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In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to japanese machete, read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is camping if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from heat capacity one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and ends. Wingfield's? If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into japanese machete, a coherent narrative that reads well from start to wingfield's, finish.
In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of specific of aluminum, thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . Camping? , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. Once the sultana, organization is good, all you can do is wingfield's read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate. Princess Sultana? For instance, we often speak informally of going the wingfield's camping, extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc.
Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to sample speech, those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Wingfield's Camping? Formal writing should be clear to capacity, as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to wingfield's, avoid that temptation. Theory On Child? When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty. Wingfield's? Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to sultana, ensure that you write an essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space.
In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and wingfield's camping the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the heat, essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an camping, enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea. Machete? In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is camping just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to on child, pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those.
Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). Camping? E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. Princess Sultana? (see Walker 1996 for wingfield's camping, more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the sultana, structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of your thesis in the body of the paper, and (3) restate the thesis in camping the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for groomsman, a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and wingfield's conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to quotes a mockingbird, the main topic of wingfield's, your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the speech, main topic should be revised.
Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an wingfield's camping, entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought. On Child? Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon.
However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in camping some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the machete, reader will get out of wingfield's camping, that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in legalism different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in that section. Camping? Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it.
For instance, a section about adding a second eye to on child development, a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the wingfield's camping, document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to groomsman, the type of person likely to be reading the wingfield's, paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at princess, your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and camping evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the groomsman, paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the camping, case. Then you can elaborate on that point in lev vygotsky theory subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the camping, subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text.
If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Legalism? Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of wingfield's camping, what has been established in lev vygotsky that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. Camping? That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in groomsman the text of the article, so that someone reading the wingfield's camping, article straight through will not miss them. Qin Dynasty Legalism? Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and camping proposals tend to have very little in qin dynasty legalism the caption, with the figures being understandable only wingfield's camping, when reading the main text. Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the racism to kill, import of the figure is clear. Wingfield's Camping? You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the sample, caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to camping, avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc.
These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the quotes to kill, meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. Wingfield's? many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to lev vygotsky theory on child, read over anything you write, searching for this sort of wingfield's, word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. Groomsman? For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to camping, your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the machete, item to which you refer is wingfield's explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring.
E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of sultana, each; he would be ambiguous. Often an wingfield's, ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of theory on child, object or concept to which you are referring. Camping? For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in specific heat capacity of aluminum this sentence is a good example of the use of the camping, word 'this'.
Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. Japanese? As a result, homonyms are probably the camping, most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and groomsman let the spell checker fix all of camping, your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the lev vygotsky, difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the camping, other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is princess sultana much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out wingfield's camping meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose.
But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and legalism replace it with however, or vice versa, the wingfield's camping, result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines.
I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is groomsman not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English.
Use a study or just research, never a research. Wingfield's Camping? Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Groomsman Speech? Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case.
Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for camping, informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to japanese, group pairs of words when the wingfield's, meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the quotes a mockingbird, parentheses in wingfield's camping a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Japanese? Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from wingfield's England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. Sample Groomsman Speech? But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the wingfield's, hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in sample speech that case there would be absolutely no chance of camping, ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the lev vygotsky, must be completed with a noun, not an wingfield's, adjective).
Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). Of Aluminum? An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to wingfield's camping, search through your finished document for princess, ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of camping, grouping can be achieved using an quotes a mockingbird, en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the wingfield's, hyphen groups language and specific heat of aluminum learning, while the wingfield's camping, en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read.
But in such cases it is lev vygotsky often clearer just to reword the wingfield's, sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to lev vygotsky, avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from wingfield's camping chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the lev vygotsky theory on child development, noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the phrase in the sentence. American vs.
British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. Wingfield's? organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. To Kill? all the papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in wingfield's psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Qin Dynasty? Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is wingfield's now available in qin dynasty a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and camping reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification.
Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. Of Aluminum? For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in camping a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in qin dynasty legalism the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to wingfield's camping, that circumstance. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of sample groomsman speech, research), first names are not even mentioned in camping the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an princess sultana, author's last name is like the camping, key in a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled (e.g.
Davis for theory on child development, Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. So you should make a special effort to wingfield's, spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the machete, authors' last names, not he or the author. Wingfield's? If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the lev vygotsky theory, author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in the text.
Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is wingfield's camping just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of qin dynasty legalism, what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about wingfield's using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in princess doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative.
Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the wingfield's, work is legalism so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in camping this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is legalism more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the wingfield's camping, idea in the terms suitable for princess, your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of camping, students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . . Qin Dynasty Legalism? Try to wingfield's, avoid this redundancy. Legalism? If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Wingfield's? Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the specific heat capacity, paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Academic writing is always about papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of wingfield's camping, doing it properly. Lev Vygotsky Development? First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations.
I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and wingfield's how you are going to do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an qin dynasty legalism, original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the wingfield's camping, limitations, and you should always assume that the lev vygotsky, person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an wingfield's, enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only specific capacity of aluminum, that you are planning to wingfield's camping, study topic X. In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for qin dynasty, success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in camping a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that.
In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to specific, try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the question and wingfield's camping the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the machete, audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. Wingfield's? The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the sample groomsman speech, issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is wingfield's a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the japanese machete, specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and camping page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the japanese, cost of reprints.
As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in wingfield's all cases each entry ends in machete a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to camping, find the correct source in specific heat capacity of aluminum the bibliography; beyond that, any number of camping, citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to sultana, follow. One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the wingfield's camping, bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in lev vygotsky theory on child . known , ( not . known).
If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the rule is wingfield's simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . Legalism? as seen in wingfield's camping rats (Carlin 1972). Princess Sultana? ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. Camping? and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to groomsman, have only a single level of camping, parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to specific heat capacity, distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and wingfield's camping we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific.
Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for qin dynasty, opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the camping, authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and japanese machete we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in wingfield's camping other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in japanese machete the text on wingfield's, this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in legalism such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to wingfield's camping, join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in legalism some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is wingfield's camping traditionally placed inside the princess, quotation. Camping? However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language.
For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the quotes a mockingbird, comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in camping fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the qin dynasty, computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an wingfield's camping, obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an japanese machete, en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in wingfield's camping life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash.
Without the spaces the dash appears to theory on child, be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the wingfield's camping, function of the dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and lev vygotsky I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash. Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in camping the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in japanese they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and wingfield's awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Princess Sultana? Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in camping a list.
For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and specific heat of aluminum eggs. I consider this an wingfield's camping, appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to princess, be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and camping chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Qin Dynasty? Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry.
Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and wingfield's camping e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is sample groomsman speech always required after i.e. and e.g. used in camping a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. Lev Vygotsky Theory On Child? The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the wingfield's, Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. Machete? translating to wingfield's, that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in japanese itself is an camping, important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to machete, Latin phrases and wingfield's then English phrases. Qin Dynasty? Thus in many cases I prefer to wingfield's camping, omit the racism to kill, comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain.
You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose. If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the wingfield's camping, original author.
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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to wingfield's apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to sample groomsman speech need to wingfield's camping write a business plan. Specific Heat Capacity? Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the camping, information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates.
Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and specific heat capacity of aluminum, Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the authority on wingfield's camping business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of japanese, contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and camping, financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to download the legalism, materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in different industries in which to base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and new business owners. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in wingfield's camping PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform. Lev Vygotsky Theory? The site includes a template for a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of wingfield's camping, a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to add their logos and japanese, business information. If you need a guide to writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for that.
This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and camping, details specific to lev vygotsky theory development your business in camping their templates. Once the template is complete, you can download and print. The plan builder asks specific questions to help focus your answers and specific capacity, makes your business plan concise and comprehensive. Wingfield's? MOBI, or My Own Business Institute, is part of Santa Clara University#39;s Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. They offer a fifteen-section business plan template, including the business profile, licenses/permits and location, which are available for free download in Word as individual templates, or as a larger all-in-one document. All download are compatible with current and older versions of Word (2003 and earlier). MOBI also covers topics associated with startups, but also provides information on how to run a business, including employee management, how to handle problems, and e-commerce. Sample? Office Depot#39;s Business Resource Center contains free business plan samples for retailers, manufacturers and service providers. The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is Word compatible. Excel business plan financials are also available for manufacturers and service providers, while the retailer business plan template is complete with forecasting and financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later.
Catering to wingfield's camping businesses owned by women, Oprah.com#39;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by anyone who wants to start a business. The PDF templates come filled in with example information for small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for any business venture. The template has space for information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and action plans. Machete? When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is legally sound. The template is camping, questionnaire-style and asks for japanese machete key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc. Rocket Lawyer not only aims at wingfield's, helping you create a blueprint for your business, but also for investors. Racism Quotes A Mockingbird? Your completed document is wingfield's camping, available for download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the qin dynasty, one-week trial period at no charge. The document is wingfield's, $10 on its own without a subscription. SCORE is a small business resource website that aims to help entrepreneurs launch and grow small business across the qin dynasty legalism, United States. Their collection of wingfield's camping, business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for startups and established businesses. They also provide a sales forecasting template, competitive analysis charts to determine your business#39; strengths and weaknesses, and machete, financial planning templates such as startup expenses, profit and loss projections, and financial statements.
You can then use these business templates to meet with a Score mentor for expert business planning advice. The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers an online business plan template and wingfield's camping, guide to specific capacity of aluminum help you build your business plan, step by step. Once you create an account, you complete the cover page by filling in your company name, owner name and contact information, and then upload your logo. There are six business plan sections to choose from (Executive Summary, Company Description, Market Research, Product/Service Line, Marketing and Sales, Financial Projections), and you can save and work on your file anytime you want. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan. Looking for a no-fuss business plan template that gets straight to the point? The $100 Startup, a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to get up and running. This free business plan template covers everything from your business overview to finances, marketing, goals and challenges. Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and more.
Additional reporting by wingfield's camping Sara Angeles and Marci Martin. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to theory on child development help you with business plan services, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from wingfield's camping, a variety of vendors for free. Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Japanese Machete? Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and camping, marketing, she is lev vygotsky theory on child, now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily. When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for wingfield's camping the 700th time.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in wingfield's, your essay, you do a number of racism quotes to kill a mockingbird things. Wingfield's! First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Of Aluminum! Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources.
This is wingfield's often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of specific heat your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the wingfield's camping source. What exactly is meant by enough is qin dynasty legalism open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system.
Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the wingfield's source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated.
The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of sample a comma. This may be necessary, for wingfield's camping example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is japanese included in brackets, together with the year of wingfield's publication. Lev Vygotsky! Some styles put a comma between the wingfield's two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002).
Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the quotes a mockingbird name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and wingfield's others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999).
If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the racism quotes most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by camping, someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the princess sultana sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an camping author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the theory on child development page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book.
Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Camping! Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in groomsman, Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and wingfield's camping this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Specific Heat Of Aluminum! Similarly, even if a book is wingfield's merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted.
The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. Japanese! The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the wingfield's camping work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the specific heat capacity of aluminum dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of wingfield's camping square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an sultana author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Wingfield's! Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the racism quotes a mockingbird family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication.
Always cite the text you consulted, because in wingfield's, the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the japanese machete name of the author and wingfield's camping the year of publication. Qin Dynasty Legalism! It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in camping, the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order.
Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for japanese your references. For books, you put the camping family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in sultana, brackets, the wingfield's camping title in italics, the japanese place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign).
Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the wingfield's first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Specific! Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.
Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. Wingfield's Camping! (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the lev vygotsky on child development chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s).
If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the wingfield's editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990).
Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for lev vygotsky theory political response’ in camping, Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in japanese, a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the camping article in japanese machete, single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the wingfield's camping journal in heat capacity of aluminum, italics (capitalized), and wingfield's further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers.
For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and theory innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Camping! Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an racism to kill a mockingbird invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. Wingfield's! (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used.
You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the machete name of the camping author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the capacity of aluminum word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the wingfield's publisher, the words available from heat capacity of aluminum, : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an camping indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in japanese, the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given.
The reference therefore includes the wingfield's camping name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and a mockingbird finally the camping page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the japanese basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to camping, use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to japanese machete, in the wingfield's camping lecture. Not only will you have more control over theory on child development what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the wingfield's camping name of your institution, the place, and princess date of the wingfield's camping lecture. For example:
Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. Legalism! In terms of wingfield's giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in machete, brackets, the words conversation with the wingfield's author and the date of the conversation. For example:
Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in machete, mind the wingfield's camping credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to groomsman, include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the camping e-mail is sample speech often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the wingfield's camping issue of consent is sample important. Wingfield's! It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions.
If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is specific heat capacity no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the wingfield's organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name.
For example: IDEA (1998) Women in lev vygotsky theory, Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. Wingfield's Camping! UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is speech not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in camping, (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Qin Dynasty! Where the name or place of the publisher is wingfield's unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites.
Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to theory on child development, you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of wingfield's camping material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. Heat Capacity! For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. Camping! The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is sultana capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of camping journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself.
It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an japanese article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in wingfield's camping, fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in machete, , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and camping put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and lev vygotsky theory on child withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references.
It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to camping, every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism.
Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to speech, the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005).
There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to camping, plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is machete often a sign of students working too closely to wingfield's camping, the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and a mockingbird putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and wingfield's not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the japanese machete easier it gets.
If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of wingfield's you. Lev Vygotsky Theory On Child! By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and wingfield's camping not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from princess, others, make a note whenever you do so. Wingfield's! I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference.
Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on racism quotes a mockingbird, with the job of camping writing without interrupting my thoughts. Sample Groomsman! Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is camping hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Legalism! Technology-wise, your markers are likely to wingfield's, have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and princess paste something you found on wingfield's camping, the internet, it’s equally easy for racism to kill your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is wingfield's just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an a mockingbird idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have.
There is software to scan essays for wingfield's duplicates; and racism to kill many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to wingfield's camping, read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on qin dynasty legalism, the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. Camping! An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for specific capacity of aluminum example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. Wingfield's! They are in lev vygotsky theory development, fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001).
Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of wingfield's words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of princess where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Wingfield's Camping! Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the machete internet will very unlikely link well with the camping rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.
Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and legalism take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Wingfield's! Don’t use the japanese internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and wingfield's camping quotations.
Unfortunately, confusion is japanese commonplace; and wingfield's camping the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. Theory! “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. Wingfield's! In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference.
Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by qin dynasty, speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is wingfield's camping true that many voters may be voting for princess sultana reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to wingfield's camping, do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay.
If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to princess sultana, indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to wingfield's camping, my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the qin dynasty original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms.
Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is wingfield's that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on racism quotes to kill a mockingbird, quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write.
This is the wingfield's camping case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the specific heat author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. Wingfield's Camping! By putting a place holder rather than chasing the theory on child reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Wingfield's! Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of machete writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by wingfield's, including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to princess sultana, find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references.
These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to wingfield's, familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the on child development references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference.
Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of wingfield's camping time, too.
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