Steam explosion (autohydrolysis) Among the physico-chemical processes, steaming with or without explosion (autohydrolysis) has received substantial attention in pretreatment for both ethanol and biogas production. The pretreatment removes most of the hemicellulose, thus improving the enzymatic digestion. In steam explosion, the pressure is suddenly reduced and makes the raleigh poems, materials undergo an explosive decompression. High pressure and consequently high temperature, typically between 160 and 260 ??C, for a few seconds (e.g.

30 s) to fmcg market, several minutes (e.g. 20 min), were used in steam explosion (Boussaid et al, 1999), (Varga et al, 2004), (Sun et al, 2004). The steam explosion process is well documented and mary fisher aids, was tested in lab-and pilot processes by several research groups and companies. Its energy cost is relatively moderate, and it satisfies all the requirements of the pretreatment process. The process of steam explosion was demonstrated on a commercial scale at the Masonite plants. Increase in temperature up to a certain level can effectively release hemicellulosic sugars. However, the sugars loss steadily increases by fmcg further increasing the temperature, resulting in a decrease in rain total sugar recovery (Ruiz et al, 2008). Special care should be taken in selecting the steam explosion conditions in order to avoid excessive degradation of the physical and chemical properties of the cellulose. In very harsh conditions, lower enzymatic digestibility of lignocelluloses may also be observed after steam explosion. For instance, generation of condensation substances between the polymers in steam explosion of wheat straw may lead to a more recalcitrant residue (Sun et al, 2005).

3.2.2. Steam explosion with addition of SO2. Steam pretreatment can be performed with addition of market sulfur dioxide (SO2), while the aim of pizza hut sizes adding this chemical is to improve recovering both cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. The treatment can be carried out by 14% SO2 (w/w substrate) at elevated temperatures, e.g. 160230 ??C, for a period of fmcg market e.g. 10 min (Eklund et al, 1995).

3.2.3. Ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) AFEX is one of the alkaline physico-chemical pretreatment processes. Here the biomass is exposed to liquid ammonia at relatively high temperature (e.g. 90100 ??C) for a period of e.g. 30 min, followed by immediate reduction of pressure. The effective parameters in the AFEX process are ammonia loading, temperature, water loading, blowdown pressure, time, and number of treatments (Holtzapple et al, 1991). The AFEX process produces only a pretreated solid material, while some other pretreatments such as steam explosion produce a slurry that can be separated in definition a solid and a liquid fractions (Mosier et al, 2005). The AFEX process can either modify or effectively reduce the lignin fraction of the fmcg, lignocellulosic materials, while the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions may remain intact.

At optimum conditions, AFEX can significantly improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum conditions for AFEX depend on the lignocellulosic materials. For example, the optimum conditions in pretreatment of switch grass were reported to be about 100??C, ammonia loading of Essay 1:1 kg of ammonia per kg of dry matter, and 5 min retention time (Alizadeh et al, 2005). Market. One of the major advantages of AFEX pretreatment is no formation of some types of chemical inhibitory by-products, which are produced during the other pretreatment methods, such as furans in dilute-acid and steam explosion pretreatment. However, part of phenolic fragments of lignin and other cell wall extractives may remain on the cellulosic surface. Therefore, washing with water might be necessary to remove part of these inhibitory components, although increasing the amount of wastewater from the process (Chundawat et al, 2007. However, there are some disadvantages in using the AFEX process compared to some other processes. Fmcg Market. AFEX is more effective on the biomass that contains less lignin, and the AFEX pretreatment does not significantly solubilize hemicellulose compared to pseudolistening definition, other pretreatment processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Furthermore, ammonia must be recycled after the pretreatment to reduce the cost and protect the fmcg market, environment (Eggeman and Elander, 2005), (Sun and Cheng, 2002).

3.2.4. CO2 explosion. Supercritical carbon dioxide has been considered as an extraction solvent for non-extractive purposes, due to several advantages such as availability at relatively low cost, non-toxicity, non-flammability, easy recovery after extraction, and environmental acceptability (Zheng and Tsao, 1996). Supercritical carbon dioxide displays gas-like mass transfer properties, besides a liquid-like solvating power (Zheng et al, 1995). A Rose For Emily, By William Faulkner. It was shown that in the presence of water, supercritical CO2 can efficiently improve the enzymatic digestibility of aspen (hardwood) and fmcg market, southern yellow pine (softwood) (Kim and Hong, 2001).

The delignification with carbon dioxide at high pressures can be improved by co-solvents such as ethanolwater or acetic acidwater, and can efficiently increase the definition, lignin removal. Carbon dioxide molecules should be comparable in size to those of water and ammonia, and should be able to penetrate small pores accessible to fmcg, water and ammonia molecules. 3.2.5. Liquid hot-water pretreatment. Cooking of lignocellulosic materials in liquid hot water (LHW) is pseudolistening definition, one of the hydrothermal pretreatment methods applied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials since several decades ago in e.g. pulp industries. Water under high pressure can penetrate into the biomass, hydrate cellulose, and remove hemicellulose and part of lignin. The major advantages are no addition of chemicals and no requirement of corrosion-resistant materials for fmcg hydrolysis reactors in this process. A Rose By William Faulkner. The feedstock size reduction is a highly energy-demanding operation for the huge bulk of materials on fmcg a commercial scale; there could be no need for size reduction in LHW pretreatment. In addition, the on Judicial Review, process has a much lower need of chemicals for neutralization of the produced hydrolyzate, and produces lower amounts of neutralization residues compared to many processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Hemicelluloses carbohydrates are dissolved as liquid-soluble oligosaccharides and can be separated from insoluble cellulosic and lignin fractions. LHW can enlarge the accessible and market, susceptible surface area of the aids, cellulose and make it more accessible to hydrolytic enzymes (Zeng et al, 2007).

Pretreatments with steam and LHW are both hydrothermal pretreatments. Higher pentosan recovery and lower formation of inhibitory components are the main advantages of LHW pretreatment compared to steam explosion. For instance, treating of fmcg market de-starched corn fiber with hot water at pseudolistening, 160 ??C for fmcg 20 min dissolved 75% of the xylan (Dien et al, 2006). At higher temperatures, e.g. 220 ??C, LHW can dissolve hemicelluloses completely and remove lignin partially within 2 min with no chemicals used (Sreenath et al, 1998). Xylan removal via percolation reactor, or by base addition (adjusting the pH) during the walter raleigh, process, has been suggested to reduce the fmcg market, formation of inhibitors such as furfural and degradation of xylose(Laser et al, 2002) . Pizza Hut Sizes. The pH, processing temperature, and time should be controlled in order to optimize the enzymatic digestibility by LHW pretreatment. An optimized condition for market LHW pretreatment of corn stover was reported to be 190 ??C for Essay on Judicial 15 min, in which 90% of the cellulose conversion was observed by subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis . Fmcg. LHW pretreatment at 160 ??C and a pH above 4.0 can dissolve 50% of the fibers from A Rose by William Essay corn fibers in 20 min (Mosier, 2005). 3.2.6. Microwave oven and electron beam irradiation pretreatment.

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in a microwave oven is also a feasible method which uses the fmcg, high heating efciency of a microwave oven and it is also easy to operate (Bjerre et al, 1996). Microwave treatment utilizes thermal and non-thermal effects generated by microwaves in aqueous environments. In the thermal method, internal heat is generated in the biomass by microwave radiation, resulting from the Essay on Judicial, vibrations of the polar bonds in the biomass and the surrounding aqueous medium. Thus a hot spot is created within the inhomogeneous material. This unique heating feature results in an explosion effect among the particles and market, improves the disrup- tion of recalcitrant structures of lignocellulose (Hu and Wen, 2008). Thermal pretreatment provides an acidic environment for autohydrolysis by releasing acetic acid from the lignocellulosic materials. In the non-thermal method, i.e., the electron beam irradiation method, polar bonds vibrate, as they are aligned with a continu- ously changing magnetic eld and the disruption and pizza hut sizes, shock to the polar bonds accelerates chemical, biological and physical processes (Sridar, 1998). High energy radiation results in more changes in cellulosic biomass including increase of specic surface area, decrease of degree of polymerization and crystallinity of cellulose, hydrolysis of hemicellulose and partial depolymerization of lignin. 3.3.

Chemical pretreatment. 3.3.1. Alkaline hydrolysis. Alkaline pretreatment refers to the application of alkaline solutions such as NaOH, Ca(OH)2 (lime) or ammonia to remove lignin and a part of the hemicellulose, and efficiently increase the accessibility of fmcg enzyme to mary fisher, the cellulose. The alkaline pretreatment can result in a sharp increase in saccharification, with manifold yields. Pretreatment can be performed at low temperatures but with a relatively long time and fmcg market, high concentration of the base. For instance, when soybean straw was soaked in ammonia liquor (10%) for 24 h at room temperature, the hemicellulose and lignin decreased by 41.45% and 30.16% respectively (Xu et al, 2007). However, alkaline pretreatment was shown to be more effective on agricultural residues than on wood materials. 3.3.2. Alkaline peroxide. Alkaline peroxide is an effective method for pretreatment of acid reaction biomass.

In this method, the lignocelluloses are soaked in pH-adjusted water (e.g. to fmcg, pH 1112 using NaOH) containing H2O2 at room temperatures for a period of time (e.g. 624 h). The process can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis by delignification. 3.3.3. Organosolv process. Organosolv can be used to provide treated cellulose suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis, using an organic or aqueous organic solvent to remove or decompose the network of lignin and possibly a part of the hemicellulose (Curreli et al, 1997). In this process, lignocellulose is mixed with organic liquid and water and heated to Essay, dissolve the lignin and part of the market, hemicellulose, leaving reactive cellulose in fisher aids the solid phase.

In addition, a catalyst may be added either to reduce the operating temperature or to enhance the delignification process (Chum et al, 1985) . Lignin in the biomass can be extracted from the market, solvent for pizza hut sizes e.g. generation of electricity, process heat, lignin-based adhesives and fmcg market, other products, due to its high purity and low molecular weight (Pan et al, 2005). In organosolv pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials, a large number of organic or aqueous-organic solvents at definition, temperatures of 150200 ??C can be used with or without addition of catalysts such as oxalic, salicylic, and acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, the solvent may accompany acetic acid released from market acetyl groups developed by hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. For Emily, By William Faulkner Essay. A variety of organic solvents such as alcohols, esters, ketones, glycols, organic acids, phenols, and ethers have been used. However, the price of solvent and market, simplicity in recovery of solvent should also be considered. The applied solvents should be separated by Essay on Judicial e.g. evaporation and condensation, and recycled to fmcg, reduce the chemical reaction, operational costs of the process. Removal of solvents from the pretreated cellulose is usually necessary because the solvents might be inhibitors to the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or digestion of hydrolyzate (Sun and Cheng, 2002). 3.3.4. Wet oxidation. Wet oxidation has been applied as pretreatment for both ethanol and biogas production.

In this process, the fmcg, materials are treated with water and air or oxygen at temperatures above 120??C (e.g. 148200??C) for a period of mary aids e.g. 30 min (Palonen et al, 2004). The temperature, followed by reaction time and oxygen pressure, are the most important parameters in wet oxidation (Schmidt and Thomsen, 1998). Market. The process is exothermic, and therefore it becomes self-supporting with respect to heat while the reaction is initiated. Pizza Hut Sizes. Wet oxidation of the fmcg market, hemicellulose faction is walter raleigh poems, a balance between solubilization and degradation. This process is an effective method in market separat ing the cellulosic fraction from by William Essay lignin and hemicellulose. Oxygen participates in the degradation reactions and allows operation at comparatively reduced temperatures by fmcg market enhancing generation of organic acids. However, the control of reactor temperature is critical because of the fast rates of reaction and mary, heat generation. The main reactions in wet oxidation pretreatment are the formation of acids from hydrolytic processes, as well as oxidative reactions. Market. All three fractions of lignocellulosic materials are affected in this process.

The hemicelluloses are extensively cleaved to monomeric sugars; the lignins undergo both cleavage and oxidation; and cellulose is partly degraded. The cellulose becomes highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis (Schultz et al, 1984). Similar to many other delignification methods, the lignin produced by walter raleigh wet oxidation cannot be used as a fuel, since a major part of the lignin undergoes both cleavage and oxidation. This phenomenon considerably reduces the income from this by-product at fmcg market, industrial scale for ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials (Galbe and Zacchi, 2002) . Wet oxidation can also be performed by oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Studies showed that the chemical, pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide greatly enhanced the susceptibility of cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis. About 50% of the lignin and most hemicellulose were solubilized by treating the fmcg, biomass with 2% H2O2 at 30??C within 8 h, giving 95% efficiency of glucose production from cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. 3.3.5. Ozonolysis pretreatment.

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can be performed by treatment with ozone, referred to A Rose for Emily, Faulkner, as ozonolysis pretreatment. Market. This method can effectively degrade lignin and part of hemicellulose. The pretreatment is rain reaction, usually carried out at room temperature, and does not lead to inhibitory compounds (Vidal, 1988). Fmcg. However, ozonolysis might be expensive since a large amount of Essay on Judicial ozone is required (Sun and Chang, 2002). The main parameters in fmcg market ozonolysis pretreatment are moisture content of the sample, particle size, and ozone concentration in the gas flow. Among these parameters, an essential factor is the percentage of water in the feed, and it has the most significant effect on the solubilization.

The optimum water content was found to fisher aids, be around 30%, corresponding to the saturation point of the fibers. Market. This is an attractive pretreatment method since it does not leave acidic, basic, or toxic residues in the treated material (Neely, 1984). 3.3.6. Mary Fisher. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment. Treatment of market lignocellulosic materials with acid at a high temperature can efficiently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis. Sulfuric acid is the most applied acid, while other acids such as HCl and pizza hut sizes, nitric acid were also reported (Taherzadeh, 2007) . The acid pretreatment can operate either under a high temperature and low acid concentration (dilute-acid pretreatment) or under a low temperature and high acid concentration (concentrated-acid pretreatment).

The lower operating temperature in concentrated-acid pretreatment (e.g. 40 ??C) is a clear advantage compared to dilute-acid processes. However, high acid concentration (e.g. 3070%) in fmcg the concentrated-acid process makes it extremely corrosive and dangerous. Walter. Therefore, this process requires either specialized non-metallic constructions or expensive alloys. The acid recovery, which is necessary in the concentrated-acid process for fmcg economical reasons, is an energy-demanding process. On the pizza hut sizes, other hand, the neutralization process produces large amounts of gypsum. The high investment and maintenance costs also reduce the commercial interest in this process as a commercial option (Sun et al, 2004). Dilute-acid hydrolysis is probably the most commonly applied method among the chemical pretreatment methods. It can be used either as a pretreatment of lignocellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis, or as the actual method of hydrolyzing to fermentable sugars.

Different types of reactors such as batch, percolation, plug flow, countercurrent, and market, shrinking-bed reactors, for either pretreatment or hydrolysis of fisher aids lignocellulosic materials by the dilute-acid processes, have been applied. The major drawback of some pretreatment methods, particularly at low pH is the formation of different types of inhibitors such as carboxylic acids, furans and fmcg market, phenolic compounds (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Pizza Hut Sizes. These chemicals may not affect the enzymatic hydrolyses, but they usually inhibit the microbial growth and fmcg, fermentation, which results in definition less yield and productivity of ethanol or biogas. Therefore, the pretreatments at low pH should be selected properly in fmcg market order to walter raleigh, avoid or at least reduce the formation of these inhibitors. 3.4.

Biological pretreatment. Microorganisms can also be used to treat the lignocelluloses and enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The applied microorganisms usually degrade lignin and hemicellulose but very little part of cellulose, since cellulose is more resistance than the market, other parts of lignocelluloses to the biological attack. Several fungi, e.g. brown-, white- and soft-rot fungi, have been used for this purpose. White-rot fungi are among the on Judicial, most effective microorganisms for fmcg biological pretreatment of lignocelluloses (Sun and A Rose for Emily, by William, Cheng, 2002). Biological treatments with microorganisms or enzymes are also investigated to improve digestion in biogas production. The biological pretreatment might be used not only for lignin removal, but also for biological removal of specific components such as antimicrobial substances (Srilatha et al, 1995). Solid-state fermentation of orange peels by fungal strains of fmcg market Sporotrichum, Aspergillus, Fusarium and acid reaction, Penicillum enhanced the fmcg, availability of feed constituents and reduced the level of the antimicrobial substances. In a similar work, cultivation of white-rot fungi was used to detoxify olive mill wastewater and acid rain reaction, improve its digestion. Low energy requirement, no chemical requirement, and mild environmental conditions are the main advantages of biological pretreatment.

However, the market, treatment rate is very low in most biological pretreatment processes (Sun and Cheng, 2002) Table 2. Summary of some bio-delignication processes. Substrate Microorganism for lignin degradation Time of pretreatment % of substrate converted to reducing sugars. Sugarcane bagasse Pleurotus ostreatus. Phanerochaete sordida; Pycnoporus cinnabarinus 115. Phlebia sp. MG-60 (A marine fungus) 5 weeks. 92% delignication; total reducing sugar. yield 11.26 0.73 mg/g.

71% delignication; total reducing sugar. yield 11.56 0.51 mg/g. 73.6% delignication; Total Reducing sugar. 41% lignin degraded. 4. Enzymatic hydrolysis. Saccharication is the reaction, critical step for bioethanol production where complex carbohydrates are converted to simple monomers. Compared to acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis requires less energy and mild environment conditions (Ferreira et al, 2009)). The optimum conditions for cellulase have been reported as temperature of 40-50 C and pH 4-5 (Neves et al, 2007). Assay conditions for xylanase have also been reported to be 50 C temperature and pH 4-5 (Park et al, 2002).

Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is advantageous because of fmcg its low toxicity, low utility cost and low corrosion compared to acid or alkaline hydrolysis (Taherzadeh and walter, Karimi, 2007). Moreover, no inhibitory by-product is formed in enzymatic hydrolysis (Ferreira et al, 2009). However, enzymatic hydrolysis is carried out by cellulase enzymes that are highly substrate specic (Banerjee et al, 2010). Market. Here cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes cleave the pizza hut sizes, bonds of fmcg cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. Definition. Cellulose contains glucan and hemicellulose contains different sugar units such as mannan, xylan, glucan, galactan and arabinan. Cellulase enzymes involve endo and exoglucanase and b-glucosidases. Endoglucanase (endo 1,4-D glucanhydrolase or E.C. attacks the low crystallinity regions of the cellulose ber, exoglucanase (1,4-b-D glucan cellobiohydrolase or E.C. removes the cellobiase units from the free chain ends and nally cellobiose units are hydrolysed to glucose by b-glucosidase (E.C. Hemicellulolytic enzymes are more complex and are a mixture of at least eight enzymes such as endo-1,4-b-D-xylanases, exo-1,4-b-D xylocur- onidases, a-L-arabinofuranosidases, endo-1,4-b-D mannanases, b-mannosidases, acetyl xylan esterases, a-glucoronidases and a-galactosidases (Jorgensen et al, 2003). Cellulose is hydrolysed to glucose whereas hemicellulose gives rise to several pentoses and hexoses. Several species of Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Thermonospora, Bacillus, Bac- teriodes, Ruminococcus, Erwinia, Acetovibrio, Microbispora, Strepto- myces are able to produce cellulase enzyme. Many fungi such as Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Phanerochaete, Humicola, Schizophillum sp. also have been reported for cellulase production. Among the various cellulolytic microbial strains Trichoderma is fmcg, one of the most well studied cellulase and hemicellulase producing fungal strains (Xu et al, 1998). Trichoderma is able to produce at least two cellobiohydrolases and ve endoglucanases and three endoxylanases. Essay Review. However, Trichoderma lacks b-glucosidase activity that plays an efcient role in polymer conversion. On the other hand, Aspergillus is a very efcient b-glucosidase producer.

Trichoderma cellulase supplemented with extra b-glucosidase has been studied several times. Combina- tion of Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 cellulase and fmcg, cellobiase from Aspergillus niger ZU-07 improved the pseudolistening definition, hydrolysis yield to fmcg, 81.2% with cellobiase activity enhanced to 10 CBU/g substrate (Chen et al, 2008). Various factors inuence yields of monomer sugars from ligno- cellulose. Temperature, pH and mixing rate are the main factors of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (Olsson et al, 1996). Other factors that affect yield are substrate concentration, cellulase enzyme loading, and surfactant addition. High substrate concentration may lead to substrate inhibition. Cellulase contributes to mary, the major cost of the lignocellulosic ethanol technology. Therefore, an efcient pretreatment is to be selected to decrease cellulose crystallinity and to remove lignin to market, the maximum extent, so that hydrolysis time as well as cellulase loading will be minimized. Surfactants modify the cellulose surface by adsorbing lignin onto surfactant and thus the surfactant prevents the enzyme from unproductive binding with lignin and lowers enzyme loading (Eriksson et al, 2002). The saccharied biomass is used for fermentation by several microorganisms.

But the A Rose for Emily, Faulkner Essay, industrial utilization of lignocelluloses for bioethanol production is hindered by the lack of ideal microor- ganisms which can efciently ferment both pentose and hexose sugars (Talebnia et al, 2010). For a commercially viable ethanol production method, an ideal microorganism should have broad substrate utilization, high ethanol yield and productivity, should have the ability to withstand high concentrations of ethanol and high temperature, should be tolerant to inhibitors present in hydrolysate and have cellulolytic activity. Genetically modied or engineered microor- ganisms are thus used to achieve complete utilization of the sugars in the hydrolysate and fmcg market, better production benets. The processes usually employed in the fermentation of ligno- cellulosic hydrolysate are simultaneous saccharication and fermentation (SSF) and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Conventionally or traditionally the SHF process has been employed but SSF is superior for A Rose for Emily, by William ethanol production since it can improve ethanol yields by removing end product inhibition and eliminate the need for fmcg separate reactors. It is also cost effective but difference in pseudolistening definition optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fmcg, fermentation poses some limitations (Neves et al, 2007) . The higher ethanol yield coefcient from definition SSF would be partially due to more conver- sion of xylose to xylitol under the fmcg, SSF conditions (Buaban et al, 2010). A compar- ative study between the two processes (SHF and SSF) is presented in Table 3. Table 3. Comparison between the two main fermentation techniques.

Fermentation process Features and advantages Limitations. and fermentation Low costs. Higher ethanol yields due to removal of mary fisher aids end product inhibition of saccharication step. Reduces the number of reactors required Each step can be processed at its optimal operating conditions. Separate steps minimize interaction between the steps Difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fermentation.

End product inhibition minimizes the yield of fmcg ethanol. Rain Chemical. Chance of contamination due to long period process. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation. Studies have shown that SSF is a better alternative to SHF. The slow xylose consumption during fermentation in SHF may be due to the presence of toxic compounds which inhibit the fmcg market, growth and mary aids, fermentation activity of the microorganism. The drawback of SSF can be removed by using thermo-tolerant micro- organisms like Kluyveromyces marxianus which has been developed to withstand the higher temperatures needed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Apart from SSF or SHF, the available alternatives are consoli- dated bioprocessing (CBP) and simultaneous saccharication and co-fermentation (SSCF) (Cardona et al, 2009). In CBP, cellulase production, biomass hydrolysis and fmcg market, ethanol fermentation are all together carried out in a single reactor . The process is also known as direct microbial conversion (DMC). Mono- or co-culture of microorganisms is generally used to ferment cellulose directly to ethanol. Application of CBP requires no capital investment for purchasing enzyme or its production. Bacteria such as Clostridium thermocellum and some fungi including Neurospora crassa, Fusarium oxysporum and Paecilomyces sp have shown this type of activity.

However, CBP is not an efcient process because of poor ethanol yields and long fermentation periods (3-12 days) (Szczodrak and on Judicial, Fiedurek, 1996). In SSCF the co-fermenting microorganisms need to be compatible in terms of operating pH and fmcg market, temperature . A combination of Candida shehatae and rain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reported as suitable for the SSCF process (Neves et al, 2007). Fmcg Market. Sequential fermentation with two different microor- ganisms in different time periods of the fermentation process for better utilization of sugar has also been employed using S. cerevisiae in the rst phase for Essay on Judicial hexose utilization and C. shehatae in fmcg market the second phase for pentose utilization but ethanol yields achieved are not high (Sanchez and Cardona, 2008). Some native or wild type microorganisms used in the fermen- tation are S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, Pachy- solen tannophilus, C. shehatae, Pichia stipitis, Candida brassicae, Mucor indicus etc. Among all the acid rain chemical, best known yeast and bacteria employed in ethanol production from hexoses are S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis respectively . Market. But S. cerevisiae cannot utilize the main C-5 sugar e xylose e of the hydrolysate . Native organisms such as Pichia and Candida species can be used in place of S. cerevisiae and they can utilize xylose but their ethanol production rate is at least vefold lower than that observed with S. cerevisiae . Different microorganisms have shown different yields of ethanol depending on their mono- mer utilization (Table 4). Table 4 Ethanol yields from pizza hut sizes various substrates by various microorganisms. Substrate Fermenting microbe Yield of ethanol Feature of the employed microorganism. Can ferment both glucose and market, xylose.

Utilizes xylose and mary fisher, glucose present. Adapted at increased concentration. Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only market, glucose. Ferment glucose rst and fisher, then. xylose from the mixture. Sugar cane bagasse. Rice straw Pichia stipitis BCC15191. Recombinant Escherichia coli KO11.

Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124. Pichia stipitis A. Candida shehatae NCL-3501. Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 0.29 0.02 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) after 24 h. 31.50 g of ethanol/L in 48 h equivalent to a theoretical maximum yield of 91.5% 0.35 gp/gs Calculated as nal ethanol. 0.41 gp/gs concentration divided by total sugar in fmcg the fermentation medium. 0.45 g/g and 0.5 g/g of sugar utilized produced from autohydrolysate by free and immobilized cells in 48 h.

0.37 g/g and 0.47 g/g of sugar utilized produced from acid hydrolysate by free and immobilized cells in 48 h. Maximum ethanol production achieved 4 g/L. Maximum ethanol production achieved 6 g/L (78% of theoretical maximum) Can ferment both glucose and Essay on Judicial Review, xylose. Utilizes xylose and glucose present in hydrolysates. Adapted at increased concentration of fmcg hydrolysate. Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of acid rain chemical reaction sugar. Ferment only glucose.

Ferment glucose rst and then xylose from the mixture. Genetic engineering has been employed to develop the fmcg market, various aspects of fermentation from higher yield to better and wide substrate utilization to increased recovery rates. Pseudolistening. A number of genetically modied microorganisms such as P. stipitis BCC15191 (Buaban et al, 2010) , P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124, recombinant E. coli KO11, C. shehatae NCL-3501 S. Fmcg. cerevisiae ATCC 26603 have been developed. Strict anaerobic hemophilic bacteria such as Clostridium sp. and Thermoanaerobacter sp. have been proposed to explore the benets of fermentation at elevated temperatures. Some other thermo-tolerant microorganisms developed are K. marxianus, Candida lusitanieae and mary, Z. Fmcg Market. mobilis (Bjerre et al, 1996). Lignocellulosic biomass has been projected to be one of the main resources for economically attractive bioethanol production.

Though theoretical ethanol yields from pseudolistening definition sugar and starch (g ethanol/ g substrate) are higher than from lignocellulose, these conventional sources are insufcient for worldwide bioethanol production. In that aspect agricultural wastes are renewable, less costly and abundantly available in nature. Agricultural wastes do not demand separate land, water, and energy requirements. They do not have food value as well. For economically feasible bioethanol production, several hindrances are to be overcome. These refer to fmcg market, the four major aspects which are feedstock, conversion technology, hydrolysis process, and fermentation conguration. With regard to feedstock major obstacles are cost, supply, harvesting, and handling. As regards conversion technology the hindrances are biomass pro- cessing, proper and cost effective pretreatment technology to on Judicial Review, liberate cellulose and hemicellulose from their complex with lignin. In respect of the hydrolysis process the challenge is to achieve an efcient process for depolymerization of cellulose and hemi- cellulose to produce fermentable monomers with high concentra- tion. In this aspect enzymatic hydrolysis may be the most potent alternative process for saccharication of market complex polymer. Several efforts have been made to reduce the cost of cellulase enzyme to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

Finally, in case of fermentation conguration, the challenges involved are xylose and glucose co-fermentation, and the use of recombinant microbial strains. In conclusion it may be said that to solve the technology bottlenecks of the conversion process, novel science and efcient technology are to be applied, so that bioethanol production from agricultural wastes may be successfully developed and optimized in the near future. 1. Buffiere P, Loisel D, Bernet N, Delgenes JP. Towards new indicators for the prediction of solid waste anaerobic digestion properties. Water Sci. Technol. 2006;53:233241. 2. Grethelin HE. The effect of for Emily, by William pore size distribution on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates. Biotechnol.

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Xu Z, Wang Q, Jiang Z, Yang X-X, Ji Y. Market. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw. Biomass Bioenerg. Walter Raleigh Poems. 2007;31:162167. 52. Curreli N, Fadda MB, Rescigno A, Rinaldi AC, Soddu G, Sollai F, Vaccargiu S, Sanjust E, Rinaldi A. Mild alkaline/oxidative pretreatment of wheat straw. Process Biochem. 1997;32:665670. 53. Fmcg Market. Itoh H, Wada M, Honda Y, Kuwahara M, Watanabe T. Bioorganosolve pretreatments for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of beech wood by ethanolysis and white rot fungi. A Rose For Emily,. J. Biotechnol. 2003;103:273280.

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Pan X, Arato C, Gilkes N, Gregg D, Mabee W, Pye K, Xiao Z, Zhang X, Saddler J. Biorefining of softwoods using ethanol organosolv pulping: Preliminary evaluation of process streams for manufacture of fuel-grade ethanol and co-products. Biotechnol. Walter Raleigh Poems. Bioeng. 2005;90:473481. 57. Market. Schultz TP, McGinnis GD, Biermann CJ. Similarities and differences in pretreating woody biomass by steam explosion, wet oxidation, autohydrolysis, and rapid steam hydrolysis/continuous extraction. Proceedings of fisher Annual Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Wastes; Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA.

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Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl Essay. Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald is a fun story that uses irony and perspective to create a truly enjoyable story. Still, to get the greatest value out of this story, it is worthwhile to understand not only what happens in the story but why it happens. From the way the fmcg market, situations of the characters change them to the decisions they make, everything in this story must work together to create a masterpiece. What Point of on Judicial Review View Is Lamb to the Slaughter Told From and Why Is That Important? Lamb to the Slaughter is fmcg, told from the point of view of Mary Maloney. Pizza Hut Sizes! This choice to tell the story from the market, point of view of the murderer is an interesting choice and pizza hut sizes, one that largely defines this story. The reader knows only what she knows. At times, such as the end of the story, this means that the reader knows more than the other characters, especially in relation to fmcg, the leg of lamb.

On the other hand, the reader is not given access to the reasoning behind Patricks decision to leave. This makes it far easier for the reader to be on Marys side when she makes questionable decisions. Free Teacher Worksheets Thousands of definition free class activities, lesson plans worksheets. Ads by Google. What Influence Does Marys Pregnancy Have on fmcg market, the Story? Early in the story, the reader discovers that Mary Maloney is pregnant. This understanding is important to the story on a number of levels. The most basic is that it helps the mary, reader to understand just what it is that her husband is doing by leaving her. This makes the story more ambiguous in market morality by making the reader associate with the woman more.

In addition, it almost certainly helps keep her from being suspected. The motherly instinct of pizza hut sizes protection is invoked by this understanding as anyone can understand the instinct of a mother protecting her child and the fear of execution is fmcg, vital to making Mary a more positive character. Why Are the Exact Words Patrick Says When Leaving Mary Left Out? In the middle of the conversation between Patrick and Mary, the narration changes for a single paragraph at the very climax of the fisher, conversation. Fmcg Market! Patrick leads into the conversation with the hope she wont blame him too much.

It then says that he told her, though not exactly what, and ends with him saying that he will take care of her. This change in raleigh narration is disconcerting and in large part that is the point. This helps the reader to understand the disorientation and detachment of Mary. In addition to this, by not telling the reader exactly what happened, it gives far more power to the reader in fmcg the interpretation of her later actions. By not knowing exactly what he said, it lets the reader decide if Marys actions in the rest of the acid rain reaction, story are justified or not. Why Is Patricks Profession Important? Patrick is a police detective. This bit of information is vital to the story in a number of ways. As a story in which the reader is supposed to empathize with the murderer, having the victim be a vital and trusted member of society creates even more conflict in the mind. Fmcg! In addition to definition, this, it plays with two basic ideas, that the police will look for a killer more vigorously if an officer is killed, but also that she knows the officers who will investigate the fmcg market, crime. This means that they are more likely to be comfortable with her.

Also important is the understanding that Mary is likely to have an escape of being arrested for the crime. As the wife of a police detective, she has almost certainly heard many stories about crimes that he has solved and how he has done it. By William Faulkner Essay! Finally, this creates many other suspects that could have committed the crime because as a police detective he has many enemies. What Is the Dramatic Irony in Lamb to fmcg, the Slaughter? There are a couple of moments of dramatic irony in Lamb to the Slaughter. These are cases in which the reader understands more than the mary fisher, characters. The most clear of these occurs near the end of the story. Mary has called the police and market, the detectives are in her house. As they are eating the lamb of leg, one of the officers says in relation to the murder weapon that it is probably right under our very noses. This statement is literally true though the Review, officer who says it has no idea what he is saying. What Is the Origin and Meaning of the Title Lamb to the Slaughter?

The original use of Lamb to the Slaughter is found in fmcg market the Bible. This phrase is located in both Jeremiah and Isaiah. It refers to someone who goes innocently and unconcernedly into a dangerous or life threatening situation. In the story Lamb to the Slaughter, it has a number of meanings though. The first clear meaning is one that is a form of dark humor. The lamb in this case is actually a murder weapon. This twists the on Judicial Review, meaning of lamb to fmcg, the slaughter into something that is not a metaphor but what actually happens. While the first meaning is clear, the metaphorical use of the statement is still valid and in fact there are two people who go into a situation like lambs to the slaughter. The first of these is the murder victim who, while knowing he is going to do something uncomfortable, has no idea what is going to happen to him. Pizza Hut Sizes! The second though is Mary herself. It is the shock because she doesnt know what is coming and that shock is what drives her over the edge.

Why Does Mary Insist the Police Eat the fmcg market, Leg of Lamb? In the story, Mary asks the detectives to eat the leg of lamb she had made for her husband, and even when they turn it down, she insists that they eat this. This insistence is important beyond simply the idea that it is the pseudolistening definition, murder weapon. By having the detectives eat the fmcg, lamb, they have destroyed the evidence which will make them look stupid even if they later understand. This will discourage them from thinking of it as a weapon.

In addition, because she ensures they have seen the murder weapon rather than hiding it, she defies the A Rose for Emily, by William Faulkner Essay, expectations as most criminals hide the fmcg market, weapon. Lamb to the Slaughter: Conflict, Rising Action, Falling Action, Climax and Resolution written by: Elton Gahr edited by: Elizabeth Stannard Gromisch updated: 3/2/2012 By understanding how Roald Dahl is able to build the tension and conflict in Lamb to the Slaughter and how the tension falls afterward is a great way for chemical, anyone to understand how to tell a better story or simply recognize the qualities of a good story. The best stories are often those in which we miss most of what the author is doing. A good author is fmcg market, not only able to use the tricks and tools of language to tell a good story but able to hide those tools so that they dont distract the reader. Yet in stories like Lamb to the Slaughter, there is a great deal of pseudolistening definition value in looking at and understanding what they have done. That is why the examination of the fmcg market, structure of a story is so useful.

Understanding the rising and falling action of Lamb to the Slaughter can help writers to walter poems, tell a better story and market, readers to understand and enjoy the skill of the pizza hut sizes, author just as someone might enjoy the brush strokes of a master painter. In order to understand what happens after the climax, one must first be able to pinpoint the point of fmcg maximum tension in the story. In the case of Lamb to the Slaughter, there are in some ways two climaxes. The first of these is at the point in which Mary attacks her husband and kills him. This is the culmination of everything that has happened to this point in the story. By William Faulkner! The story then pulls back and allows the action to fall. The second and main climax of the story occurs when the detective notices that the oven is still on with the leg of lamb cooking. This is the point at which the detectives are closest to market, discovering the murder weapon and mary fisher, Mary has to keep from being caught. The conflict then begins to fmcg market, rise again as she creates an alibi and brings in walter poems the police to catch the fmcg, murderer.

Just as there are two climax in the story, there are two major conflicts in this story. Raleigh Poems! The first of these conflicts is between Mary and Patrick as Patrick tells his pregnant wife that he is going to leave her. Market! This conflict ends as Mary hits her husband with a frozen leg of lamb and leads into the main conflict of the story. This second conflict is in mary fisher aids Marys attempt to avoid being caught. She knows that if she is caught she will be executed and fears that her unborn child will be killed as well. This becomes the main conflict of the story and leads to the ultimate resolution of the story in market which the detectives eat the evidence of her crime. Rising and Falling Action of the First Climax. The action of the story begins to rise as Mary waits for her husband to return in anticipation and continues to increase as it becomes clear that he is preparing to tell her something. It reaches its climax as he explains that he knows that it is a bad time and as he turns his back Mary hits him with the leg of lamb. The falling action for the first of these climaxes is walter poems, interesting because it has to set up the action for the second half of the story while releasing some of the tension of the first half so that it can be rebuilt. The line which carries the load of this work reads All right, she told herself.

So Ive killed him. This line pulls back the emotions not only of Mary who is telling the story, but also the reader. It is a well created note to the reader that the market, story is now going to slow down and change. The next paragraph continues this as the woman, who was moments ago out of control, begins to think through the pseudolistening, possibilities. She knows that the penalty for murder is execution, but fears for her unborn child and decides that she must protect that child. This then leads into the action beginning to rise again as she focuses on avoiding being captured. Rising and market, Falling Action of the Second Climax.

The second climax of acid rain chemical Lamb to the Slaughter is the true climax of the fmcg market, entire. story. With action that continues to raleigh poems, rise as Mary tries to cover up her crime from seconds after she commits it until the fmcg, moment the detective sees that the oven is still on, the tension spikes. At this moment, Mary is very close to being caught. Yet she is able to think clearly and raleigh poems, doesnt react out of fear. The character herself creates the falling action as she offers the market, officers something to drink and poems, asks them to help her get rid of the meal that she had been cooking for her husband. This leads not only into the irony of Lamb to the Slaughter as the officers eat the evidence that would have likely put Mary into the electric chair, but also the falling action. The officers have clearly decided that she is the victim of the crime and not the fmcg, perpetrator as they try to console her. The last of the action disappears as the police officer, while eating the leg of lamb says of the murder weapon, Probably right under our very noses, a literal truth that makes it entirely clear that the police have no idea what happened and are unlikely to discover the truth.

In the other room, the last line of the story shows Mary free of tension as she begins to giggle. The resolution of Lamb to the Slaughter is largely implied by the final line. Walter Raleigh! The assumption of the author and reader is market, that with the murder weapon gone, Mary will not be captured for the crime. Yet none of this is actually said in the story. A Rose! The story simple ends with the police commenting on the lack of murder weapon and fmcg market, Mary giggling presumably at poems, the irony of them looking for the weapon while eating it. Lamb to fmcg market, the Slaughter is an excellent example of a story that is able to create and release action expertly. It builds up slowly, adding tension on top of tension, until it reaches a crescendo and then releases that, creating a powerful story in the process. Understanding where and fisher aids, how that the author has created that rising and falling action can help to create a greater appreciation for this story and the masterful brush strokes of a master artist as he created the fmcg, story. The symbolism Dahl uses to etch the theme of the story begins most obviously with the title of the short story itself, Lamb to the Slaughter and the instrument used by walter raleigh poems, Mary Maloney to kill her husband. Lambs have been used for thousands of years as a symbol of innocence, meekness, and purity. The phrase like a lamb to a slaughter represents something innocent happily making its way towards a negative situation in which it will most likely get hurt.

Looking at the story, this phrase could be relevant to either character. Mary Maloney could represent the lamb in the sense that even after her husband told her some seemingly terrible news, she continued on being a gentle and caring wife by trying to make dinner for him as though nothing is wrong. She has apparently been completely blind to these events and fmcg, has been being led around to this ultimate severance of Essay her marriage like a small fluffy animal to be killed and served with mint jelly. Having the murder weapon just so happen to be a leg of lamb, it is also a symbol of the lamb retaliating against the force attempting to take its innocent and light. Patrick Maloney, however, could also be recognized as being unaware, if not innocent, to a demise. After telling his devoted wife the bad news, he continues on. While he does fight her making him dinner with anger, he is still continuing to stay and market, talk with her while she essentially goes into a frenzy about her beloved husband. His murder was as easy as that of a lambs, he was completely unaware her retaliation would be fatal.

Dahls symbolism is interesting and clear and weaves a great layer into pizza hut sizes the story. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 18 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl.

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