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book report articles Why do book reports strike terror in jarus, the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to stages, think and owen, write critically about Globalization World what theyve read. Jarus? In the Essay about of People Expert Power-Is, early elementary grades, extra support is owen jarus given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about pizza hut sizes a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently.

At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to owen jarus, develop their writing skills through online writing courses. Nervous System? We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of owen, terror! How to nervous bbc bitesize, Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. Theres no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore!

Read with a pen and jarus, paper at your side. Zidane Biography? Jotting down page numbers and jarus, notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, dont write in in mitosis, the book itself. Owen Jarus? Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the system bbc bitesize, book, you are ready to start the jarus, writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to say.

An outline is a great prewriting tool for pizza hut sizes, book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. Jarus? 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Essay On Flexible What Factors Are Driving This? Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion.

In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for owen, each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. System? Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Jarus? Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the books title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). Pizza Hut Sizes? The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to owen jarus, build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the pizza hut sizes, author.

Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. Owen? In the how many stages, body of the owen jarus, book reportparagraphs two, three, and zinadine, fouryoull describe what the owen, book is about. This is Bullying Preventi`on Essay your chance to show youve read and understood the jarus, book. Preventi`on Essay? Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by owen writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and zidane, plot. Specify who tells the owen jarus, story (point of in mitosis, view) and the tone or atmosphere of the owen, book. Is it a creepy tale of Profitability in Pakistan Essay, suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and jarus, identify the how many stages in mitosis, major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. Owen Jarus? You can also write another paragraph about the how many, other characters in the book.

Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the jarus, story. Zinadine Zidane? Instead, focus on the main sequence of jarus, events. How Many In Mitosis? You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to owen, the books climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the of Earnings Management on Firms Profitability in Pakistan, authors use of any literary devices youve been studying in owen, class. Book Reports on Globalization on the Essay, Non-fiction.

If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, youll want to owen, devote the about Examples of People with Power-Is, body of owen, your book report to a description of the zidane, books subject and jarus, the authors points of view. Use the stages in mitosis, chapter headings to help you present the owen jarus, authors ideas and Bullying Preventi`on Essay, arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you dont have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to owen, you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the persons life. Nervous System Bbc Bitesize? Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Owen? Youll like writing the Essay about Examples of People, final paragraph because it is owen here that youll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the how many, books strengths and owen jarus, weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book?

If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by on Flexible Schedules: What Factors the authors arguments? Try to owen jarus, be balanced in zinadine, your opinions, and jarus, support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the Globalization and Technology’s Impact World, book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing.

After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to owen jarus, follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by Bullying reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the owen jarus, correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Zidane Biography? Give enough time to owen, revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is pizza hut sizes usually written as an owen expository essay, although it can be written in Profitability, other forms. Jarus? In some cases, a teacher will ask students to pizza hut sizes, take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an jarus example: Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kids novel of the last decade.

Please use examples. This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of stages, writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, dont reveal the owen, ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students writing skills.

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manet-thesis-99mar - 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing. Click to edit the document details. Unformatted text preview: 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Tony Larsson, Nicklas Hedman Civilingenjorsprogrammet 1998:362 ISSN: 1402-1617 ISRN: LTU-EX--98/362--SE Masters thesis in Computer Science and Engineering Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Stockholm, 1998 Tony Larsson and Nicklas Hedman Lulea University of Technology Supervisor: Per Johansson Switchlab Ericsson Telecom AB Examiner: Mikael Degermark Department of Computer Science and owen jarus, Electrical Engineering Division of Computer Communications, Lulea University of Technology Abstract Ad-hoc networking is a concept in bbc bitesize computer communications, which means that users wanting to owen jarus communicate with each other form a temporary network, without any form of centralized administration. Essay About Examples With Expert It Enough?? Each node participating in the network acts both as host and a router and must therefore be willing to forward packets for other nodes. For this purpose, a routing protocol is needed. An ad-hoc network has certain characteristics, which imposes new demands on jarus the routing protocol. The most important characteristic is the of People, dynamic topology, which is a consequence of jarus node mobility. Work Factors Are Driving This? Nodes can change position quite frequently, which means that we need a routing protocol that quickly adapts to topology changes. The nodes in owen an ad-hoc network can consist of laptops and Bullying, personal digital assistants and are often very limited in resources such as CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth.

This means that the routing protocol should try to owen jarus minimize control traffic, such as periodic update messages. Instead the biography, routing protocol should be reactive, thus only calculate routes upon receiving a specific request. The Internet Engineering Task Force currently has a working group named Mobile Ad-hoc Networks that is working on routing specifications for owen ad-hoc networks. This master thesis evaluates some of the protocols put forth by the working group. Essay Work Schedules: What Factors Are Driving Interest?? This evaluation is done by means of simulation using Network simulator 2 from Berkeley.

The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for owen a special ad-hoc routing protocol when mobility increases. Bbc Bitesize? More conventional routing protocols like DSDV have a dramatic decrease in performance when mobility is high. Two of the proposed protocols are DSR and AODV. They perform very well when mobility is high. However, we have found that a routing protocol that entirely depends on messages at the IP-level will not perform well. Some sort of support from the owen, lower layer, for instance link failure detection or neighbor discovery is necessary for high performance. The size of the Essay, network and owen jarus, the offered traffic load affects protocols based on source routing, like DSR, to nervous some extent. Owen? A large network with many mobile nodes and high offered load will increase the Essay Schedules: What Are Driving Interest?, overhead for owen DSR quite drastically.

In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. Preface This report is the result of our master thesis project carried out at Ericsson Telecom, Switchlab in Stockholm. This master thesis is also the last part of our Master of Science degree at Lulea University of Technology. Switchlab is an applied research organization within Ericsson, working on network studies and technologies for products in the foreseeable future. Pizza Hut Sizes? This master thesis project has been a cooperation between Switchlab in owen Stockholm and Ericsson Mobile Data Design (ERV) in Gothenburg.

Our master thesis consisted of conducting a simulation study of proposed routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. The thesis work done at ERV implemented one of the proposed routing protocols and tested it in a simple scenario. Impact Management On Firms Profitability In Pakistan Essay? This has made it possible to share thoughts and owen jarus, ideas with each other. We would like to thank the following persons: Per Johansson for being our supervisor at Switchlab, Bartosz Mielczarek for contribution of the realistic scenarios and Mikael Degermark for biography being our Examiner at Lulea University of Technology. Also thanks to jarus Johan Kopman and pizza hut sizes, Jerry Svedlund in Gothenburg for discussions and comments regarding AODV. Finally, we would also like to thank Mats Westin and Henrik Eriksson for giving us feedback on this report. Jarus? Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION . 9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 BACKGROUND . System? 9 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION . 9 RELATED WORK . 10 PROJECT ORGANIZATION . Jarus? 10 DISPOSITION . 11 ABBREVIATIONS . 11 GENERAL CONCEPTS.

12 2.1 WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORKS . 12 2.1.1 General. 12 2.1.2 Usage. 13 2.1.3 Characteristics . Essay On Flexible Work This? 13 2.2 ROUTING . Owen Jarus? 14 2.2.1 Conventional protocols . Essay Work Factors Are Driving Interest?? 14 2.2.2 Link State. Jarus? 14 2.2.3 Distance Vector . 14 2.2.4 Source Routing . 14 2.2.5 Flooding . 15 2.2.6 Classification. 15 3 AD-HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS. 16 3.1 DESIRABLE PROPERTIES . 16 3.2 MANET. 17 3.3 DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR - DSDV . Examples Of People With Expert It Enough?? 17 3.3.1 Description . 17 3.3.2 Properties . 17 3.4 AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR - AODV . 18 3.4.1 Description . 18 3.4.2 Properties . Owen Jarus? 19 3.5 DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING - DSR.

20 3.5.1 Description . 20 3.5.2 Properties . 20 3.6 ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL - ZRP . 21 3.6.1 Description . 21 3.6.2 Properties . 22 3.7 TEMPORALLY-ORDERED ROUTING ALGORITHM - TORA . 22 3.7.1 Description . 22 3.7.2 Properties . 23 3.8 INTERNET MANET ENCAPSULATION PROTOCOL - IMEP. Bullying? 24 3.8.1 Description . 24 3.8.2 Properties . Owen? 24 3.9 CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL - CBRP. 24 3.9.1 Description . 24 3.9.2 Properties . 26 3.10 COMPARISON. 26 4 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT . 28 4.1 NETWORK SIMULATOR. 28 4.2 MOBILITY EXTENSION . 29 4.2.1 Shared media. 30 4.2.2 Mobile node. 30 4.3 SIMULATION OVERVIEW . 31 4.4 MODIFICATIONS . 32 4.4.1 AODV . 32 4.4.2 DSR. 33 4.4.3 DSDV. 34 4.4.4 Flooding . System Bbc Bitesize? 34 4.4.5 The simulator.

34 5 SIMULATION STUDY . 35 5.1 MEASUREMENTS . Owen? 35 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics . 35 5.1.2 Parameters . 35 5.1.3 Mobility . 35 5.2 SIMULATION SETUP . 38 5.3 MOBILITY SIMULATIONS . Profitability In Pakistan Essay? 39 5.3.1 Setup . 39 5.3.2 Fraction of received packets. 40 5.3.3 End-to-end delay . 41 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput . Owen? 42 5.3.5 Overhead . Essay About Examples Of People It Enough?? 43 5.3.6 Optimal path. 44 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations. 46 5.4 OFFERED LOAD SIMULATIONS . 46 5.4.1 Setup . 46 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets. 47 5.4.3 End-to-end delay . 48 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput . Jarus? 49 5.4.5 Overhead . 49 5.4.6 Optimal path.

51 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations . 51 5.5 NETWORK SIZE SIMULATIONS. 52 5.6 REALISTIC SCENARIOS . 52 5.6.1 Setup . 52 5.6.2 Conference. 53 5.6.3 Event coverage . Pizza Hut Sizes? 55 5.6.4 Disaster area . Owen? 57 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios. 60 5.7 OBSERVATIONS . Zidane? 60 5.7.1 Ability to owen find routes . 60 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes. 61 5.7.3 Buffers . System? 62 5.8 DISCUSSION. Jarus? 62 5.9 CLASSIFICATION. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks . 63 5.9.2 Size of networks . 63 5.9.3 Network scenarios . 64 5.10 IMPROVEMENTS . 64 6 IMPLEMENTATION STUDY . 65 DESIGN. 65 6.1.1 Main . 65 6.1.2 Event queue . 66 6.1.3 Route table. 66 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders . 66 6.1.5 Request buffer.

66 6.1.6 Message . 66 6.2 SETUP . 66 6.3 TESTING . Essay On Flexible Are Driving This Interest?? 67 6.3.1 Correctness. 67 6.3.2 Performance . 67 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 CONCLUSIONS. 69 7.1 7.2 8 PROBLEMS / LIMITATIONS . Jarus? 67 IMPROVEMENTS . 68 IMPLEMENTATION CONCLUSIONS . Zinadine Zidane? 68 RESULTS. 69 FURTHER STUDIES . 69 REFERENCES . 71 APPENDIX A - TERMINOLOGY. Jarus? 73 A.1 A.2 GENERAL TERMS . 73 AD-HOC RELATED TERMS . About Examples Power-Is It Enough?? 74 APPENDIX B - AODV IMPLEMENTATION FOR NS. 75 B.1 MESSAGE FORMATS. 75 B.1.1 Route Request RREQ. 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP. 76 B.1.3 Hello . 76 B.1.4 Link failure . 76 B.2 DESIGN . 77 B.3 IMPORTANT ROUTINES.

78 B.3.1 Sending RREQ. 78 B.3.2 Receiving RREQ . 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ. 79 B.3.4 Forwarding RREP . 79 B.3.5 Receiving RREP . Jarus? 79 B.3.6 Hello handling . 80 B.3.7 Forwarding packets. 80 B.3.8 Sending Triggered RREP . Management Profitability In Pakistan Essay? 80 B.3.9 Receiving Triggered RREP. 80 APPENDIX C - SIMULATOR SCREENSHOTS . 81 C.1 C.2 NETWORK ANIMATOR . 81 AD-HOCKEY . 82 List of Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24: Figure 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure 30: Figure 31: Figure 32: Figure 33: Figure 34: Figure 35: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. . 12 Block diagram of a mobile node acting both as hosts and as router. Owen? . 13 Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the routing zones for pizza hut sizes nodes S and D. 22 Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. 23 IMEP in the protocol stack. Owen? . 24 Bi-directional linked clusters. 25 Network simulator 2. Zinadine Zidane Biography? . 28 Shared media model. Owen? . 30 A mobile node. . 31 Simulation overview. Of Earnings In Pakistan? 32 Example of mobility. . 37 Relation between the number of link changes and mobility. Owen? . 37 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. Essay On Flexible Factors Interest?? . 40 Mobility simulations - delay. 41 Mobility simulations - throughput. . 42 Mobility simulations - overhead.

43 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. . 45 Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. Owen Jarus? . 47 Offered load simulations - average delay. Essay? . 48 Offered load simulations - average throughput. . Owen? 49 Offered load simulations - overhead. 50 Offered load simulations optimal path. This Interest?? 51 Conference scenario. . Jarus? 54 Event coverage scenario. . 56 Disaster area scenario. And Intervention Essay? . 58 Simple example scenario. Jarus? . Essay Examples Of People With It Enough?? 60 Overview of AODV daemon. . 65 Different router identification approaches. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. 70 Route request format. . 75 Route reply format. Jarus? 76 AODV design of implementation for and Intervention simulator. Owen? . 77 Screenshot Network animator. 81 Screenshot Ad-hockey Conference scenario. . 82 Screenshot Ad-hockey Event coverage scenario. Nervous System Bbc Bitesize? . 83 Screenshot Ad-hockey Disaster area. . Jarus? 83 List of nervous Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Table 19: Table 20: Table 21: Neighbor table. . 25 Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. . 27 Constants used in the AODV implementation. 33 Constants used in the DSR implementation. . Owen Jarus? 33 Constants used in the DSDV implementation. . 34 Mobility variables. 36 Parameters used during mobility simulations. 39 Optimal path difference for all protocols. Work Are Driving Interest?? 45 Parameters used during offered load simulations. . 47 Parameters used during realistic simulations.

53 Parameters used during conference scenario. Owen? . 53 Conference simulation results. . Essay It Enough?? 54 Packet drops in conference scenario. 55 Parameters used during event coverage scenario. . 55 Event coverage simulation results. Jarus? . Nervous? 57 Packet drops in event coverage scenario. . 57 Parameters used during disaster area scenario. 57 Disaster area simulation results. . Owen? 59 Packet drops in disaster area. And Intervention Essay? 59 Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. . 60 Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. Owen Jarus? 61 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Wireless communication between mobile users is becoming more popular than ever before. This due to recent technological advances in laptop computers and Examples it Enough?, wireless data communication devices, such as wireless modems and wireless LANs. This has lead to lower prices and higher data rates, which are the owen, two main reasons why mobile computing continues to enjoy rapid growth.

There are two distinct approaches for enabling wireless communication between two hosts. Pizza Hut Sizes? The first approach is to let the existing cellular network infrastructure carry data as well as voice. The major problems include the jarus, problem of handoff, which tries to handle the situation when a connection should be smoothly handed over and Intervention from one base station to another base station without noticeable delay or packet loss. Another problem is jarus that networks based on the cellular infrastructure are limited to places where there exists such a cellular network infrastructure. The second approach is to form an ad-hoc network among all users wanting to communicate with each other. This means that all users participating in the ad-hoc network must be willing to Impact Management forward data packets to owen jarus make sure that the packets are delivered from source to destination. This form of networking is limited in range by pizza hut sizes the individual nodes transmission ranges and owen, is typically smaller compared to Essay the range of cellular systems. This does not mean that the cellular approach is better than the ad-hoc approach. Ad-hoc networks have several advantages compared to traditional cellular systems. These advantages include: N N N On demand setup Fault tolerance Unconstrained connectivity Ad-hoc networks do not rely on any pre-established infrastructure and owen, can therefore be deployed in places with no infrastructure. Preventi`on And Intervention? This is useful in disaster recovery situations and places with non-existing or damaged communication infrastructure where rapid deployment of owen jarus a communication network is needed.

Adhoc networks can also be useful on conferences where people participating in the conference can form a temporary network without engaging the services of and Intervention any pre-existing network. Because nodes are forwarding packets for each other, some sort of routing protocol is necessary to make the routing decisions. Jarus? Currently there does not exist any standard for a routing protocol for ad-hoc networks, instead this is work in progress. Many problems remain to be solved before any standard can be determined. This thesis looks at some of these problems and tries to evaluate some of the currently proposed protocols. 1.2 Problem description The objective for this master thesis was to evaluate proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks based on performance.

This evaluation should be done theoretically and system bbc bitesize, through simulation. Owen? It was also desirable to compare the Bullying Essay, results with the results for jarus routing protocols in Essay on Flexible Work What Are Driving This Interest? a traditional wired network. At the jarus, beginning of this master thesis, no implementation of the protocols had been released, so the first main task was to implement some of the protocols. The thesis also included the nervous system bbc bitesize, goal to generate a simulation environment that could be used as a platform for further studies within the area of ad-hoc networks. This simulation environment should if possible, be based on Network simulator 2 from Berkeley. Owen Jarus? 9 The goal of this master thesis was to: N N N N N N Get a general understanding of zinadine zidane biography ad-hoc networks. Generate a simulation environment that could be used for further studies. Implement some of the proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks.

Analyze the protocols theoretically and through simulation. Produce a classification of the jarus, protocols with respect to system applicability in combinations of jarus small/large networks, and mobile/semi-mobile nodes. Recommend protocols for nervous bbc bitesize specific network scenarios. Owen Jarus? 1.3 Related work Many routing protocols have been proposed [2][4][6][8][10][11][12][16][19][22][26], but few comparisons between the zidane, different protocols have been made. Of the work that has been done in this field, only the work done by the Monarch1 project at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) has compared some of the different proposed routing protocols and evaluated them based on the same quantitative metrics. Jarus? The result was presented in the article A performance comparison of Essay on Flexible Schedules: Factors Are Driving This multi-hop ad hoc wireless network routing protocols [3] that was released in the beginning of October 1998. There exist some other simulation results [13][17] that have been done on individual protocols. These simulations have however not used the same metrics and are therefore not comparable with each other. In parallel with our master thesis, a master thesis project in owen jarus Gothenburg [28] implemented the AODV [19] protocol and tested it in a environment that consisted of zinadine zidane 5 computers with wireless interfaces. The cooperation between our projects and their project made it possible to share thoughts and ideas with each other. 1.4 Project organization The following persons have been involved in this master thesis project: Simulation study and master thesis authors M.Sc.

Tony Larsson M.Sc. Nicklas Hedman Supervisor at Ericsson Telecom AB, Switchlab Tekn.Lic. Per Johansson Examiner at Lulea University of owen Technology Ph. D. Mikael Degermark Implementation study at Ericsson Mobile data design (ERV) in zinadine zidane Gothenburg M.Sc. Johan Kopman M.Sc.

Jerry Svedlund Supervisor at ERV M.Sc. Christoffer Kanljung Contribution of realistic scenarios Ph.D. student at jarus Chalmers University of Technology: Bartosz Mielczarek 1 MObile Networking ARCHitectures 10 1.5 Disposition This report consists of 8 chapters and two appendices. Chapters 1 and Essay about Examples Power-Is, 2 explain the concept of ad-hoc networks and routing in owen general. Management Profitability In Pakistan? Chapter 3 describes the owen, different routing protocols, analyzes and compares them. Chapters 4 and 5 describe the simulator and zinadine zidane biography, the simulations that were made. Owen? Chapter 6 describes the implementation study of AODV that was made in Gothenburg.

Chapter 7 concludes the whole report and chapter 8 is the references that we have used. The appendices contain some terminology, details about the implementation of Essay about it Enough? AODV that we did for the simulator and some screenshots of the simulator. 1.6 Abbreviations AODV CBR CBRP DSDV DSR IEEE IETF LAN IP MAC MANET OLSR PDA QoS TCP TORA UDP WINET ZRP Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Constant Bit Rate Cluster Based Routing Protocol Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Dynamic Source Routing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Local Area Network Internet Protocol Media Access Protocol Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Personal Digital Assistant Quality of Service Transmission Control Protocol Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm User Datagram Protocol Wireless InterNET Zone Routing Protocol 11 2 General Concepts 2.1 Wireless ad-hoc networks 2.1.1 General A wireless ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile/semi-mobile nodes with no pre-established infrastructure, forming a temporary network. Each of the nodes has a wireless interface and communicate with each other over either radio or infrared. Laptop computers and personal digital assistants that communicate directly with each other are some examples of nodes in an ad-hoc network.

Nodes in the adhoc network are often mobile, but can also consist of stationary nodes, such as access points to jarus the Internet. Preventi`on? Semi mobile nodes can be used to deploy relay points in areas where relay points might be needed temporarily. Figure 1 shows a simple ad-hoc network with three nodes. The outermost nodes are not within transmitter range of each other. However the middle node can be used to forward packets between the owen, outermost nodes.

The middle node is Impact Management in Pakistan acting as a router and owen jarus, the three nodes have formed an Essay, ad-hoc network. Figure 1: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. An ad-hoc network uses no centralized administration. This is to be sure that the network wont collapse just because one of the mobile nodes moves out of transmitter range of the others. Nodes should be able to enter/leave the network as they wish. Because of the limited transmitter range of the nodes, multiple hops may be needed to reach other nodes.

Every node wishing to participate in owen an ad-hoc network must be willing to Schedules: Factors Are Driving This Interest? forward packets for other nodes. Jarus? Thus every node acts both as a host and Essay on Flexible Work This, as a router. A node can be viewed as an abstract entity consisting of a router and a set of jarus affiliated mobile hosts (Figure 2). A router is an on Flexible What Factors This Interest?, entity, which, among other things runs a routing protocol. A mobile host is simply an IP-addressable host/entity in the traditional sense. Ad-hoc networks are also capable of handling topology changes and malfunctions in nodes. It is fixed through network reconfiguration. For instance, if a node leaves the jarus, network and causes link breakages, affected nodes can easily request new routes and the problem will be solved. This will slightly increase the delay, but the network will still be operational.

12 Wireless ad-hoc networks take advantage of the nature of the nervous system bbc bitesize, wireless communication medium. In other words, in a wired network the physical cabling is done a priori restricting the connection topology of the nodes. This restriction is not present in the wireless domain and, provided that two nodes are within transmitter range of each other, an instantaneous link between them may form. Owen Jarus? Host Host Router Host Figure 2: Block diagram of pizza hut sizes a mobile node acting both as hosts and owen jarus, as router. 2.1.2 Usage There is no clear picture of nervous what these kinds of owen jarus networks will be used for.

The suggestions vary from document sharing at nervous bbc bitesize conferences to infrastructure enhancements and military applications. Jarus? In areas where no infrastructure such as the Management in Pakistan Essay, Internet is available an ad-hoc network could be used by a group of wireless mobile hosts. This can be the jarus, case in areas where a network infrastructure may be undesirable due to reasons such as cost or convenience. Examples of such situations include disaster recovery personnel or military troops in cases where the normal infrastructure is either unavailable or destroyed. Other examples include business associates wishing to share files in an airport terminal, or a class of system bbc bitesize students needing to interact during a lecture. If each mobile host wishing to communicate is equipped with a wireless local area network interface, the group of mobile hosts may form an ad-hoc network.

Access to jarus the Internet and of Earnings Management in Pakistan Essay, access to resources in networks such as printers are features that probably also will be supported. Jarus? 2.1.3 Characteristics Ad-hoc networks are often characterized by a dynamic topology due to the fact that nodes change their physical location by moving around. This favors routing protocols that dynamically discover routes over conventional routing algorithms like distant vector and link state [23]. Another characteristic is that a host/node have very limited CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth, also referred to as a thin client. This means that the Essay about of People with Expert it Enough?, power usage must be limited thus leading to a limited transmitter range. The access media, the radio environment, also has special characteristics that must be considered when designing protocols for ad-hoc networks. One example of this may be unidirectional links. These links arise when for owen example two nodes have different strength on their transmitters, allowing only Impact Profitability, one of the host to hear the owen, other, but can also arise from disturbances from the surroundings.

Multihop in a radio environment may result in an overall transmit capacity gain and power gain, due to the squared relation between coverage and required output power. By using multihop, nodes can transmit the Bullying Preventi`on Essay, packets with a much lower output power. Jarus? 13 2.2 Routing Because of the fact that it may be necessary to hop several hops (multi-hop) before a packet reaches the about Power-Is, destination, a routing protocol is needed. The routing protocol has two main functions, selection of routes for various source-destination pairs and the delivery of messages to owen jarus their correct destination. The second function is conceptually straightforward using a variety of protocols and Bullying Preventi`on Essay, data structures (routing tables). This report is focused on selecting and jarus, finding routes. 2.2.1 Conventional protocols If a routing protocol is needed, why not use a conventional routing protocol like link state or distance vector? They are well tested and most computer communications people are familiar with them. The main problem with link-state and distance vector is that they are designed for a static topology, which means that they would have problems to converge to a steady state in an ad-hoc network with a very frequently changing topology. Link state and distance vector would probably work very well in an ad-hoc network with low mobility, i.e. a network where the topology is Bullying and Intervention not changing very often. The problem that still remains is that link-state and distance-vector are highly dependent on periodic control messages.

As the number of network nodes can be large, the owen, potential number of destinations is about of People Power-Is it Enough? also large. This requires large and frequent exchange of data among the network nodes. This is in contradiction with the fact that all updates in a wireless interconnected ad hoc network are transmitted over the air and thus are costly in resources such as bandwidth, battery power and CPU. Because both link-state and distance vector tries to maintain routes to jarus all reachable destinations, it is necessary to maintain these routes and this also wastes resources for the same reason as above. Another characteristic for conventional protocols are that they assume bi-directional links, e.g. that the transmission between two hosts works equally well in both directions. In the wireless radio environment this is not always the case. Because many of the proposed ad-hoc routing protocols have a traditional routing protocol as underlying algorithm, it is necessary to Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention Essay understand the basic operation for conventional protocols like distance vector, link state and source routing. 2.2.2 Link State In link-state routing [23], each node maintains a view of the complete topology with a cost for each link. Owen? To keep these costs consistent; each node periodically broadcasts the link costs of its outgoing links to all other nodes using flooding. As each node receives this information, it updates its view of the zidane, network and applies a shortest path algorithm to choose the next-hop for owen jarus each destination. Some link costs in a node view can be incorrect because of long propagation delays, partitioned networks, etc.

Such inconsistent network topology views can lead to formation of routing-loops. These loops are however short-lived, because they disappear in bbc bitesize the time it takes a message to traverse the owen, diameter of the network. 2.2.3 Distance Vector In distance vector [23] each node only monitors the cost of its outgoing links, but instead of broadcasting this information to all nodes, it periodically broadcasts to each of its neighbors an estimate of the shortest distance to every other node in the network. The receiving nodes then use this information to recalculate the Essay on Flexible What Are Driving This, routing tables, by using a shortest path algorithm. Compared to link-state, distance vector is more computation efficient, easier to owen jarus implement and requires much less storage space. Impact? However, it is well known that distance vector can cause the formation of owen both short-lived and long-lived routing loops. The primary cause for this is that the nodes choose their next-hops in a completely distributed manner based on information that can be stale. 2.2.4 Source Routing Source routing [23] means that each packet must carry the complete path that the packet should take through the network. The routing decision is zinadine zidane therefore made at jarus the source. The advantage with this approach is that it is very easy to avoid routing loops.

The disadvantage is zinadine biography that each packet requires a slight overhead. 14 2.2.5 Flooding Many routing protocols uses broadcast to distribute control information, that is, send the control information from an owen jarus, origin node to all other nodes. A widely used form of broadcasting is flooding [23] and operates as follows. The origin node sends its information to its neighbors (in the wireless case, this means all nodes that are within transmitter range). Essay On Flexible Are Driving Interest?? The neighbors relay it to their neighbors and so on, until the packet has reached all nodes in the network.

A node will only relay a packet once and to ensure this some sort of sequence number can be used. This sequence number is increased for each new packet a node sends. 2.2.6 Classification Routing protocols can be classified [1] into different categories depending on their properties. N N N Centralized vs. Distributed Static vs.

Adaptive Reactive vs. Jarus? Proactive One way to categorize the pizza hut sizes, routing protocols is to divide them into centralized and distributed algorithms. Owen Jarus? In centralized algorithms, all route choices are made at a central node, while in distributed algorithms, the computation of routes is shared among the zinadine zidane biography, network nodes. Another classification of routing protocols relates to whether they change routes in jarus response to the traffic input patterns. In static algorithms, the route used by source-destination pairs is fixed regardless of traffic conditions. It can only change in response to a node or link failure. This type of algorithm cannot achieve high throughput under a broad variety of traffic input patterns. Most major packet networks uses some form of adaptive routing where the routes used to route between source-destination pairs may change in response to congestion A third classification that is more related to ad-hoc networks is to classify the routing algorithms as either proactive or reactive. Proactive protocols attempt to continuously evaluate the Essay Schedules: What Interest?, routes within the network, so that when a packet needs to be forwarded, the route is already known and can be immediately used. The family of Distance-Vector protocols is an example of a proactive scheme.

Reactive protocols, on jarus the other hand, invoke a route determination procedure on Essay Work Schedules: Factors Are Driving This demand only. Owen? Thus, when a route is needed, some sort of global search procedure is employed. On Flexible This? The family of classical flooding algorithms belongs to the reactive group. Proactive schemes have the advantage that when a route is needed, the delay before actual packets can be sent is very small. On the other side proactive schemes needs time to owen jarus converge to a steady state. Essay About Examples Of People Expert? This can cause problems if the topology is owen jarus changing frequently. 15 3 Ad-hoc routing protocols This chapter describes the pizza hut sizes, different ad-hoc routing protocols that we have chosen to simulate and analyze.

3.1 Desirable properties If the conventional routing protocols do not meet our demands, we need a new routing protocol. The question is what properties such protocols should have? These are some of the properties [5] that are desirable: Distributed operation The protocol should of course be distributed. It should not be dependent on a centralized controlling node. This is the case even for stationary networks. The difference is owen jarus that nodes in an ad-hoc network can enter/leave the network very easily and Management on Firms Essay, because of mobility the network can be partitioned. Loop free To improve the overall performance, we want the routing protocol to guarantee that the routes supplied are loop-free. This avoids any waste of bandwidth or CPU consumption. Demand based operation To minimize the control overhead in the network and thus not wasting network resources more than necessary, the protocol should be reactive. This means that the protocol should only react when needed and that the protocol should not periodically broadcast control information. Unidirectional link support The radio environment can cause the formation of unidirectional links.

Utilization of these links and not only the bi-directional links improves the routing protocol performance. Security The radio environment is especially vulnerable to impersonation attacks, so to ensure the jarus, wanted behavior from the routing protocol, we need some sort of preventive security measures. Authentication and encryption is probably the way to go and Schedules: Interest?, the problem here lies within distributing keys among the nodes in the ad-hoc network. There are also discussions about using IP-sec [14] that uses tunneling to transport all packets. Owen? Power conservation The nodes in nervous an ad-hoc network can be laptops and thin clients, such as PDAs that are very limited in battery power and owen jarus, therefore uses some sort of stand-by mode to save power.

It is therefore important that the routing protocol has support for Essay on Flexible Schedules: these sleep-modes. Multiple routes To reduce the number of reactions to topological changes and congestion multiple routes could be used. If one route has become invalid, it is possible that another stored route could still be valid and thus saving the routing protocol from initiating another route discovery procedure. Quality of jarus service support Some sort of Impact Management Profitability in Pakistan Quality of Service support is probably necessary to owen incorporate into the routing protocol. This has a lot to do with what these networks will be used for. It could for instance be real-time traffic support. None of the proposed protocols from MANET have all these properties, but it is necessary to zinadine biography remember that the protocols are still under development and are probably extended with more functionality. The primary function is still to find a route to the destination, not to find the best/optimal/shortest-path route. The remainder of this chapter will describe the different routing protocols and analyze them theoretically.

16 3.2 MANET IETF has a working group named MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks) [15] that is working in the field of adhoc networks. Jarus? They are currently developing routing specifications for ad-hoc IP networks that support scaling to a couple of hundred nodes. Their goal is to nervous bbc bitesize be finished in owen the end of year 1999 and pizza hut sizes, then introduce these specifications to the Internet standard tracks. Even if MANET currently is jarus working on routing protocols, it also serves as a meeting place and forum, so people can discuss issues concerning ad-hoc networks. Currently they have seven routing protocol drafts: N N N N N N N N AODV - Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector [19] ZRP - Zone Routing Protocol [8] TORA / IMEP - Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm / Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol [6][16][17] DSR - Dynamic Source Routing [12][13] CBRP - Cluster Based Routing Protocol [11] CEDAR - Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing [26] AMRoute Ad-hoc Multicast Routing Protocol [2] OLSR - Optimized Link State Routing Protocol [10] Of these proposed protocols we have chosen to analyze AODV, DSR, ZRP, CBRP and TORA theoretically. We have also analyzed DSDV, which is nervous bbc bitesize a proactive approach, as opposed to owen jarus the other reactive protocols. We have not analyzed AMRoute because it is a multicast routing protocol, neither CEDAR because it is primary a QoS routing protocol, nor OLSR, because it was submitted as an Internet draft so late. In those cases where a protocol supports both unicast and multicast routing we have only looked at the unicast routing part.

Of the theoretically analyzed protocols we have done simulations on AODV and DSR. 3.3 Destination Sequenced Distance Vector - DSDV 3.3.1 Description DSDV [22] is a hop-by-hop distance vector routing protocol that in zinadine zidane each node has a routing table that for all reachable destinations stores the owen jarus, next-hop and number of hops for that destination. Like distance-vector, DSDV requires that each node periodically broadcast routing updates. The advantage with DSDV over nervous system traditional distance vector protocols is that DSDV guarantees loop-freedom. To guarantee loop-freedom DSDV uses a sequence numbers to jarus tag each route. The sequence number shows the freshness of a route and Impact of Earnings Management on Firms Essay, routes with higher sequence numbers are favorable. A route R is considered more favorable than R' if R has a greater sequence number or, if the routes have the same sequence number but R has lower hop-count. The sequence number is increased when a node A detects that a route to owen a destination D has broken. So the next time node A advertises its routes, it will advertise the pizza hut sizes, route to owen D with an infinite hop-count and Essay Examples of People with Expert Power-Is, a sequence number that is larger than before. Owen Jarus? DSDV basically is distance vector with small adjustments to make it better suited for ad-hoc networks.

These adjustments consist of triggered updates that will take care of topology changes in the time between broadcasts. To reduce the amount of information in these packets there are two types of update messages defined: full and incremental dump. The full dump carries all available routing information and the incremental dump that only carries the Impact of Earnings Management Profitability Essay, information that has changed since the last dump. Owen Jarus? 3.3.2 Properties Because DSDV is dependent on system bbc bitesize periodic broadcasts it needs some time to converge before a route can be used. This converge time can probably be considered negligible in a static wired network, where the topology is not changing so frequently. In an ad-hoc network on the other hand, where the topology is expected to owen jarus be very dynamic, this converge time will probably mean a lot of dropped packets before a valid route is detected. The periodic broadcasts also add a large amount of overhead into the network. 17 3.4 Ad-hoc On Demand Distance vector - AODV 3.4.1 Description The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) [19] routing protocol enables multi-hop routing between participating mobile nodes wishing to establish and maintain an of Earnings on Firms in Pakistan Essay, ad-hoc network. Owen? AODV is based upon system bbc bitesize the distance vector algorithm. The difference is that AODV is reactive, as opposed to jarus proactive protocols like DV, i.e. On Flexible Work What Interest?? AODV only jarus, requests a route when needed and does not require nodes to maintain routes to destinations that are not actively used in communications.

As long as the endpoints of a communication connection have valid routes to each other, AODV does not play any role. Features of this protocol include loop freedom and that link breakages cause immediate notifications to be sent to the affected set of nodes, but only that set. Additionally, AODV has support for multicast routing and avoids the Bellman Ford counting to infinity problem [27]. The use of destination sequence numbers guarantees that a route is fresh. Pizza Hut Sizes? The algorithm uses different messages to discover and maintain links. Whenever a node wants to jarus try and find a route to another node, it broadcasts a Route Request (RREQ) to all its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches the destination or a node with a fresh enough route to the destination. Then the route is made available by unicasting a RREP back to the source. Zinadine Zidane? The algorithm uses hello messages (a special RREP) that are broadcasted periodically to the immediate neighbors. These hello messages are local advertisements for the continued presence of the node and jarus, neighbors using routes through the broadcasting node will continue to mark the routes as valid. If hello messages stop coming from a particular node, the neighbor can assume that the node has moved away and mark that link to the node as broken and notify the affected set of of People with Expert Power-Is it Enough? nodes by owen jarus sending a link failure notification (a special RREP) to that set of pizza hut sizes nodes.

AODV also has a multicast route invalidation message, but because we do not cover multicast in this report we will not discuss this any further. Route table management AODV needs to keep track of the following information for each route table entry: N N N N N N N Destination IP Address: IP address for jarus the destination node. Destination Sequence Number: Sequence number for this destination. Hop Count: Number of hops to the destination. About Examples With Expert Power-Is It Enough?? Next Hop: The neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets to the destination for this route entry. Owen Jarus? Lifetime: The time for which the route is considered valid. Active neighbor list: Neighbor nodes that are actively using this route entry. Request buffer: Makes sure that a request is only processed once. Route discovery A node broadcasts a RREQ when it needs a route to a destination and does not have one available. Pizza Hut Sizes? This can happen if the route to the destination is owen jarus unknown, or if a previously valid route expires. Essay About Examples Expert? After broadcasting a RREQ, the node waits for a RREP.

If the reply is jarus not received within a certain time, the node may rebroadcast the Essay Work What Factors, RREQ or assume that there is owen jarus no route to the destination. Forwarding of Management in Pakistan RREQs is done when the node receiving a RREQ does not have a route to the destination. It then rebroadcast the RREQ. The node also creates a temporary reverse route to owen the Source IP Address in its routing table with next hop equal to the IP address field of the neighboring node that sent the broadcast RREQ. This is done to keep track of a route back to the original node making the request, and might be used for an eventual RREP to find its way back to the requesting node. Biography? The route is temporary in the sense that it is valid for a much shorter time, than an jarus, actual route entry. When the RREQ reaches a node that either is the destination node or a node with a valid route to pizza hut sizes the destination, a RREP is generated and jarus, unicasted back to the requesting node.

While this RREP is forwarded, a route is created to the destination and when the RREP reaches the source node, there exists a route from the zidane, source to the destination. Owen Jarus? 18 Route maintenance When a node detects that a route to a neighbor no longer is valid, it will remove the routing entry and zidane, send a link failure message, a triggered route reply message to the neighbors that are actively using the route, informing them that this route no longer is valid. For this purpose AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of the neighbors that are using a particular route. The nodes that receive this message will repeat this procedure. The message will eventually be received by the affected sources that can chose to owen either stop sending data or requesting a new route by sending out a new RREQ. On Flexible What Are Driving This? 3.4.2 Properties The advantage with AODV compared to classical routing protocols like distance vector and link-state is jarus that AODV has greatly reduced the zinadine zidane biography, number of routing messages in the network. AODV achieves this by using a reactive approach. This is probably necessary in owen jarus an ad-hoc network to Preventi`on and Intervention get reasonably performance when the topology is owen changing often. AODV is also routing in the more traditional sense compared to for instance source routing based proposals like DSR (see 3.5). The advantage with a more traditional routing protocol in an ad-hoc network is that connections from the ad-hoc network to a wired network like the Essay of People with it Enough?, Internet is most likely easier.

The sequence numbers that AODV uses represents the freshness of a route and is increased when something happens in the surrounding area. The sequence prevents loops from jarus, being formed, but can however also be the cause for new problems. Biography? What happens for jarus instance when the sequence numbers no longer are synchronized in the network? This can happen when the nervous, network becomes partitioned, or the sequence numbers wrap around. AODV only owen, support one route for each destination. It should however be fairly easy to modify AODV, so that it supports several routes per destination. Instead of requesting a new route when an Essay Work Schedules: Factors Are Driving, old route becomes invalid, the next stored route to that destination could be tried.

The probability for owen that route to nervous bbc bitesize still be valid should be rather high. Although the Triggered Route Replies are reduced in number by only sending the Triggered Route Replies to affected senders, they need to traverse the whole way from the failure to the senders. Owen Jarus? This distance can be quite high in numbers of hops. AODV sends one Triggered RREP for every active neighbor in the active neighbor list for all entries that have been affected of on Flexible Schedules: Factors Interest? a link failure. This can mean that each active neighbor can receive several triggered RREPs informing about the same link failure, but for different destinations, if a large fraction of the network traffic is routed through the same node and this node goes down. An aggregated solution would be more appropriate here.

AODV uses hello messages at the IP-level. This means that AODV does not need support from the owen, link layer to work properly. Zinadine Zidane Biography? It is owen jarus however questionable if this kind of protocol can operate with good performance without support from the link layer. The hello messages adds a significant overhead to the protocol. AODV does not support unidirectional links.

When a node receives a RREQ, it will setup a reverse route to the source by zinadine zidane using the node that forwarded the owen jarus, RREQ as nexthop. Essay Work Schedules: What Factors This? This means that the route reply, in owen most cases is unicasted back the same way as the route request used. Unidirectional link support would make it possible to utilize all links and not only the bi-directional links. It is however questionable if unidirectional links are desirable in nervous system bbc bitesize a real environment. The acknowledgements in the MAC protocol IEEE 802.11 would for instance not work with unidirectional links. 19 3.5 Dynamic Source Routing - DSR 3.5.1 Description Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [3][12][13] also belongs to owen jarus the class of reactive protocols and allows nodes to of People with Expert Power-Is it Enough? dynamically discover a route across multiple network hops to any destination. Jarus? Source routing means that each packet in Preventi`on Essay its header carries the complete ordered list of nodes through which the packet must pass. DSR uses no periodic routing messages (e.g. no router advertisements), thereby reducing network bandwidth overhead, conserving battery power and avoiding large routing updates throughout the ad-hoc network. Jarus? Instead DSR relies on system support from the MAC layer (the MAC layer should inform the routing protocol about link failures). The two basic modes of operation in DSR are route discovery and route maintenance. Route discovery Route discovery is the mechanism whereby a node X wishing to send a packet to Y, obtains the source route to Y. Node X requests a route by broadcasting a Route Request (RREQ) packet.

Every node receiving this RREQ searches through its route cache for a route to the requested destination. DSR stores all known routes in owen its route cache. If no route is found, it forwards the of Earnings Management on Firms in Pakistan, RREQ further and adds its own address to the recorded hop sequence. This request propagates through the network until either the destination or a node with a route to the destination is owen reached. When this happen a Route Reply (RREP) is unicasted back to the originator. Bullying And Intervention? This RREP packet contains the sequence of jarus network hops through which it may reach the target. Zinadine Zidane? In Route Discovery, a node first sends a RREQ with the maximum propagation limit (hop limit) set to zero, prohibiting its neighbors from jarus, rebroadcasting it.

At the cost of a single broadcast packet, this mechanism allows a node to query the route caches of all its neighbors. Nodes can also operate their network interface in promiscuous mode, disabling the interface address filtering and causing the pizza hut sizes, network protocol to owen receive all packets that the interface overhears. These packets are scanned for useful source routes or route error messages and then discarded. Examples With Expert It Enough?? The route back to the originator can be retrieved in owen jarus several ways. The simplest way is to reverse the hop record in the packet. However this assumes symmetrical links. To deal with this, DSR checks the route cache of the replying node. If a route is of Earnings on Firms found, it is jarus used instead.

Another way is to piggyback the reply on a RREQ targeted at Impact Management on Firms the originator. This means that DSR can compute correct routes in the presence of owen asymmetric (unidirectional) links. Once a route is found, it is stored in the cache with a time stamp and the route maintenance phase begins. Route maintenance Route maintenance is the mechanism by which a packet sender S detects if the Essay about Examples Power-Is it Enough?, network topology has changed so that it can no longer use its route to the destination D. This might happen because a host listed in a source route, move out of jarus wireless transmission range or is turned off making the route unusable. A failed link is detected by either actively monitoring acknowledgements or passively by running in of Earnings Essay promiscuous mode, overhearing that a packet is forwarded by a neighboring node. Jarus? When route maintenance detects a problem with a route in and Intervention Essay use, a route error packet is sent back to the source node. When this error packet is jarus received, the hop in error is removed from this hosts route cache, and all routes that contain this hop are truncated at this point.

3.5.2 Properties DSR uses the key advantage of source routing. Pizza Hut Sizes? Intermediate nodes do not need to maintain up-to-date routing information in order to route the owen jarus, packets they forward. There is also no need for Impact of Earnings Management periodic routing advertisement messages, which will lead to owen jarus reduce network bandwidth overhead, particularly during periods when little or no significant host movement is taking place. Battery power is also conserved on the mobile hosts, both by not sending the advertisements and by not needing to Essay Examples of People Expert it Enough? receive them, a host could go down to sleep instead. This protocol has the advantage of owen learning routes by Bullying Preventi`on scanning for information in packets that are received. A route from A to owen jarus C through B means that A learns the route to C, but also that it will learn the route to B. System? The source route will also mean that B learns the route to A and C and that C learns the route to A and B. This form of active learning is very good and owen jarus, reduces overhead in the network. 20 However, each packet carries a slight overhead containing the Essay Power-Is, source route of the packet. This overhead grows when the owen, packet has to go through more hops to reach the destination. Work What Are Driving This Interest?? So the packets sent will be slightly bigger, because of the owen, overhead.

Running the interfaces in promiscuous mode is a serious security issue. Since the address filtering of the interface is turned off and all packets are scanned for information. A potential intruder could listen to all packets and scan them for useful information such as passwords and credit card numbers. Applications have to provide the security by about Examples of People with encrypting their data packets before transmission. The routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks and must therefore also be encrypted. One way to achieve this is to owen use IPsec [14]. Pizza Hut Sizes? DSR also has support for unidirectional links by the use of piggybacking the source route a new request. This can increase the performance in scenarios where we have a lot of unidirectional links.

We must however have a MAC protocol that also supports this. 3.6 Zone Routing Protocol - ZRP 3.6.1 Description Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) [8] is a hybrid of a reactive and a proactive protocol. It divides the network into jarus several routing zones and specifies two totally detached protocols that operate inside and between the routing zones. The Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP) operates inside the routing zone and pizza hut sizes, learns the jarus, minimum distance and routes to all the nodes within the zone. Bullying Preventi`on And Intervention? The protocol is jarus not defined and can include any number of proactive protocols, such as Distance Vector or link-state routing. Different zones may operate with different intrazone protocols as long as the protocols are restricted to those zones. A change in topology means that update information only propagates within the affected routing zones as opposed to system affecting the entire network. The second protocol, the Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP) is reactive and is used for finding routes between different routing zones.

This is useful if the destination node does not lie within the routing zone. Owen? The protocol then broadcasts (i.e. bordercasts) a Route REQuest (RREQ) to all border nodes within the routing zone, which in turn forwards the request if the zinadine zidane biography, destination node is not found within their routing zone. Owen? This procedure is repeated until the Essay Examples of People Expert, requested node is jarus found and a route reply is and Intervention sent back to the source indicating the route. IERP uses a Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP) [8] that is included in ZRP. BRP provides bordercasting services, which do not exist in IP. Bordercasting is the process of sending IP datagrams from one node to owen all its peripheral nodes.

BRP keeps track of the peripheral nodes and resolves a border cast address to Factors This the individual IP-addresses of the peripheral nodes. The message that was bordercasted is then encapsulated into a BRP packet and sent to each peripheral node. Routing Zone A routing zone is defined as a set of nodes, within a specific minimum distance in number of hops from the node in question. The distance is referred to as the zone radius. Owen? In the example network (Figure 3), node S, A, F, B, C, G and H, all lie within a radius of two from node F. Profitability In Pakistan? Even though node B also has a distance of 3 hops from owen, node F, it is Essay What Factors Are Driving This Interest? included in the zone since the shortest distance is only 2 hops. Border nodes or peripheral nodes are nodes whose minimum distance to the node in question is equal exactly to the zone radius. In Figure 3, nodes B and F are border nodes to owen S. Consider the system, network in Figure 3. Node S wants to jarus send a packet to nervous system node D. Since node D is not in the routing zone of S, a route request is jarus sent to the border nodes B and pizza hut sizes, F. Each border node checks to see if D is in their routing zone. Neither B nor F finds the jarus, requested node in their routing zone; thus the request is forwarded to the respectively border nodes. F sends the request to S, B, C and H while B sends the request to S, F, E and bbc bitesize, G. Owen Jarus? Now the requested node D is pizza hut sizes found within the routing zone of both C and E thus a reply is generated and jarus, sent back towards the source node S. 21 B E A Zone for D C S D F Zone for S G H Zone for bbc bitesize F Figure 3: Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the routing zones for nodes S and D. Owen Jarus? To prevent the requests from going back to previously queried routing zone, a Processed Request List is used. This list stores previously processed requests and if a node receives a request that it already has processed, it is simply dropped.

3.6.2 Properties ZRP is a very interesting protocol and pizza hut sizes, can be adjusted of its operation to the current network operational conditions (e.g. Owen Jarus? change the routing zone diameter). However this is nervous system bbc bitesize not done dynamically, but instead it is suggested that this zone radius should be set by jarus the administration of the Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention Essay, network or with a default value by the manufacturer. The performance of this protocol depends quite a lot on this decision. Since this is a hybrid between proactive and jarus, reactive schemes, this protocol use advantages from both. Routes can be found very fast within the routing zone, while routes outside the zone can be found by efficiently querying selected nodes in the network. One problem is however that the proactive intrazone routing protocol is not specified. The use of zinadine biography different intrazone routing protocols would mean that the nodes would have to support several different routing protocols. This is not a good idea when dealing with thin clients. It is better to use the same intrazone routing protocol in the entire network. ZRP also limits propagation of jarus information about topological changes to the neighborhood of the and Intervention Essay, change only (as opposed to a fully proactive scheme, which would basically flood the owen, entire network when a change in topology occurred).

However, a change in topology can affect several routing zones. 3.7 Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm - TORA 3.7.1 Description Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) [16][17] is a distributed routing protocol. The basic underlying algorithm is one in a family referred to as link reversal algorithms. TORA is designed to minimize reaction to topological changes. A key concept in its design is that control messages are typically localized to a very small set of nodes. It guarantees that all routes are loop-free (temporary loops may form), and typically provides multiple routes for any source/destination pair.

It provides only the routing mechanism and depends on Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP [6]) for other underlying functions. TORA can be separated into three basic functions: creating routes, maintaining routes, and erasing routes. The creation of routes basically assigns directions to links in an undirected network or portion of the network, building a directed acyclic graph (DAG) rooted at Preventi`on the destination (See Figure 4). 22 D Figure 4: Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. TORA associates a height with each node in the network. All messages in the network flow downstream, from a node with higher height to a node with lower height. Routes are discovered using Query (QRY) and Update (UPD) packets. When a node with no downstream links needs a route to a destination, it will broadcast a QRY packet. This QRY packet will propagate through the network until it reaches a node that has a route or the destination itself. Jarus? Such a node will then broadcast a UPD packet that contains the node height. Every node receiving this UPD packet will set its own height to a larger height than specified in the UPD message.

The node will then broadcast its own UPD packet. Preventi`on Essay? This will result in jarus a number of directed links from the originator of the Essay Examples with Expert Power-Is it Enough?, QRY packet to the destination. This process can result in multiple routes. Owen Jarus? Maintaining routes refers to reacting to topological changes in the network in Impact Management on Firms Profitability Essay a manner such that routes to jarus the destination are re-established within a finite time, meaning that its directed portions return to a destination-oriented graph within a finite time. Upon detection of a network partition, all links in the portion of the network that has become partitioned from the destination are marked as undirected to erase invalid routes. The erasing of routes is done using clear (CLR) messages.

3.7.2 Properties The protocols underlying link reversal algorithm will react to link changes through a simple localized single pass of the pizza hut sizes, distributed algorithm. This prevents CLR packets to propagate too far in owen jarus the network. System Bbc Bitesize? A comparison made by the CMU Monarch project has however shown that the owen, overhead in TORA is quite large because of the use of Bullying Essay IMEP. Owen Jarus? The graph is rooted at the destination, which has the pizza hut sizes, lowest height. However, the jarus, source originating the Impact Management on Firms Profitability Essay, QRY does not necessarily have the owen jarus, highest height. This can lead to the situation, where multiple routes are possible from the source to the destination, but only Essay about, one route will be discovered. The reason for this is that the height is owen jarus initially based on the distance in number of Preventi`on and Intervention hops from the destination.

23 3.8 Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol - IMEP 3.8.1 Description IMEP [5] is a protocol designed to owen support the nervous, operation of many routing protocols in Ad-hoc networks. The idea is to have a common general protocol that all routing protocols can make use of (see Figure 5). It incorporates many common mechanisms that the upper-layer protocol may need. These include: N N N N N Link status sensing Control message aggregation and encapsulation Broadcast reliability Network-layer address resolution Hooks for interrouter security authentication procedures IMEP also provides an architecture for MANET router identification, interface identification and addressing. IMEPs purpose is to improve overall performance by reducing the number of control messages and to put common functionality into one unified, generic protocol useful to all upper-level routing protocols. Owen Jarus? Routing IMEP IP Figure 5: IMEP in the protocol stack. Essay About Examples Power-Is? Of the currently purposed protocols, only TORA and OLSR use IMEP. It must however be noted that TORA and jarus, IMEP where designed by the same author. 3.8.2 Properties The idea to have a general protocol for nervous system bbc bitesize common basic features is good, but from a performance point of view this is not such a good idea. Owen Jarus? It adds another layer to the protocol stack. Essay About Expert Power-Is? As the work by the CMU Monarch projects has shown [3], IMEP generates a lot of overhead, mainly because of IMEPs neighbor discovery mechanism that generates at owen least one hello message per of Earnings Management on Firms Profitability Essay, second, but also because of the owen jarus, reliable in-order delivery of the packets that IMEP provides.

3.9 Cluster Based Routing Protocol - CBRP 3.9.1 Description The idea behind CBRP [11] is to divide the nodes of an ad-hoc network into a number of overlapping or disjoint clusters. One node is elected as cluster head for each cluster. This cluster head maintains the Essay of People Expert it Enough?, membership information for the cluster. Inter-cluster routes (routes within a cluster) are discovered dynamically using the membership information. 24 CBRP is owen jarus based on source routing, similar to DSR. This means that intracluster routes (routes between clusters) are found by flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). Essay Examples Expert Power-Is? The difference is that the cluster structure generally means that the owen jarus, number of nodes disturbed are much less. Flat routing protocols, i.e. only one level of hierarchy, might suffer from excessive overhead when scaled up. CBRP is like the other protocols fully distributed. This is necessary because of the very dynamic topology of the ad-hoc network. Furthermore, the protocol takes into consideration the zidane, existence of unidirectional links.

Link sensing Each node in CBRP knows its bi-directional links to its neighbors as well as unidirectional links from its neighbors to itself. Jarus? To handle this, each node must maintain a Neighbor Table (see Table 1). Table 1: Neighbor ID Neighbor 1 Neighbor 2 Neighbor n Neighbor table. Pizza Hut Sizes? Link status Bi/unidirectional link to me Bi/unidirectional link to me Bi/unidirectional link to me Role Is 1 a cluster head or member Is 2 a cluster head or member Is n a cluster head or member Each node periodically broadcasts its neighbor table in a hello message. The hello message contains the jarus, node ID, the nodes role (cluster head, cluster member or undecided) and on Flexible Schedules: Are Driving This Interest?, the neighbor table. The hello messages are used to update the owen jarus, neighbor tables at each node. If no hello message is received from a certain node, that entry will be removed from the table. Clusters The cluster formation algorithm is very simple, the on Flexible Work What Are Driving Interest?, node with lowest node ID is elected as the owen jarus, cluster head. The nodes use the information in the hello messages to decide whether or not they are the Essay about Examples of People with Expert, cluster heads. The cluster head regards all nodes it has bi-directinal links to as its member nodes.

A node regards itself as a member node to a particular cluster if it has a bi-directinal link to the cluster head. It is possible for a node to belong to several clusters. Cluster 1 Cluster 2 3 4 Cluster head Cluster head 1 2 6 Figure 6: 5 Bi-directional linked clusters. 25 Clusters are identified by their respective cluster heads, which means that the cluster head must change as infrequently as possible. The algorithm is jarus therefore not a strict lowest ID clustering algorithm. A noncluster head never challenges the status of an existing cluster head. Only when two cluster-heads move next to Essay on Flexible Work Interest? each other, will one of them lose the role as cluster head. In Figure 6 node 1 is cluster head for cluster 1 and node 2 is cluster head for owen cluster 2. Routing Routing in CBRP is Impact of Earnings Management Profitability in Pakistan based on source routing and the route discovery is done, by owen flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). The clustering approach however means that fewer nodes are disturbed. This, because only the cluster heads are flooded.

If node X needs a route to node Y, node X will send out a RREQ, with a recorded source route listing only itself initially. Any node forwarding this packet will add its own ID in this RREQ. Each node forwards a RREQ only zinadine zidane, once and owen jarus, it never forwards it to node that already appears in the recorded route. In CBRP, a RREQ will always follow a route with the following pattern: Source-Cluster head-Gateway-Cluster head-Gateway- . Essay About Examples Of People With Expert It Enough?? -Destination A gateway node for a cluster is a node that knows that it has a bi-directional or a unidirectional link to a node in owen jarus another cluster. In Figure 6, node 6 is gateway node for cluster 1 and node 4 is gateway node for cluster 2. The source unicasts the Impact of Earnings on Firms Profitability in Pakistan, RREQ to jarus its cluster head. Each cluster-head unicasts the Preventi`on Essay, RREQ to each of jarus its bidirectionally linked neighbor clusters, which has not already appeared in the recorded route through the corresponding gateway. Nervous Bbc Bitesize? There does not necessarily have to be an actual bi-directional link to a bi-directional linked neighbor cluster. Owen Jarus? For instance, in Essay Examples Expert Figure 6 cluster 1 has a unidirectional link to cluster 2 through node 3 and owen, cluster 2 has a unidirectional link to of Earnings Profitability cluster 1 through node 5, and the clusters are therefore bidirectional linked neighbor clusters. Owen? This procedure continues until the target is on Flexible Factors Are Driving This found or another node can supply the route. Owen Jarus? When the RREQ reaches the target, the target may chose to memorize the reversed route to the source. It then copies the recorded route to a Route Reply packet and sends it back to the source.

3.9.2 Properties This protocol has a lot of common features with the earlier discussed protocols. It has a route discovery and route removal operation that has a lot in common with DSR and pizza hut sizes, AODV. Owen? The clustering approach is probably a very good approach when dealing with large ad-hoc networks. The solution is more scalable than the other protocols, because it uses the Essay on Flexible Work What This, clustering approach that limits the number of messages that need to be sent. CBRP also has the advantage that it utilizes unidirectional links.

One remaining question is however how large each cluster should be. This parameter is owen critical to how the protocol will behave. 3.10 Comparison So far, the pizza hut sizes, protocols have been analyzed theoretically. Table 2 summarizes and compares the result from these theoretical/qualitative analyses and shows what properties the protocols have and do not have. As it can be seen from owen, Table 2, none of the protocols support power conservation or Quality of Service. This is pizza hut sizes however work in progress and will probably be added to the protocols. All protocols are distributed, thus none of the protocols is dependent on a centralized node and can therefore easily reconfigure in jarus the event of zidane biography topology changes.

26 Table 2: Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. DSDV AODV DSR ZRP Loop-free Yes Yes Yes Yes Multiple routes Distributed Reactive Unidirectional link support QoS Support Multicast Security Power conservation Periodic broadcasts No Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Partially No No No No No Yes Requires reliable or sequenced data No No No No TORA/ IMEP No, short lived loops Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (IMEP) Yes CBRP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No DSDV is the only proactive protocol in owen jarus this comparison. It is with Power-Is also the protocol that have most in common with traditional routing protocol in wired networks. The sequence numbers were added to owen ensure loop-free routes. DSDV will probably be good enough in networks, which allows the protocol to pizza hut sizes converge in owen reasonable time. This however means that the mobility cannot be too high. The authors of DSDV came to nervous the same conclusions and designed AODV, which is a reactive version of DSDV. They also added multicast capabilities, which will enhance the owen jarus, performance significantly when one node communicates with several nodes.

The reactive approach in nervous system bbc bitesize AODV has many similarities with the reactive approach of owen DSR. They both have a route discovery mode that uses request messages to pizza hut sizes find new routes. The difference is that DSR is based on source routing and will learn more routes than AODV. DSR also has the advantage that it supports unidirectional links. DSR has however one major drawback and it is the source route that must be carried in owen jarus each packet. This can be quite costly, especially when QoS is going to be used. ZRP and CBRP are two very interesting proposals that divide the network into several zones/clusters. This approach is probably a very good solution for large networks. Within the zones/clusters they have a more proactive scheme and between the zones/clusters they have a reactive scheme that have many similarities with the Essay about of People with, operation of AODV and DSR. They have for instance a route discovery phase that sends request through the network. The difference between ZRP and CBRP is owen jarus how the network is divided.

In ZRP all zones are overlapping and in CBRP clusters can be both overlapping and disjoint. None of the presented protocols are adaptive, meaning that the protocols do not take any smart routing decisions when the traffic load in the network is taken into zinadine biography consideration. As a route selection criteria the jarus, proposed protocols use metrics such as shortest number of and Intervention Essay hops and quickest response time to a request. This can lead to the situation where all packets are routed through the same node even if there exist better routes where the traffic load is not as large. Owen? 27 4 Simulation Environment The simulator we have used to simulate the ad-hoc routing protocols in is the Network Simulator 2 (ns) [7] from Berkeley. To simulate the mobile wireless radio environment we have used a mobility extension to pizza hut sizes ns that is developed by the CMU Monarch project at Carnegie Mellon University. 4.1 Network Simulator Network simulator 2 is the result of an on-going effort of research and jarus, development that is administrated by researchers at Berkeley. It is of Earnings on Firms Profitability a discrete event simulator targeted at networking research. It provides substantial support for simulation of TCP, routing, and multicast protocols. The simulator is written in C++ and a script language called OTcl2.

Ns uses an Otcl interpreter towards the user. This means that the user writes an OTcl script that defines the network (number of nodes, links), the owen jarus, traffic in pizza hut sizes the network (sources, destinations, type of jarus traffic) and which protocols it will use. This script is pizza hut sizes then used by ns during the simulations. The result of the simulations is an output trace file that can be used to do data processing (calculate delay, throughput etc) and to visualize the simulation with a program called Network Animator (NAM). See Appendix C for a screenshot of NAM. NAM is a very good visualization tool that visualizes the packets as they propagate through the network. An overview of how a simulation is done in ns is jarus shown in Figure 7. Otcl script Network Simulator 2 Output Data processing Network Animator Figure 7: Network simulator 2. The current version3 of the Network simulator does not support mobile wireless environments. The Network simulator alone is only intended for stationary networks with wired links. This caused us some problems in the beginning of zidane biography this master thesis.

We needed mobility and therefore started to design and implement a mobility model that would extend the simulator. We also started to implement the AODV protocol. This implementation of AODV is compatible with NAM and therefore gives a good picture of how AODV behaves. Owen? It is very easy to follow for instance the route discovery procedure. About two months later, in Bullying and Intervention Essay August 1998, two separate mobility extensions were released. These extensions had everything that we wanted from an extension, so we decided to use one of owen them. Examples Power-Is? This however meant that the implementation of AODV that we made earlier no longer was compatible and had to be ported. Owen? 2 3 Object Tool Command Language Network simulator 2.1b3 28 4.2 Mobility extension There currently exist two mobility extensions to ns.

These are: N N Wireless mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch projects [30]. Mobility support, mobile IP and wireless channel support developed by C. Perkins at Essay on Flexible What Sun Microsystems [18]. The ns group at Berkeley has as intention to jarus integrate both these extensions to ns. About Of People Power-Is It Enough?? This work is owen jarus however not complete yet. We have chosen to use the CMU Monarch extension, because this extension is targeted at ad-hoc networks. The version of the extension that we have worked with4 adds the following features5 to the Network simulator.

Node mobility Each mobile node is an independent entity that is responsible for pizza hut sizes computing its own position and owen, velocity as a function of time. Nodes move around according to a movement pattern specified at the beginning of the simulation. Realistic physical layers Propagation models are used to decide how far packets can travel in air. These models also consider propagation delays, capture effects and zinadine zidane, carrier sense [25]. MAC 802.11 An implementation of the IEEE 802.11 Media Access Protocol (MAC) [9] protocol was included in the extension. The MAC layer handles collision detection, fragmentation and acknowledgements. This protocol may also be used to detect transmission errors. 802.11 is owen a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) protocol. It avoids collisions by checking the channel before using it. If the channel is free, it can start sending, if not, it must wait a random amount of time before checking again. For each retry an exponential backoff algorithm will be used.

In a wireless environment it cannot be assumed that all stations hear each other. If a station senses the medium, as free, it does not necessarily mean that the medium is free around the receiver area. This problem is known as the hidden terminal problem and to overcome these problems the Collision Avoidance mechanism together with a positive acknowledgement scheme is used. The positive acknowledgement scheme means that the receiver sends an acknowledgement when it receives a packet. The sender will try to retransmit this packet until it receives the acknowledgement or the number of retransmits exceeds the about Examples Power-Is it Enough?, maximum number of retransmits. Owen? 802.11 also support power saving and of Earnings Management on Firms in Pakistan, security. Power saving allows packets to be buffered even if the system is asleep. Security is provided by an algorithm called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). It supports authentication and encryption. WEP is a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) and owen, is based on RSAs RC4. One of the most important features of 802.11 is the ad-hoc mode, which allows users to build up Wireless LANs without an zidane biography, infrastructure (without an access point).

Address Resolution Protocol The Address Resolution Protocol, ARP [24] is owen jarus implemented. ARP translates IP-addresses to hardware MAC addresses. This takes place before the packets are sent down to Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention Essay the MAC layer. Ad-hockey Ad-hockey is an owen jarus, application that makes it possible to visualize the Impact of Earnings on Firms Profitability Essay, mobile nodes as they move around and jarus, send/receives packets. Ad-hockey can also be used as a scenario generator tool to create the Essay about Examples Power-Is it Enough?, input files necessary for the simulations. This is done, by positioning nodes in a specified area.

Each node is then given a movement pattern consisting of movement directions at different waypoints, speed, pause times and communication patterns. Screenshots of ad-hockey can be seen in jarus Appendix C. 4 Version 1.0.0-beta, released in Impact of Earnings Management on Firms Profitability the middle of August. At the end of November 1998, the CMU Monarch projects released version 1.1.0 of the extension. Owen? This new version contains some bug fixes and implementations of the AODV and TORA protocols. 5 29 Radio network interfaces This is a model of the hardware that actually transmits the zinadine biography, packet onto the channel with a certain power and modulation scheme [25].

Transmission power The radius of the transmitter with an owen jarus, omni-directional antenna is about 250 meters in this extension. Antenna gain and receiver sensitivity Different antennas are available for zinadine zidane simulations. Ad-hoc routing protocols Both DSR and DSDV have been implemented and added to this extension. 4.2.1 Shared media The extension is owen based on a shared media model (Ethernet in the air). This means that all mobile nodes have one or more network interfaces that are connected to a channel (see Figure 8). A channel represents a particular radio frequency with a particular modulation and coding scheme. Channels are orthogonal, meaning that packets sent on one channel do not interfere with the Bullying Essay, transmission and reception of packets on another channel. The basic operation is as follows, every packet that is sent / put on the channel is received / copied to all mobile nodes connected to the same channel.

When a mobile nodes receive a packet, it first determines if it possible for jarus it to receive the packet. This is determined by the radio propagation model, based on the transmitter range, the distance that the packet has traveled and pizza hut sizes, the amount of bit errors. Mobile Node Mobile Node Mobile Node Channel Figure 8: Shared media model. 4.2.2 Mobile node Each mobile node (Figure 9) makes use of a routing agent for the purpose of calculating routes to other nodes in the ad-hoc network. Packets are sent from the owen, application and are received by Examples Power-Is the routing agent. The agent decides a path that the packet must travel in order to reach its destination and stamps it with this information. It then sends the packet down to the link layer. The link layer level uses an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to decide the owen jarus, hardware addresses of Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention Essay neighboring nodes and map IP addresses to their correct interfaces. When this information is owen jarus known, the packet is sent down to the interface queue and awaits a signal from the Multiple Access Control (MAC) protocol.

When the MAC layer decides it is ok to send it onto the channel, it fetches the packet from the queue and hands it over to the network interface which in turn sends the Impact Management on Firms Essay, packet onto the radio channel. This packet is copied and is delivered to owen all network interfaces at the time at which the first bit of the packet would begin arriving at the interface in a physical system. Each network interface stamps the packet with the Bullying Preventi`on, receiving interfaces properties and then invokes the propagation model. The propagation model uses the transmit and receive stamps to determine the power with which the interface will receive the packet. The receiving network interfaces then use their properties to jarus determine if they actually successfully received the packet, and zinadine biography, sends it to the MAC layer if appropriate. If the MAC layer receives the packet error- and jarus, collision- free, it passes the pizza hut sizes, packet to owen jarus the mobiles entry point. Impact Profitability? From there it reaches a demultiplexer, which decides if the packet should be forwarded again, or if it has reached its destination node. If the destination node is reached, the packet is sent to jarus a port demultiplexer, which decides to what application the packet should be delivered. If the packet should be forwarded again the routing agent will be called and the procedure will be repeated. Zinadine Zidane? 30 Entry point M U X Application Routing Agent Link Layer ARP Queue MAC Propagation model Network Interface Channel Figure 9: A mobile node.

4.3 Simulation overview A typical simulation with ns and the mobility extension is shown in jarus Figure 10. Basically it consists of generating the following input files to ns: N N A scenario file that describes the movement pattern of the nodes. A communication file that describes the traffic in the network. These files can be generated by drawing them by hand using the visualization tool Ad-hockey (see 4.2) or by generating completely randomized movement and communication patterns with a script. These files are then used for the simulation and bbc bitesize, as a result from this, a trace file is jarus generated as output. Prior to the simulation, the parameters that are going to be traced during the simulation must be selected. The trace file can then be scanned and analyzed for the various parameters that we want to measure.

This can be used as data for plots with for instance Gnuplot. The trace file can also be used to Impact of Earnings Management on Firms Profitability in Pakistan visualize the simulation run with either Ad-hockey or Network animator. 31 Scenario generation Scenario file Communication file Mobility extension Network Simulator 2 Output files Data processing Ad-hockey GnuPlot Figure 10: Network animator Simulation overview. 4.4 Modifications To be able to use ns for the simulations, we had to do some modifications. First of owen jarus all, we did not have the pizza hut sizes, routing protocols we wanted to simulate, so one of the owen jarus, first steps was to implement the protocols. 4.4.1 AODV We have implemented the AODV protocol (for more details, see appendix B). The implementation is done according to the AODV draft [19] released in bbc bitesize August 1998. Owen Jarus? It must however be noted that a new version of the draft [20] was released in the end of November 1998. The new draft contains some changes that would enhance the performance. These changes that affect the unicast routing part is Work This Interest? primarily: N N Reduced or complete elimination of hello messages. Updates to important parameters to reflect recent simulation experiences.

To be able to test how the hello messages and jarus, link layer support affects the behavior of the protocol we have implemented three versions: N N N AODV with only IP-based hello messages AODV with only Link Layer notification of broken links AODV with both IP-based hello messages and Link layer notification of broken links The implementation of the Essay on Flexible Work Schedules: What Are Driving Interest?, different versions has some major differences that will affect the performance. First of all AODV with only MAC-layer support will not get the routes to the neighbors installed in the routing table, neither will it update the routes to the neighbor who forwarded a message to you. Both AODV versions that have hello messages will have this neighbor detection process that keeps track of the neighbors. This means that the protocols with this feature will have more information in the 32 routing tables. Without this support, buffering of the packets may be necessary while a request is jarus sent out in search for a node that could be a neighbor. It must however be noted that the removal of hello messages somewhat changes the behavior of the AODV protocol. The hello messages add overhead to Essay on Flexible Work Schedules: What Factors This the protocol, but also gives us some prior knowledge of link breakages. Owen Jarus? Removing the zinadine zidane biography, hello messages makes the protocol completely on-demand, broken links can only be detected when actually sending something on jarus the broken link. The DSR implementation that was included in the mobility extension used a sendbuffer that buffered all packets that the application sent while the routing protocol searched for Bullying Preventi`on a route. To get a fair comparison of the protocols we implemented the jarus, same feature for AODV. This buffer can hold 64 packets and packets are allowed to stay in on Flexible What Are Driving Interest? the buffer for 8 seconds.

The parameters that can be adjusted for AODV and the values we have used is shown in Table 3. Owen? Some of these parameters are very important and pizza hut sizes, affects the performance of the jarus, protocol in drastic ways. The hello interval is maybe the most important parameter when dealing with AODV that uses hello messages. If the interval is too long, link breakages would not be detected fast enough, but if the interval is to Preventi`on short, a great amount of extra control overhead would be added. Owen Jarus? Most of the parameters in Table 3 are obvious. The maximum rate for sending replies prevents a node to nervous system bbc bitesize do a triggered route reply storm.

This means that AODV in each node is only allowed to send one triggered RREP per second for each broken route. Owen Jarus? This could for biography instance happen if a forwarding node receives a lot of data packets that the node no longer has a route for. In this case the jarus, node should only send a triggered RREP, as a response to the first data packet and Bullying and Intervention, if the node keeps receiving data packets after that, a triggered RREP is owen only allowed to be sent once per Essay about Examples of People, second. Table 3: Constants used in the AODV implementation. Parameter Hello interval Active route timeout Route reply lifetime Allowed hello loss Request retries Time between retransmitted requests Time to owen hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for and Intervention a route Value 1,5 s 300 s 300 s 2 3 3s 8s 1/s 4.4.2 DSR The DSR implementation that came with the extension uses promiscuous mode (i.e. eavesdropping), which means that the protocol learns information from packets that it overhears. The question is how realistic this is in a real environment. Owen Jarus? In a real case scenario we will probably have some sort of encryption, probably IP-Sec that uses IP-Sec tunneling to transport messages. We have made some small change to DSR that makes it possible to turn the eavesdropping feature on and off. On Flexible What This Interest?? The parameters that are configurable for DSR are shown in Table 4. These values are the values specified in the DSR draft and have not been changed. The nonpropagating timeout is the time a node waits for a reply for a nonpropagating search. A nonpropagating search is jarus a request that first goes to the neighbors.

If the neighbors do not answer in this specified amount of a time, a new request that will be forwarded by the neighbors will be sent. Preventi`on? The sendbuffer in the DSR can hold 64 packets and the packets are allowed to stay in jarus the buffer for 30 seconds Table 4: Constants used in Work Schedules: What This the DSR implementation. Parameter Time between retransmitted requests Size of source route header carrying n addresses Timeout for owen jarus nonpropagating search Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for a route 33 Value 500 ms 4n + 4 bytes 30 ms 30 s 1/s 4.4.3 DSDV The extension also included an implementation of the DSDV protocol. This implementation is actually two implementations that handle the triggered update a little different. In the bbc bitesize, first version only owen jarus, a new metric for a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. In the second version, a new sequence number for a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. Essay Schedules: This? We have modified DSDV so it always uses the version that triggers on new sequence numbers. Owen? This is the version that, we feel behaves according to the specification of Impact on Firms DSDV. The parameters for DSDV are shown in Table 5 and are as specified in the DSDV paper [22].

Table 5: Constants used in the DSDV implementation. Parameter Periodic route update interval Periodic updates missed before link declared broken Route advertisement aggregation time Maximum packets buffered per node per destination Value 15 s 3 1s 5 4.4.4 Flooding We have implemented a simple flooding protocol that simply floods all user data packets to all nodes in the network. To have some sort cleverness in owen jarus this flooding and pizza hut sizes, avoiding data to bounce back and forth we use a sequence number in each packet. This sequence number is incremented for each new packet. Owen? Each node keeps track of (source IP, sequence number) for all destinations and zidane, does not process a packet if the packet has a sequence number smaller than the stored sequence number. Owen? The idea was to do the simulations on the flooding protocol and pizza hut sizes, compare the results with the results for the routing protocols. After some initial simulations on flooding this plan was abandoned. The simulations took too long to complete.

The reason is that flooding generates too many packets (events in owen the simulator). 4.4.5 The simulator To the actual simulator (ns + extension) we have added some new features to allow us to make the wanted measurements. Obstacles The visualization/scenario generator tool, Ad-hockey, allows the user to place obstacles (lines and zinadine biography, boxes) into the scenario. The problem is that ns do not use these obstacles for any kind of computation. Two nodes can communicate, even through a wall. We wanted to simulate the protocols in a few realistic scenarios, so we added these computations to jarus ns. The calculations consisted of two parts. The first part was to store all obstacles in a database that we later could use when calculating the intersection points and the second part was to and Intervention extend the propagation model with the actual computations. The computations merely consisted of deciding if there existed an intersection point between the straight line from the sending node to the receiving node and owen, any obstacle in the database.

If such an intersection point exists, the zidane biography, communication is simply cut of. No fading of the owen, signal, reflections etc is taken into consideration. The model is pizza hut sizes therefore very simple. The problem with these computations is that it adds a lot of overhead in the simulations. Owen Jarus? The simulations will take significantly longer time to complete. The extra computation must be done for all packets. In a large scenario with many nodes that are sending a lot of about it Enough? traffic this will increase the simulation time significantly. Version management To allow us to test different versions of one protocol simultaneous, we have added a version control to ns. This means that it is possible to give a version number to a protocol when the simulation starts. This version number is given to the specified protocol and it is then up to the programmer to use it.

We currently use this feature with both AODV and DSR. The different versions are: N N N N N AODV 1 = AODV with only hello messages. AODV 2 = AODV with only MAC-layer feedback. AODV 3 = AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer feedback. DSR 1 = DSR with eavesdropping. DSR 2 = DSR without eavesdropping. 34 5 Simulation study The protocols that we have simulated are DSDV, AODV and DSR. DSDV is jarus only used to get a comparison of how much better/worse the MANET protocols are than an ordinary proactive protocol. Essay On Flexible Work What Are Driving This? The simulations were conducted on owen an Intel PC with a Pentium-2 processor at 400 MHz, 128 Mbytes of RAM running FreeBSD6. 5.1 Measurements Before we go into the actual simulations, we will discuss which parameters [5] that are interesting to measure when studying routing protocols in zinadine zidane an ad-hoc network.

There are two main performance measures that are substantially affected by the routing algorithm, the average end-to-end throughput (quantity of owen service) and the average end-to-end delay (quality of service). Essay About Examples Power-Is? 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics The measurements that we have conducted can be seen from two angels: externally and internally. The external view is what the application/user sees and the internal view is how the routing protocol behaves. The external measurements are basically the end-to-end throughput and jarus, delay. The internal behavior can further be divided into routing accuracy and routing efficiency. N N Routing Efficiency: How much of the sent data is actually delivered to Essay on Flexible What the destination? How much routing overhead is required to find routes? Routing Accuracy: How accurate, measured in number of hops are the jarus, supplied routes compared to Bullying Essay the optimal shortest path.

5.1.2 Parameters The metrics has to be measured against some parameter that describes the owen jarus, characteristic behavior of an adhoc network and can be varied in a controlled way. The parameters that we have chosen to simulate with are: N N N Mobility, which probably is one of the most important characteristics of an ad-hoc network. This will affect the dynamic topology, links will go up and down. Offered network load. The load that we actually offer the zidane, network. This can be characterized by three parameters: packet size, number of connections and owen, the rate that we are sending the packets with. Network size (number of and Intervention nodes, the owen, size of the area that the nodes are moving within). The network size basically determines the connectivity. Fewer nodes in the same area mean fewer neighbors to send requests to, but also smaller probability for collisions.

5.1.3 Mobility Because mobility is an about of People with Expert Power-Is it Enough?, important metric when evaluating ad-hoc networks we need some definition of mobility. There exist many definitions of owen mobility. The CMU Monarch project [3] has for instance used the pause time in the waypoints as a definition of mobility. Of Earnings On Firms Profitability? If a node has a low pause time, it will almost constantly be moving, which would mean a high mobility. If a node has a large pause time it will stand still most of the time and jarus, have a low mobility. We did not think that this mobility definition was good enough, because even if the nervous bbc bitesize, pause time is owen jarus low and all nodes are constantly moving, they could all be moving with a very slow speed in the same area. We have defined mobility a little differently. Our definition is based on the relative movement of the nodes. About Examples With Expert Power-Is? This definition gives a very good picture of how the nodes are moving relatively to each other. The definition is as follows: 6 FreeBSD 2.2.6 35 If several nodes move for owen a certain time, then the mobility is the average change in distance between all nodes over that period of time.

This time is the simulation time T. Mobility is Essay Factors Are Driving Interest? a function of both the speed and owen, the movement pattern. It is calculated with a certain sampling rate. During the simulations, we have used 0.1 seconds as sampling rate. Of People With Power-Is It Enough?? This is the default time when logging the movement in the simulations, so it was appropriate to use the owen, same value when calculating the mobility. Table 6 shows all variables that are used in the equations for the mobility factor. Table 6: Variable name dist(nx, ny)t n i Ax(t) Mx T t Mob Mobility variables.

Description the Impact of Earnings Profitability in Pakistan Essay, distance between node x and owen jarus, node y at time t number of on Flexible Schedules: What Factors nodes Index Average distance for node x to all other nodes at time t Average mobility for node x relative to all other nodes during the entire simulation time Simulation time Granularity, simulation step Mobility for entire scenario First of owen all, the Bullying Essay, average distance from each node to all other nodes has to owen jarus be calculated. This has to be done at times t = 0, t = 0+X, t = 0+2X, . t = simulation time. For the node x at pizza hut sizes time t the formula is: n dist (n , n ) x Ax(t) = i i1 (5.1) n 1 After that, with the use of (5.1), the average mobility for jarus that particular node has to be calculated. Biography? This is the average change in jarus distance during a whole simulation. The mobility for node x is: T t A (t ) A (t 't ) x Mx = x t0 (5.2) T 't Finally, the mobility for pizza hut sizes the whole scenario is the sum of the mobility for all nodes (5.2) divided with the number of nodes: n M Mob = i i1 (5.3) n The unit for the mobility factor (5.3) is m/s.

The mobility factor therefore gives a picture of the average speed of the distance change between the nodes. Owen? Figure 11 shows some basic examples of how this mobility factor will reflect the actual movement. About Of People? If the nodes are standing still, this will of course lead to owen jarus a mobility of of Earnings on Firms Profitability 0, but this would also be the owen, case when the nodes relative movement is zero, for example when the nodes are moving in parallel with the same speed. It is only when the nodes have a movement relative to Impact of Earnings on Firms Profitability in Pakistan Essay each other that the mobility factor will be greater than zero. 36 Our mobility definition reflects how the jarus, mobility affects the pizza hut sizes, dynamic topology, without considering obstacles or surroundings. Standing still 0.0 Parallel movement 0.0 Figure 11: Relative movement 0.0 Example of owen mobility. The reason for choosing mobility as a parameter in on Flexible the simulations is first of owen all that the mobility is one of the most important characteristics of an ad-hoc network. But also because mobility is Essay Are Driving a parameter that is easy to grasp for people in general. Jarus? Everyone has a rather good picture of what it means if the mobility is increased.

We have tested the mobility factor to see how it affects the Work Are Driving Interest?, dynamic topology. As it can be seen in owen Figure 12, the number of link changes is directly proportional to Bullying the mobility factor. A link change basically means that a link changes state from either up/down to down/up. The plot is the average values for owen all simulations that we have done using 50 nodes and an environment size of 1000x1000 meters. 3500 3000 Avg nr of link changes 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0.5 Figure 12: 1 1.5 2 Mobility 2.5 3 3.5 Relation between the number of link changes and mobility. 37 4 5.2 Simulation setup In this chapter we will describe how the simulations were done. We have done 4 different types of about of People Expert simulations: N N N N Mobility simulations: We vary the mobility to see how it affects the different metrics that we are measuring. Offered load simulations: We vary the owen jarus, load that we offer the network, to see how the protocols behave when for instance the load is high. Network size simulations: We vary the number of nodes in Impact of Earnings on Firms Profitability in Pakistan Essay the network. Realistic simulations: A few realistic scenarios were designed.

These simulations do not give a general view of the protocol, but instead tests certain characteristics of the protocols. Because we had different versions of both AODV and jarus, DSR we decided to first compare the different versions of the Preventi`on Essay, same protocol. Owen Jarus? After that we did a more general comparison where we used one version of each protocol and compared them against DSDV. The comparisons made are therefore: N N N Comparison of AODV with only Preventi`on, hello messages, AODV with only link layer support and jarus, ADOV with both hello messages and link layer support. Zinadine Zidane? Comparison of DSR with and without eavesdropping. Comparison of DSDV, AODV with both hello messages and jarus, link layer support and DSR without eavesdropping. The reason for choosing DSR without eavesdropping in Bullying and Intervention the last comparison, is as mentioned earlier that this is owen jarus more realistic. Security features like encryption will prohibit eavesdropping in the future. The choice of AODV with both link layer support and hello messages was made because first of Essay Schedules: What Are Driving Interest? all, link layer support is probably a necessity to achieve a performance that is good enough and secondly because the removal of jarus hello messages somewhat changes the overall functionality of AODV. Removal of hello messages would of course save us from the overhead of the hello messages, but also makes the protocol completely on-demand. A broken link could only be detected when a packet needs to be sent on the link.

In all simulations, except the realistic scenario simulations, we have used a randomized scenario. The randomized scenarios have different parameters that affect the movement patterns. The parameters that can be changed are: N N N N N Maximum speed: Every time a speed is going to zinadine zidane biography be randomized it is randomized in jarus the interval [0,maximum speed]. Number of nodes: This was constant during the simulations. We used 50 nodes for all simulation except the size simulation where we varied the number of nodes.

Environment size: Determines the pizza hut sizes, size of the owen jarus, environment. We have used a size of 1000 x 1000 meters for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we have used 1500 x 900. Simulation time: The time for pizza hut sizes which the simulations will be run at. Owen? We have used a simulation time of 250 seconds for biography all simulations except the realistic simulations where we used 900 seconds. Pause time: Pause time is the time for which a node stands still before randomizing a new destination and the speed that will be used to reach this destination.

We have used a pause time for 1 second in all simulations. The randomizing of scenarios works like this: first of all every node stands still for pause time seconds. After that each node selects a random destination, a waypoint somewhere in the environment space. Each node also randomizes a speed that will be used when moving to jarus the waypoint. This speed is randomized uniformly in the interval 0 to maximum speed. Essay About Expert Power-Is It Enough?? Every time a node reaches a waypoint, this procedure will be repeated. A factor that we have not taken into consideration with the scenarios is the fact that a real person is not likely to stand on the same place if the connection goes down. A real person is more likely to find a place where the owen jarus, reception is good enough. The system would be to complex if this factor were included also. We have assumed bi-directional links during all our simulations, i.e. the links work equally well in Power-Is both directions.

It is questionable if unidirectional links are desirable when using the jarus, IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, because bi-directional links are necessary if 802.11 acknowledgements are supposed to be used. Pizza Hut Sizes? 38 5.3 Mobility simulations 5.3.1 Setup The simulations where we varied the mobility where done by randomizing scenario files. This method is very hard to perform, because we cannot prior a scenario generation say that we want a mobility factor of exactly X. Jarus? Instead we used the maximum speed parameter to control the scenario. The simulation parameters that have been used for the mobility simulations are shown in Table 7. Table 7: Parameters used during mobility simulations. Preventi`on And Intervention? Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 The scenario is owen jarus a very crucial part of the simulation. We have therefore collected 10 measurements for each wanted mobility factor. The mobility factors that we simulated on are: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and system, 3.5.

Because of the hard part of owen getting scenarios that are precise we have used an interval of r0.1 for the above mentioned mobility factors. Examples With Power-Is It Enough?? The scenarios that where created where then analyzed in jarus terms of unreachable hosts. Zinadine Zidane? We did not want to investigate network partition at this stage, so all scenarios with extremely high degree of unreachable hosts where discarded. Jarus? By increasing the maximum speed in the scenario generation, the nervous system bbc bitesize, mobility will also increase. A mobility factor of 3.5 approximately corresponds to a maximum speed of 20 m/s. For the randomized simulations we have varied the jarus, maximum speed in on Flexible Schedules: Factors Are Driving This Interest? the interval 0 to 20 m/s. A speed of 20 m/s corresponds the speed of a vehicle, which will lead to a high mobility. Owen Jarus? We used the zinadine biography, same communication pattern for all mobility simulations. The traffic pattern consisted of 15 CBR sources that started at different times. We did not use TCP for the simulations, because we did not want to investigate TCP, which uses flow control, retransmit features and owen jarus, so on. We wanted to zinadine get a general view of owen jarus how the routing protocol behaves.

The communication pattern was randomly created. Nervous System Bbc Bitesize? The parameters that was specified when randomizing the communication pattern were the number of wanted sources, the packet size, the rate at which they were sending and the simulation time. In these simulations, we wanted to investigate how the mobility affected the protocols, so the load that we offer is very low. We only use 15 CBR sources sending 64 bytes large packets with a rate of 5 packets/s. The bandwidth of the jarus, links are 2 Mbit. 39 5.3.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 13: 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. How many of the sent data packets are actually received and why have the dropped packets been dropped?

Of the different AODV versions, it can been seen in Figure 13 that both AODV versions that have MAClayer support are almost receiving all packets that are sent. AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer support is slightly better than the version with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is the Impact Profitability in Pakistan, same as mentioned earlier, the owen jarus, hello messages gets some prior knowledge of pizza hut sizes link breakages. AODV with only hello messages is however dropping a very large portion of the jarus, packets when the mobility increases. Bullying Preventi`on And Intervention? This large fraction of dropped packets is of course not acceptable and owen jarus, the reason for these drops has to do with the interval of the hello messages. The interval between the hello messages and the number of allowed hello message losses are crucial for detection of link breakages. If the interval is decreased, link breakages are detected earlier, but it would also mean that the pizza hut sizes, control overhead in the network increases. The issue here is to try to owen find optimal values for and Intervention these parameters. The choice of these parameters is also very dependent on the behavior that is desired; a higher fraction of received packets, a high throughput, low delay or a low overhead. The fraction of received packets for the DSR versions is owen jarus very large even for high mobility.

The DSR version without eavesdropping has a slightly smaller fraction of received packets. This difference is however so small that it is negligible. DSR with eavesdropping gets better result for the simple reason that it has a little more information when calculating the routes. A reason for the higher fraction received packets for on Flexible What Interest? DSR compared to AODV is that DSR allows packets to stay in the send buffer for as long as 30 seconds, AODV only 8 seconds (our implementation). It must however be noted that the AODV draft [19] does not specify how long a packet is allowed to stay in the sendbuffer. Owen Jarus? When comparing these results with the results for DSDV it can clearly be seen that a proactive approach is not acceptable at all when the pizza hut sizes, mobility increases. The fraction received packets drastically goes down to 56-57 %. This value is however for a very large mobility factor (vehicles).

But the fraction of received packets is not even 100 % when the mobility is 0, as for all other protocols. The reason for this is that packets are sent before the routing tables have had enough time to jarus converge and the packets are dropped. 40 The main reasons for dropping packets are that the protocol is sending packets on pizza hut sizes a broken route that it thinks is valid and that packet in the buffers are dropped because of congestion and timeouts. At this low load we only have a small fraction of the packets that have been dropped because of collision. Owen? It can also be seen that IP-based hello messages as only link breakage detection mechanism is not a good idea. Management Profitability? The results are very poor, even DSDV have slightly better results. Link layer feedback of link breakages informs the upper layer routing protocol is much quicker and jarus, it can therefore react immediately. 5.3.3 End-to-end delay AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 0.14 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0.14 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 3.5 Mobility (m/s) AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0.14 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 14: Mobility simulations - delay. Zidane Biography? As seen in Figure 14, of the different AODV versions AODV with only hello messages has lowest delay on the data packets that are received. Owen Jarus? The reason for Essay What this is not that it finds routes faster or that the routes are shorter or more optimal, instead AODV with only hello messages is the AODV version that gets significantly fewest packets through the jarus, network. The packets that it successfully gets through the network have approximately the same low delay as for the other AODV versions.

The difference is that the other AODV versions have a portion of packets that have a higher delay (has been in biography a buffer a long time and still gets the packets through the network). This affects the average delay, which becomes larger. In AODV with only hello messages, packets in the buffers that have been there for a long time are dropped. The reason is that ADOV does not successfully find a new route for those packets and because broken links are not detected fast enough, resulting in that a source can keep sending packets on a broken link believing that it is still working properly. Owen? AODV with both hello messages and MAC layer support has a slightly lower delay than AODV with only MAC-layer support. The reason for Bullying and Intervention this is owen that as mentioned earlier, AODV with only MAC-layer support makes the protocol completely on-demand, it only Bullying Preventi`on, detects link breakages when actually trying to send packets. Packets that are sent after this breakage is detected will have a higher delay, because they are buffered during the time it takes to owen jarus find a new route.

AODV with both hello messages and Mac-layer support on Impact Management on Firms Profitability the other hand will get some prior knowledge of the link breakage and has a chance to owen find a new route before any new packets are sent. 41 Both DSR versions show a tendency to get higher delay when mobility is increased. The turning point comes at a mobility factor of Impact Management Profitability approximately 1.0. DSR without eavesdropping has a negligible higher delay compared to DSR with eavesdropping. DSDV is the owen, protocol that seems to have lowest delay in these results. The results are however somewhat misleading because DSDV drops so many packets that it cannot said to pizza hut sizes be valid. The packets that are dropped in DSDV will successfully get through when using for instance DSR, but has a slightly higher delay, because of longer times in buffers etc.

These higher delay packets will make the jarus, average delay higher for DSR. The same can be said for AODV with only hello messages. The other two AODV versions have a slightly higher delay than the DSR versions. This has probably to do with the source routing concept of DSR. DSR gains so much information by the source routes that it will learn routes to many more destinations than a distance vector protocol like AODV.

This will mean that while DSR already has a route for a certain destination, AODV would have to send a specific request for that destination. The packets would in the meanwhile stay in a buffer until a valid route is found. This will take some time and will therefore increase the average delay. In a packet based radio network without Quality of Service, the delays of the packets will vary much. The packets that do not have a route will be buffered until a route is found. Impact? A critical parameter here is how long a packet should be allowed to stay in the buffer before it is thrown away. If the packets are allowed to be in the buffer for a long time, the following situation could happen: A packet is sent, but there does not exist any route to that destination so the packet is buffered and jarus, a route request is pizza hut sizes sent. The destination node is however unreachable so no route reply is returned to the sending node.

After a long time, the destination node suddenly becomes reachable and the packet is sent. This packet will have a very large delay. Should this situation be allowed to happen? Should the packet be dropped from the buffer at a much earlier stage or do we want all packets to get through the network, even though the delay can be very large. In the owen, case where we are using TCP, the zinadine, retransmit operation will probably retransmit the packet at an earlier stage anyway, because no acknowledgement was received.

The allowed time for packets to stay in owen the sendbuffer in DSR is 30 seconds and only 8 seconds for AODV. If a packet is received 30 seconds after it was sent, this will increase the pizza hut sizes, average delay to some degree. 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput 2.4 2.2 2.2 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 Mobility (m/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 15: Mobility simulations - throughput. 42 2 2.5 3 3.5 Figure 15 shows the owen jarus, throughput curves for the different protocols with a packet size of 64 bytes. It must however be mentioned that the curves in this case are only Profitability in Pakistan Essay, interesting from a relative view, as a comparison between the protocols. We have not tried to maximize the throughput, we have only tried to determine the owen jarus, relative difference in throughput for the different protocols with respect to the mobility factor and Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention, the specific load that we have used. The throughput curves for all protocols are very similar to the fraction received packet curves. This is logical because large packet drops will of course mean lower throughput. Jarus? Both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support have almost identical throughput. Impact Management On Firms In Pakistan? This throughput is also approximately constant, it decreases somewhat when mobility is as high as 2.5-3.5. AODV with only hello messages and DSDV have a throughput that drastically decreases when mobility increases.

AODV with only hello show a very poor result. The throughput curve drops almost immediately to half of what it is when mobility is 0. 5.3.5 Overhead 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 1.6e+06 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 25000 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 3.5 1.8e+06 DSR-eaves dropping DSR DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1.6e+06 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 20000 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1.6e+06 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 2 Mobility (m/s) 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 16: 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Mobility simulations - overhead. Because the routing protocol need to send control information to achieve the task of finding routes, it is interesting to see how much control information that is actually sent for each protocol. There exists some sort of tradeoff between the byte overhead and the number of owen control information packets sent. Bbc Bitesize? A large byte 43 overhead would of course mean a larger part of wasted bandwidth. Jarus? Many small control information packets would however mean that the radio medium on which packets are sent is acquired more frequently. This can be quite costly in terms of power and network utilization. The values that we have plotted do not include any physical layer framing or MAC layer overhead. We have only looked at the overhead at the IP-level. Nervous? A completely fair comparison would also include the above mentioned overheads. We have chosen not to include these for the simple reason that the owen jarus, MAC layer can be different in a real life implementation.

We wanted to investigate the overhead generally, not the overhead that is dependent on particularly the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. The results are shown in Figure 16. The first column is overhead calculated in number of packets and the second column is the byte overhead. The number of about Examples of People with Power-Is control packets and byte overhead is a total for all simulations done where we have varied mobility. Of the different AODV versions, it can be seen that the curves for the AODV versions that have link layer support are similar in jarus appearance. The difference of about 8000-9000 packets and 270000-290000 bytes that can be seen corresponds to the hello packets. The AODV version with only hello messages has a much more stable form of the curve. The small rise that is visible is the triggered route replies that are sent when a link goes down and the new requests that are sent to find a new route during route failures.

A route failure therefore triggers both triggered replies and on Flexible Work What Factors Interest?, new requests. This rise is much larger for the AODV versions with link layer support for the simple reason that it detects link failure much faster, which will lead to much more messages. DSR does not include the data packets in the number of control packet calculations, only the extra byte overhead from these packets is included. Worth noting when observing the DSR versions is that the DSR version that does not use eavesdropping has approximately the double amount of control overhead counted in owen number of messages and about 400000 bytes more of byte overhead than the Impact on Firms Profitability, DSR version with eavesdropping at the highest mobility 3.5. The somewhat strange behavior of the byte overhead for DSR can be explained as a sum of both the sent packets and the sent control messages.

As mobility increases, fewer packets will get through the network. Fewer packets mean less byte overhead in the source route of the packets. Increased mobility also means more topology changes, which will increase the jarus, number of update messages. The byte overhead is therefore decreasing and at approximately mobility 1.5 the increase of nervous system bbc bitesize control messages will cause the byte overhead to increase. Owen? The number of control messages in DSDV is fairly constant, even when the zinadine, mobility is extremely high. This is the nature of a proactive protocol that is dependent on owen periodic broadcasts. The byte overhead on the other hand, will increase as mobility increases. The reason for this is that the amount of zidane information sent in each update message will be larger as the amount of link changes increases. Owen? 5.3.6 Optimal path One internal aspect of the routing protocol is the routing accuracy, e.g. how good the actual routes are compared to the optimal routes. To illustrate this we have compared the actual hop count with the Essay of People with Power-Is, optimal shortest route for all received packets. We have then, for each protocol, calculated how large fraction the received packets that have been routed through the optimal route, a route with hopcount that is one larger than the optimal, a route with hopcount that is two larger than the optimal and so on.

The result is shown in Table 8. The results are the total results for owen all simulations done with varying mobility. To better illustrate the difference between some of the protocols, we have also plotted the results for one AODV version, one DSR version and compared it with the Examples with it Enough?, only proactive protocol DSDV. It can clearly be seen in Figure 17 that DSDV is the protocol that has the highest degree of optimality, almost 90 % of the jarus, received packets have been routed with optimal hop count. The AODV and Essay about of People with Power-Is it Enough?, DSR versions are almost identical. AODV is slightly better. Owen? This difference is however so small that it can neglected. The difference between the different DSR versions is quite large and can be explained with the extra information that DSR with eavesdropping has when calculating routes. This extra information is apparently very informative when calculating shortest possible routes. AODV with only hello messages has best results of the different AODV versions. These due to the similarities with a proactive protocol like DSDV that is highly dependent on periodic broadcasts.

Because of the periodic updates DSDV needs some time before it converges to Bullying Essay a steady state. Jarus? This happens when we have high movement with a lot of topology changes. Most of the packets that are sent during this time are dropped and the rest of them get a little higher hopcount. All packets that are sent after the routing tables have converged to pizza hut sizes a steady state do however most likely have the owen jarus, optimal shortest path. AODV with only hello messages have a similar behavior. Link breakages are dependent on the hello messages. This will mean that high movement and on Flexible Work Schedules: What Interest?, frequent topology changes will lead to many packet 44 drops during this time.

The packet that successfully gets through the network have done this during times when the network is somewhat stabile 1 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 17: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. Because both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support gets significantly more packets through the network when the owen, number of topology changes is large, they will have a little lower fraction of packets that have a optimal route. In times of Essay on Flexible What Are Driving This frequent movement it is easy to owen jarus get a route that at first is Bullying and Intervention Essay optimal and owen jarus, then the moment later is 1-2 hops longer than another route that become the pizza hut sizes, optimal route. The protocols will keep sending packets on owen the route that at first was optimal. A good relative comparison is to look at pizza hut sizes the average hop count difference for all packets received. DSDV has the smallest average with a hopcount at only 0.13 hops from the optimal path. Table 8: Protocol AODV 1 AODV 2 AODV 3 DSR 1 DSR 2 DSDV 0 79.1% 55.9% 68.4% 81.1% 63.2% 88.7% Optimal path difference for all protocols.

Number of hops from optimal path (% packets) 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.8% 3.68% 1.08% 0.30% 0.55% 0.06% 29.9% 9.04% 2.62% 1.09% 0.56% 0.20% 23.0% 5.37% 1.48% 0.84% 0.47% 0.14% 15.3% 2.73% 0.54% 0.13% 0.08% 0.01% 26.6% 7.21% 2.21% 0.56% 0.13% 0.05% 10.6% 0.59% 0.06% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 45 7 0.06% 0.38% 0.04% 0.02% 0.03% 0.00% Average 0.292170 0.682837 0.459423 0.234429 0.512004 0.126577 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations The protocols that have link layer support for link breakage detection will be much more stable. The fraction of owen jarus packets received for these protocols is almost constant at 95 % even when mobility increases. This result indicates that these kinds of protocols will get the job done even when mobility increases. These protocols include both DSR versions and nervous system, the two AODV versions that have this link layer support. Protocols that are highly dependent on periodic broadcast show a rather poor result, only owen, little more than 50 % of the packet are received when mobility is increased. On Flexible Work Are Driving? Because DSR is a source routing protocol it is always interesting to see how much overhead this kind of protocol will have. Owen Jarus? The byte overhead is larger than for instance the AODV version that uses both hello messages and link layer support for Bullying Essay link breakage detection. The interesting thing with this is that the number of control messages is owen jarus much smaller for DSR than any other protocol. This is interesting because this means that an approach that uses a source routing based approach to find routes combined with a destination vector approach for sending data packets could be desirable. 5.4 Offered load simulations We have used these protocols for these simulations: N N N AODV with both hello messages and MAC link layer support. DSR without eavesdropping DSDV We only used the more realistic version of pizza hut sizes both AODV and owen, DSR, for about Examples with Expert Power-Is the same reason as mentioned in the previous section.

5.4.1 Setup The offered load simulations where done by varying the load that we offer the network. We had mainly three parameters to adjust the offered load: N N N Packet size Number of CBR flows Rate at which the flows are sending The mobility simulations that we have done used a packet size of 64 bytes, a rate of 5 packets/s and 15 CBR flows. This is a fairly moderate offered load, so for the offered load simulations, we wanted to investigate how the protocols behave when the load was increased. We could increase the owen, packet size or the number of CBR flows, but the parameter that best describes the load is the rate at which we are sending. Essay Examples With Expert? By only increasing the rate for the CBR flows, the load for each flow will increase. This also gives some hints of how large the throughput can be. We have used four different offered load cases: N N N N 5 packets / second (same as the mobility simulations) 10 packets / second 15 packets / second 20 packets / second The packet size was held constant at 64 bytes and the number of flows at 15.

We used the same randomized scenario files as in the mobility simulations. The same communication file was also used, with the exception that we changed the owen jarus, rate for Bullying Essay the CBR sources. The parameters that we used during the offered load simulation are shown in jarus Table 9. 46 Table 9: Parameters used during offered load simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 0 0 0.5 Figure 18: Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. At only 5 packets/s both AODV and zidane biography, DSR are rather constant, the jarus, fraction of received packets is only decreasing slightly when mobility increases (Figure 18). At 10 packet/s we can see that the fraction received packets is decreasing much faster when the mobility factor is greater than 2. At 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s both AODV and pizza hut sizes, DSR are dropping a large fraction of the packets. At the highest mobility and a rate of 20 packets/s, only 50-60 % of the sent packets are received. The reason is more collisions in the air and congestion in buffers.

The results for AODV and DSR are fairly similar at a packet rate of 5 packets/s and 10 packets/s. At data rates of 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s, AODV shows a better result than DSR. At these rates the protocols are however dropping a large fraction of the packets, even at owen a mobility factor of 0. DSR will have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at Essay on Flexible What Interest? higher data rates (Figure 21). The reason for this is the source route in each data packet. Jarus? This also increases the load on the network and causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will get more packets through the network.

47 DSDV is dropping a large fraction of the packets already at the lowest data rate 5 packets/s. It must however be noted that the increase in dropped packets is not as large for DSDV as for AODV and pizza hut sizes, DSR. At the highest data rate, DSDV is almost as good as DSR. 5.4.3 End-to-end delay 0.7 0.7 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 0.6 0.5 Avg packet delay (seconds) Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Mobility (m/s) 0.7 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 19: Offered load simulations - average delay. The delay is also affected by high rate of owen CBR packets (Figure 19). The buffers becomes full much quicker, so the packets have to stay in the buffers a much longer period of time before they are sent. This can clearly be seen at the highest rate 20 packets/s. The high degree of zinadine biography packet drops, even at mobility 0 makes the delay high already from the start.

DSR has a much lower delay compared to jarus AODV. The difference between AODV and DSR is most apparent at rate 10 packets/s. DSDV has the lowest delay of them all. This is however an effect from the Impact of Earnings Management on Firms, large fraction of packet drops that DSDV has, compared to owen DSR and AODV. The increase in delay for DSDV also comes from the increased time that the packets must stay in Impact of Earnings on Firms Essay the buffers. The high delay at a mobility factor of 0-1 and a data rate of 20 packets/s that can be seen for all protocols is a result of the extremely high data rate and the low mobility. The high data rate will fill up the buffers very quickly. The low mobility will mean that already found routes are valid for owen a much longer time period. This means that found routes can be used for nervous bbc bitesize more packets.

Even the packets that have stayed in the buffer for owen a long time have a chance to get through. When mobility increases, more routes will become invalid and new requests are necessary. Zinadine Biography? While the requests are propagating the network in search for a new route, buffers will get full and packets are dropped. These packets are the packets that have stayed in the buffers for the longest time and therefore the delay will decrease. The increase in mobility actually results in a load balancing of the traffic between the nodes; hot spots are removed due to mobility. For DSDV, the average delay at highest data rate will actually be lower than at the rate of 15 packets/s. Jarus? This is a little strange but has probably something to do with the fact that DSDV only uses a buffer that only has room for 5 packets per flow.

At the biography, rate of 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s, when mobility starts to get so high that the owen jarus, topology changes frequently, only 40-60 % of the pizza hut sizes, packets gets through the owen jarus, network. These 48 topology changes means that the protocol needs more time to Impact on Firms Profitability Essay converge before the packets can be sent. The buffers will therefore be congested almost all the time so the jarus, packets that actually get through have approximately the Work Schedules: Factors Are Driving This Interest?, same the delay. 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput 8 8 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 5 4 3 5 4 3 2 2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0 0.5 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 1 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 8 7 Throughput (Kbit/s) 6 5 4 3 2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0.5 1 2 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 20: Offered load simulations - average throughput. At low CBR rates the owen jarus, throughput of DSR and AODV is unaffected of the mobility (Figure 20), it stays constant at 2,5 Kbit/s. Zidane? At higher CBR rates, the owen jarus, throughput will decrease when the zinadine biography, mobility increases. This can already be seen at CBR rate 10 packet/s.

The decrease at CBR rate 10 packets/s is owen jarus however very small. At rate 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s the Impact Management on Firms, throughput decreases very much for all protocols. Jarus? This is however an effect from the large fraction of dropped packets. The result for AODV is slightly better than for DSR. It must however be noted that the offered load definition that we use only includes the nervous bbc bitesize, rate at which we are sending packets with; no control packets are included in this definition. The same applies for the throughput, only the data packets are included in owen jarus the calculations of throughput. DSR have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). Bullying Preventi`on? This also increases the load on the network and causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will have a better throughput at higher data rate.

DSDV drops a large fraction of the packets already at a rate of 5 packets/s. This can be seen in the small decrease in jarus the throughput at rate 5 packets/s. The throughput decreases more and more as the on Firms Profitability in Pakistan Essay, rate increases. 5.4.5 Overhead In Figure 21, the difference between distance vector and source routing can clearly be seen. The byte overhead for jarus DSR is much larger than AODV even at Impact of Earnings in Pakistan low data rates and jarus, the difference becomes larger when the CBR rate increases. At CBR rate 20 packets/s, the byte overhead for DSR is more than the double than for AODV. The reason for the larger byte overhead for of Earnings Management on Firms DSR is of course the source route in each packet. The 49 number of control messages is though smaller for DSR. This is the other characteristic for source routing, it learns all routes in the source route and therefore does not need to send as many route requests. The reason for owen jarus the increase in number of control packets is the MAC-layer support. The increase in rate means that the Bullying and Intervention Essay, MAC-layer will detects link failures much faster.

This means that the triggered RREPs are sent much earlier also causing the source node to send out a new request much earlier. All link failures are detected earlier with increased rate; thus there will be time for owen jarus more RREQs, RREPs and triggered RREPs. Bullying Preventi`on And Intervention Essay? 4e+06 35000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 30000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 35000 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 30000 4e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) 25000 Control overhead (packets) DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 20000 15000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 10000 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 4e+06 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 35000 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 30000 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 21: 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Offered load simulations - overhead. Owen Jarus? The amount of control information in DSDV is not affected to any great extent by the data rate for the CBR packets. By looking at Figure 21 it looks like the number of control packets is exactly the same for all data rates, but there is actually a small difference. The number of zinadine biography control packets is actually a little smaller when the rate is 20 packets/s. This difference is about 80 packets.

The reason for this difference is that the high data rate causes more collisions, which means that some of the update messages are dropped. These lost update messages will not be received by any node, and owen jarus, cannot therefore trigger new update messages. Of Earnings Management On Firms Profitability? This means that when the next update message actually is received a much larger update message has to be sent, thus we can see a slight increase of byte overhead when the rate increases. But when the owen jarus, mobility increases more and more packets will be dropped. At the highest data rate, many of the update messages are dropped, 50 even the packets with a little more information. This causes the byte overhead for DSDV at higher data rates not to increase to the same extent as for DSDV with lower data rates. 5.4.6 Optimal path Figure 22 illustrates the on Flexible Factors Are Driving, difference in jarus hopcount from the optimal hopcount at a CBR rate of 20 packets/s. It is the result for all simulations done at this rate. If we compare this figure with Figure 17, which illustrates the hopcount difference for the CBR rate 5 packets/s, we can clearly see that they are almost identical.

The rate does not affect the number of hops that the packets actually need to travel from source to destination. 1 AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 22: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Offered load simulations optimal path. 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations The performance of the protocols differs slightly during different network loads. The most apparent difference is the byte overhead. While DSDV has a rather unaffected overhead, it increases both for AODV and DSR during higher loads.

A higher sending rate causes the Essay on Flexible Schedules: What Factors Are Driving This Interest?, protocol to detect broken links faster, thus reacting faster. This leads to a slight increase in control packets, which also affects the owen, byte overhead. The most apparent is the increase in DSRs overhead as we increase the send rate. Since each data packet contains a source route, the byte overhead increases dramatically. The increased send rate also set demands on Essay on Flexible What This Interest? the send buffer of the jarus, routing protocol.

Congestion occurs and packets are dropped. The faster a routing protocol can find a route, the less time the packets have to spend in buffers, meaning a smaller probability of packet drops. 51 5.5 Network size simulations We did simulations on some of the pizza hut sizes, protocols and varied the number of owen nodes that participated in the network. We decreased the Essay with Power-Is it Enough?, number of nodes to 35 and 25 nodes. Jarus? The decrease in number of nodes basically meant that the connectivity also decreased; each node had fewer neighbors.

The results from these simulations did not give any new information regarding the performance of the protocols. The relative difference between the protocols was the same. Essay Examples Of People Expert Power-Is It Enough?? Decreased connectivity meant of course that we did not get as many packets through the network as in the mobility simulations, but it must however be noted that the dependency between the scenarios and results are much larger in the network size simulations. The worst results for each protocol happened when the mobility was 0. This may sound strange, but the jarus, reason for the bad result when the nodes is standing still is the randomized scenarios. If a randomized scenario has poor connectivity, this connectivity will be same during the whole simulation if the Bullying Preventi`on, nodes are standing still. The nodes are not moving and cannot therefore affect the owen, connectivity. In a scenario with moving nodes however, the connectivity will vary during the Bullying Preventi`on, whole simulation. So even if a node is unreachable from the beginning, there is still a chance that it will be reachable some time later. Owen Jarus? 5.6 Realistic scenarios 5.6.1 Setup The randomized simulations we have done, gives a very good general picture of how the Schedules: What Factors, protocols behaves in respect to certain parameters, such as mobility, size and network load. This kind of owen simulations also has some problems: N N N It is hard to identify situations in which the Impact Management in Pakistan Essay, protocols fail or have problems It has no connection to jarus a real life situation. It may favor complex protocols, while in real life scenarios simpler protocols can find the routes almost as effectively.

It is nervous system therefore also very interesting to see how the protocols behave in a more realistic scenario. We have therefore done simulations on some scenarios believed to be realistic. Owen Jarus? The realistic scenarios do not give a full picture of how the protocols behave generally. Zinadine Biography? Instead they give some sense of weak points in owen the protocols. The three basic types of nervous system scenarios that we have done simulations on are: N N N Conference type, with low movement factor.

Event coverage type, with fairly large movement factor. Could for instance be reporters trying to interview politicians. Disaster area, with some relatively slow nodes and some very fast nodes (mounted on jarus a car or a helicopter). The environment size is 1500 x 900 meters for bbc bitesize all realistic scenarios. This size is jarus scaled according to Examples Expert Power-Is it Enough? the range of the transmitters. Owen? In a real life conference scenario, the environment size would be significantly smaller and about Examples of People Expert it Enough?, so would also the transmitter range.

The same thing would apply for the speed of the people moving around. The speed is also scaled to 10 m/s. All parameters used during the owen jarus, realistic simulations are shown in Table 10. 52 Table 10: Parameters used during realistic simulations. Impact Profitability Essay? Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Speed of a human Speed of a mobile node mounted on a vehicle Value 250 m 2 Mbit 900 s 50 1500x900 m Constant Bit Rate 4 packets/s 512 byte 1 m/s 20 m/s 5.6.2 Conference This scenario simulates 50 people that are attending a conference, seminar session or some similar activity. It involves communication between some of the owen jarus, people. Parameters specific for the conference scenario are shown in Table 11 Table 11: Parameters used during conference scenario.

Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 2 6 6 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Low mobility factor, 10 % of the nodes are moving during any period of time. Links are long lasting and involves many hops. The traffic is concentrated to Management on Firms Profitability Essay a few nodes, typically only the speaker. Few obstacles which are far apart. Owen Jarus? Typically only one large obstacle, a wall with doors and windows that can be used for biography communication. Owen? Relatively large interference from other nodes, due to the concentration of transmitting nodes. This can in some cases lead to local congestion. The scenario basically tests the protocols: N N N Ability to respond to local changes for pizza hut sizes long links. Ability to cope with large concentration of jarus traffic.

Message overhead with low mobility factor. Figure 23 shows how the scenario was designed and created with ad-hockey. The scenario is divided into three zones that have their certain characteristics. N N N Zone 1 - Speaker zone: The speaker moves back and forth. This changes the closest neighbor in the audience.

Zone 2 - Audience zone: Static audience that is sitting still most of the time. Very seldom does a node go outside to return a certain amount of time later. This will probably result in a link breakage of zinadine biography a longlasting link. Zone 3 - Outsider zone: Outsiders behind a wall that are trying to establish a connection between the speaker and each other. 53 Transmitter range Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 = Node = Obstacle = Movement Figure 23: Conference scenario. The results for this scenario are shown in Table 12 and Table 13.

It must however be noted that we do not distinguish the results for nodes that are in zone 2 or zone 3. The calculated mobility factor for owen jarus this scenario is very low. All protocols except DSDV and the AODV version that only uses hello messages show quite good performance, delivering between 92-99% of the packets with an average throughput between 14.8 15.7 Kbit/s. DSDV delivers only 75.6% of the packets with an average throughput of 12.1 Kbit/s and the AODV version with only hello messages delivers 89.3 % of the nervous bbc bitesize, packets, with a throughput of 14.3 Kbit/s. This shows that an owen jarus, ad-hoc routing protocol must quickly adapt to link changes even for long lasting routes as in this case where mobility is very low. Table 12: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.0439350 75.6% 12.1 Kbit/s 21510 0.052 s 5250 16260 44054 6406036 5.32 Conference simulation results. DSR - 1 0.0439350 97.1% 15.55 Kbit/s 21510 0.210 s 614 20896 3129 3689865 5.73 DSR - 2 0.0439350 98.0% 15.7 Kbit/s 21510 0.23 s 422 21088 4109 4093220 5.79 54 AODV - 1 0.0439350 89.3% 14.30 Kbit/s 21510 0.26 s 2298 19212 43881 1660020 6.62 AODV - 2 0.0439350 92.3% 14.79 Kbit/s 21510 0.29 s 1644 19866 14537 610884 6.53 AODV - 3 0.0439350 94.0% 15.00 Kbit/s 21510 0.39 s 1376 20134 54677 2112716 6.45 Both versions of DSR have the lowest packet overhead in this scenario, while all versions of AODV show the lowest byte overhead. The large byte overhead for DSR has to do with the fairly large amount of Essay Schedules: What Are Driving This Interest? traffic and that the routes have an average hopcount that is as large as 5-6 hops.

As can be seen in Table 13. DSDV fails to deliver 3599 packets because of route failures. This is owen jarus due to bbc bitesize the slow response time when links go down and owen jarus, the time it takes to find new routes. A lot of packets will be sent using a route that the protocol thinks is valid, while in fact the route is of Earnings on Firms broken and the packets are dropped. Owen? Also a lot of packets are dropped in the interface queue. AODV using only hello messages show the system, same tendency, dropping 1364 packets because of the same reasons. It is however fewer packets than for DSDV. This has to owen jarus do with the time between the HELLO messages. The less time between the messages, the about of People it Enough?, faster can the owen jarus, protocol react to biography broken links and avoid dropping the packets. In general, most of the packets are dropped in the sendbuffer. Retransmission of these dropped packets could of course be handled by upper layer protocols, such as TCP.

Table 13: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 3599 74 1567 10 Packet drops in owen conference scenario. DSR 1 519 30 34 18 13 DSR 2 303 98 4 0 17 AODV 1 894 1348 22 4 30 AODV 2 1364 201 21 10 48 AODV -3 1096 202 14 0 64 5.6.3 Event coverage This scenario simulates a group of 50 highly mobile people that are changing position quite frequently. It could for on Flexible Schedules: Are Driving This Interest? instance represent a group of owen jarus reporters that are covering a political event, music concert or a sport contest. In real life it would be nearly impossible to pizza hut sizes establish a wired network between the reporters, but they must be in constant communication with each other, enabling a fast reaction. Parameters that are specific for the event coverage scenario are shown in Table 14. Table 14: Parameters used during event coverage scenario. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 9 45 45 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Rather high mobility factor. Jarus? Typically 50 % of the nodes are constantly changing their position during any time of period.

Every now and Essay of People it Enough?, then the nodes tend to cluster. Links involve a few hops and relatively short-lasting. Traffic is spread all over the place. Many obstacles. Nodes can usually only communicate with a few nodes. This will lead to owen jarus a low interference from the other nodes, except for the moments of clustering. Essay Examples With? 55 The scenario tests the owen, protocols: N N Ability to respond to fast link changes and fluctuating traffic. Message overhead with constant topology updates. Figure 24 shows how the scenario was designed. 50 % of the nodes are moving randomly with a constant speed of 1 m/s. Every now and then a temporary cluster contain approximately 10 nodes will form.

These clusters remain static for a certain amount of biography time. Temporary clusters = Node = Obstacle Figure 24: = Movement Event coverage scenario. The results for owen jarus the event coverage scenario are shown in Table 15 and Table 16. Bbc Bitesize? As Table 15 shows, the two protocols that has the lowest fraction of packets received are DSDV and the AODV version that entirely relies on feedback from jarus, link-layer. These protocols only have a fraction of packets received that lies around 91-92 %. For all other protocols/versions this value is at least 94 %. The mobility factor for the scenario is 0.72, which is quite low even though considering we have about 50 % of the nodes in movement. The nodes are however only moving with a speed of 1 m/s. DSDV has the highest overhead of all the protocols, counted in both number of control packets and bytes. DSR both with and pizza hut sizes, without eavesdropping have a very low overhead. Owen? It must however be noted that the Bullying Preventi`on Essay, traffic load in this scenario is very low and most of the communication is taking place in a very small area, thus leading to a very low average hopcount of approximately 1.5 for all protocols. In this scenario, AODV with only hello message shows better results than AODV with only link-layer support and owen, the reason is that the zinadine biography, hello messages makes it possible to keep track of neighbors. Most of the owen jarus, communication is taking place within clusters, so to know the neighbors will probably mean that we will not have to make as many requests.

The topology of the Essay with Power-Is it Enough?, network is changing quite frequently. This causes a protocol like DSDV to have a very large overhead. The communication however, take mostly place within the clusters. This makes the job for the on-demand-based protocols much easier. The hopcount from source to destination is very small so the protocols will find a route very quickly. The protocols which are entirely on-demand will have a slightly 56 higher delay and the protocols that uses some sort of periodic messages (DSDV and the ADOV version that use hello messages) will have lower delay.

Table 15: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.721611 91.4% 14.75 Kbit/s 4500 0.075 s 385 4115 42415 10578764 1.46 hops Event coverage simulation results. DSR 1 0.721611 97.5% 15.68 Kbit/s 4500 0.138 s 111 4389 1056 141196 1.53 hops DSR 2 0.721611 97.7% 15.71 Kbit/s 4500 0.140 s 102 4398 1354 158420 1.57 hops AODV 1 0.721611 94.5% 15.33 Kbit/s 4500 0.024 s 245 4255 31342 1137752 1.55 hops AODV 2 0.721611 92.2% 14.89 Kbit/s 4500 0.214 s 352 4148 2722 117904 1.75 hops AODV 3 0.721611 95.1% 15.36 Kbit/s 4500 0.015 s 219 4281 31443 1142180 1,55 hops Table 16 shows that most of the packets are dropped due to route failures and in owen jarus those cases where there exists a sendbuffer, congestion/time-out in the sendbuffer. AODV that only uses link-layer support (AODV 2) has most of the dropped packets due to failed ARP requests and nervous system bbc bitesize, DSDV drops most of its packets at the interface queue. Table 16: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV Packet drops in owen event coverage scenario. DSR - 2 81 19 1 AODV - 1 100 83 61 1 102 48 235 DSR 1 81 21 9 9 AODV - 2 131 32 178 10 1 AODV - 3 100 15 104 5.6.4 Disaster area This scenario represents some sort of disaster area in a region that lacks any sort of Essay on Flexible What Factors Are Driving telecommunication infrastructure. It could for instance represent a natural disaster or a large rescue operation. Every rescue team member could have a personal communicator with ad-hoc network capability. These personal communicators are capable of communicating with each other and owen jarus, with relay nodes that are mounted on a vehicle, like a helicopter, car or boat.

The parameters that are specific for zinadine biography the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 17. Table 17: Parameters used during disaster area scenario. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of owen flows 57 Value 38 87 87 The scenario is nervous system characterized by: N N N N N N A node movement, where approximately 95 % of the nodes are moving slightly, while the remaining 5 % are changing their position very often. Network partitioning now and then. Long and short lasting links that only are a few hops.

Traffic that is spread all over owen the nodes. Many obstacles. Low interference from the other nodes. Nervous System Bbc Bitesize? The scenario tests the protocol: N N Ability to jarus work with both slow and fast changing network topologies. Ability to cope with network partitioning. Of People Power-Is It Enough?? Figure 25 shows how the scenario was designed. There are two highly mobile nodes moving at the speed 20 m/s back and forth. There are also three separate subnetworks that can connect to each other through the relays mounted on the highly mobile nodes. Within each subnetwork, the movement is owen jarus randomized at speed 1 m/s.

Subnetwork 2 Subnetwork 1 Vehicle 1 = Node Subnetwork 3 = Obstacle Figure 25: Vehicle 2 = Movement Disaster area scenario. The results for zinadine zidane biography the disaster area scenario are shown in owen Table 18 and Preventi`on Essay, Table 19. The calculated mobility factor for this scenario is quite high. Many of the nodes are moving slightly (people), and some nodes are moving very fast (vehicles). Owen Jarus? The protocols that show the best results in this scenario are the purely reactive approaches, that is AODV using both hello messages and MAC support and DSR with eavesdropping. They have a delivery ratio between 5458 % of the packets with an about of People Expert, average throughput of 14.1 14.8 Kbit/s. DSDV has the worst performance, delivering only 29,5% of the owen jarus, packets with an average throughput of 12.42 Kbit/s. A delivery ratio of only 58 % for the best protocol may sound like a terrible ratio, but because of network partitioning, it is hard for any protocol to successfully deliver more packets than that. 58 DSDV show the Essay Examples of People with Power-Is it Enough?, lowest delay, but this is due to the low delivery ratio. Jarus? All versions of AODV keep an average delay between 0.89 1.05 seconds, while the DSR versions lie between 1.19 1.25 seconds. Essay Examples With Expert It Enough?? Both DSR versions keep a low packet overhead compared to the other protocols.

The byte overhead is however twice as large for DSR compared to AODV. As expected, DSDV uses the shortest paths with an average of 3.42 hops. The other protocols has an owen jarus, average hopcount of 5.0-5.2 hops. Pizza Hut Sizes? Table 18: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 1.154619 29.5% 12.42 Kbit/s 29616 0.196 s 20867 8749 41402 6497476 3.42 hops Disaster area simulation results. DSR 1 1.154619 58.0% 14.79 Kbit/s 29616 1.252 s 12440 17176 27048 4880992 5.01 hops DSR 2 1.154619 54.50% 14.43 Kbit/s 29616 1.187s 13464 16152 30692 5137148 5.16 hops AODV 1 1.154619 48.0% 13.07 Kbit/s 29616 0.888 s 15382 14234 61557 2426164 5.23 hops AODV 2 1.154619 52.2% 13.49 Kbit/s 29616 1.052 s 14161 15455 50686 2426164 5.24 hops AODV 3 1.154619 54.0% 14.09 Kbit/s 29616 0.988 s 13635 15981 77311 3096228 5.26 hops DSDV drops a lot of packets because of route failures. In this scenario, DSDV also drops a large amount of packets in owen jarus the interface queue.

One large cause for drops in the other protocols, lies in the sendbuffer. If routes are not found within time, packets in the buffer are dropped because of timeouts or congestion. Another large cause for packet drops is route failures. This scenario is pizza hut sizes very interesting and should be investigated further, especially for the AODV protocol. We discovered when running the simulations that AODV tend to owen jarus form short lived routing loops. Since the author claim that this protocol should be loop free at all times, one possible cause for this might be invalid use of the sequence numbers or the fact that sequence numbers are unsynchronized during network partitioning. Very few packets were dropped because of this (less than 5). Another interesting thing with this scenario is that all main nodes send traffic both ways to each other.

This causes AODV to respond to Impact Management on Firms requests with temporary routes set up by other requests. Jarus? Since it is unclear from the draft whether the temporary routes should be regarded as a normal route in the routing table or not, we decided to try both in this scenario. By only allowing RREPs to use the about Examples of People with Expert Power-Is it Enough?, temporary routes, and by not allowing a node to respond to a RREQ with a temporary route, the owen, routing loops could be avoided. Nervous System Bbc Bitesize? However, the performance of the protocol decreased. We therefore used simulations where we considered the owen jarus, temporary routes as a normal route.

Table 19: Cause for bbc bitesize drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 15853 479 4528 7 DSR 1 10033 1990 35 3 1 Packet drops in disaster area. DSR - 2 10277 2960 64 159 9 59 AODV 1 9836 5047 292 34 2 AODV - 2 10693 3046 241 20 1 AODV - 3 10941 2470 64 44 116 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios The realistic scenarios show how the jarus, protocols behave in What This certain situations. For this purpose, three scenarios were designed and simulated with different versions of the protocols DSDV, DSR and AODV. Owen? DSR show the best performance results overall. Schedules: What Factors This? If source routing is jarus undesirable, another good candidate is AODV with only MAC layer support.

It has a slightly higher packet overhead, but an overall good delivery ratio. About Of People With? 5.7 Observations The protocols that we have worked with most are AODV and DSR, thus we have observed some important differences for these protocols, that in some way affect the performance of the protocols. 5.7.1 Ability to find routes AODV To illustrate AODVs ability to jarus find routes, we use a simple scenario (see Figure 26). Zinadine Zidane? The scenario consists of four nodes A, B, C and D connected to each other. A C D B Figure 26: Simple example scenario. Node A needs a route to node D. No data has been sent earlier, thus the only routes known to the AODV protocol are the jarus, different neighbors in the scenario. This is because AODV uses hello messages to keep track of the neighbors of a node. A RREQ is generated by node A and Essay about of People with Expert, broadcasted to its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the owen, network until it reaches node C. Since node C has a route to node D it can comply with the RREQ and generate a RREP.

During the propagation of the RREQ, a reverse path is set up to node A. The RREP is unicasted back to A. It uses the temporarily backward route set up by the RREQ. During the propagation of the zinadine zidane, reply, a forward route is set up to owen node D by all intermediate nodes, resulting in the routing table shown in Table 20, thus all temporary routes are updated to active routes. Essay About Examples Of People With It Enough?? Table 20: Node A Destination Nexthop B B D B Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. Node B Destination A C D Nexthop A C C Node C Destination B D A Nexthop B D B Node D Destination C Nexthop C After the route discovery process, only B and C have routes to all other nodes in owen the scenario. Bullying Preventi`on And Intervention Essay? Node A does not know that there is a route to node C, nor does node D know of the route to owen jarus A and B. On Firms Profitability Essay? Thus AODV has to go through the owen, route discovery process several times to discover all the routes. This leads to more control traffic and higher delays.

On the other hand, it saves memory by not having to keep information about routes that might not be used. 60 DSR The ability to find routes differs slightly between the DSR and AODV protocol. DSR can make use of the source route carried in each packet header to discover routes to Bullying Preventi`on Essay nodes by which the owen jarus, packet has traveled through. If new routes are found, DSR can take advantage of this without having to Impact of Earnings Profitability Essay go through a new route discovery phase, thus reducing the number of owen jarus control packets and decreasing the delay. The memory usage of zinadine biography a node is instead increased by owen jarus having to store more routes.

We consider the same scenario as for the AODV protocol (Figure 26). Node A needs a route to node D. Pizza Hut Sizes? No data has been sent earlier, thus DSR has no knowledge of any routes. Since no routes are known, the RREQ propagates until it reaches node D. During the owen, propagation of the pizza hut sizes, RREQ, every node in its path learn a route back to all the nodes by which the RREQ has passed through. The RREP is unicasted back to A, using the routes learned during the owen, propagation of the RREQ. As the RREP propagates, each node also learns the routes to all nodes for which the RREP has passed through, resulting in the routing tables shown in Table 21. After the nervous bbc bitesize, route discovery phase, each node has a route to every other node in this example. Table 21: Node A Destinatio n B C D Path B B-C B-C-D Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. Node B Destinatio n A C D Path A C C-D Node C Destinatio n A B D Path B-A B D Node D Destinatio n A B C Path C-B-A C-B C 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes When a RREQ propagates in search for a route in AODV, a temporary backward route is set up towards the requesting node.

A RREP might use this backward route. Owen? This route is normally set to expire after 3 seconds if it is not used. It is not clear from the pizza hut sizes, draft if this route may be used by application data as well. Using this route for data affects the behavior of the protocol in jarus some way and it is not described how the protocol should handle this. One of the problems with this temporary route is with the way it is set up. When the RREQ propagates, we do not know who will be using the pizza hut sizes, backward route, so no active neighbors can be put into the active neighbor list. If during this time, a link failure or an owen, expired route entry somewhere breaks the route, the rest of the nodes in on Flexible Work What Are Driving Interest? the route are not informed of this and therefore have redundant routes in their tables.

When the route is used again, the application data will come to a node in the route that does not have a valid entry for the destination and will therefore be dropped while a triggered RREP tries to inform the nodes in owen the route that it is broken. This problem will become more apparent in a network with a higher load. Another problem is the short lifetime if temporary routes are installed into the routing table. Lets say node A sets up a temporary route to zidane D. Node A can then respond with the temporary route to owen jarus another request searching for Preventi`on and Intervention Essay a route to D. Since the temporary route has a short lifetime, it might expire before the actual data has a chance to jarus use it. This results in unnecessary control overhead and pizza hut sizes, packet drops. To deal with this, the routing agent could chose to only allow RREP to use the temporary route. Also a check of the owen, expire time before responding with a RREP could be used to Profitability in Pakistan assure that the route wont timeout shortly after the node has responded with the information.

A question about this was directed to jarus the author of the system bbc bitesize, protocol with the owen jarus, response that this check should not be done, instead the zinadine biography, protocol should rely on the sequence numbers to provide the owen jarus, freshness of a route. We implemented a version of the AODV protocol that used the temporary route for all packets since it showed a slightly better performance result then if not allowing data packets to use the temporary route. The implementation done in Gothenburg used the temporary route only for of Earnings on Firms Profitability Essay route replies. So we have a small difference in our implementations. 61 5.7.3 Buffers The use of send buffers in the routing protocol also affects the owen, performance of the routing protocol; especially the size of the buffers and the time a packet is allowed to stay there before it is dropped. The send buffer buffers data packets while the routing protocol requests a route to Impact Management Profitability the destination. In our simulations, AODV used a buffer capable of holding 64 packets and allowing them to owen jarus stay in the buffer for maximum 8 seconds. What Are Driving This Interest?? Allowing the jarus, packets to stay in the buffer for longer period of times will of nervous course increase the amount of successfully routed packets, but also increase the average delay. Also the choice of owen queuing discipline will affect the measured performance.

If the buffer is full, there must be some smart algorithm to and Intervention Essay decide which packets should be dropped. The routing protocol could decide not to buffer any packets at all and depend on higher layer protocols such as TCP to retransmit lost packets. This would however affect the measured performance in the simulations and give unfair results for the protocol. 5.8 Discussion If we compare the work that we have done against the work that was done by the CMU Monarch project [3], many similarities can be seen. Their conclusion was that both DSR and AODV performs well at all mobility rates and movement speeds.

We have come to the same conclusion, but we feel however that their definition of owen mobility (pause time) does not represent the dynamic topology to the same extent as our mobility factor that is based on the actual relative movement pattern. Bbc Bitesize? The only node speeds that they have tested are 1 m/s and 20 m/s, which are not showing the jarus, complete range. Our mobility factor has a speed range from 0 m/s up to 20 m/s and shows how the protocols behave in the complete range. They have also only shown the result for one DSR version and one AODV version. The DSR version that they show the zinadine zidane biography, results for is using eavesdropping, which we regard as being unrealistic, because of the security issuses discussed earlier. The AODV version that they have used is not using hello messages, which changes the behavior of AODV. We have tested different versions and shown that DSR with eavesdropping has a slightly better performance than DSR without eavesdropping. We have also shown that AODV with MAC-layer support and hello messages has better performance than AODV with only MAC-layer support. Our results also show that it is owen necessary to use some support from the MAC-layer to zinadine biography achieve a performance that is good even at high mobility factors. The CMU Monarch project, have used the number of sources as a definition of the load that is owen offered the network. And Intervention Essay? Their simulations with the different number of sources are almost identical to each other.

The only protocols that showed a significantly difference was TORA, that only delivered 40 % of the packets with the lowest pause time and highest number of jarus sources. Our definition of load was based on the rate that the Essay on Flexible What Are Driving This, sources are sending packets with. Even DSR that had the best results in owen jarus the CMU paper fails to deliver a large fraction of the packets when the Examples of People Expert, rate is increased. The increase of the rate also very clearly shows how much the overhead for DSR increases compared to jarus for instance AODV. 5.9 Classification Why is there any need for Essay Examples classification of owen jarus routing protocols? If one routing protocol is Bullying superior than the other routing protocols for instance in very high mobile environments, why not always use that routing protocol? If it handles high mobile environments, it should also be good at low mobile environments. In real life, many parameters affect the behavior of the routing protocol.

It is also important to jarus recognize the Essay about with Expert Power-Is it Enough?, need that is required in a particular scenario. In one scenario, there is maybe more need for jarus high throughput than there is for Impact Management in Pakistan low delay. Jarus? In another scenario there is maybe more need for low delay etc. This is becoming more and more important now, in particular when active networks [29] is becoming an interesting issue in networking. Active networking means that you add user controllable capabilities to Impact of Earnings Management on Firms Profitability in Pakistan Essay the network. The network is no longer viewed a passive mover of owen bits, but rather as a more general computation engine. This makes it possible for instance to adjust the routing protocol depending on the scenario. You could basically send the Preventi`on and Intervention Essay, routing protocol and let it install itself into the nodes. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks As the simulation results show, the mobility of the owen, network greatly affects the performance of the protocols. It is crucial that the protocol ability to pizza hut sizes detect broken routes is fast enough and that they also react to these changes.

DSDV Since DSDV is dependent of its periodic updates, its ability to deal with a dynamic topology is very poor. It has a poor ability to fast detect broken links and takes time to jarus converge. Examples Of People With Expert Power-Is? This protocol should really be avoided for use in ad-hoc networks where it is jarus crucial to deal with frequent changing topology. This protocol could however be an option for networks that are static during long periods of times. AODV The original AODV protocol using only HELLO messages as link breakage detection shows poor results as mobility increases. This protocol needs better link breakage detection. Using lower layers such as MAC to detect transmission errors can achieve this. If this is used, the protocol actually shows a very good performance. This protocol is a definite choice for highly mobile networks. System? DSR This protocol is highly optimized and also shows good results in the simulations.

The protocol could definitely be used in highly mobile networks as well as static networks. 5.9.2 Size of jarus networks When talking about the size of a network, it is not only the pizza hut sizes, number of nodes in the network that is of interest. The area that the owen jarus, nodes are spread out over zinadine zidane biography is also interesting. This basically decides the connectivity of the network. A large area with many nodes may mean longer routes then for a smaller area with the same number of nodes.

At the same time, many nodes close to each other means a higher collision probability. DSDV This protocol does not scale well. Its use of periodic broadcasts limits the protocol to small networks. If the protocol would be used in large networks, the converge time to a steady state would increase when routes go up and down. Jarus? The reason is that updates must propagate from one end of the Work Schedules: What Factors Are Driving Interest?, network to owen jarus the other. System Bbc Bitesize? AODV This protocol scales well, and could be used in both small and medium sized networks. The combination of owen jarus on-demand and distance vector makes this protocol suitable for of Earnings on Firms large networks as well. The information that each node must store for owen each wanted destination is rather small compared to and Intervention Essay for instance DSR that has to owen store whole source routes. Essay About Examples With Expert? In large networks however, the propagation of requests to all nodes is a waste of resources. Jarus? A better solution is probably to nervous divide the jarus, network into clusters or zones, like for instance ZRP and CBRP have done. DSR This protocol has some limitations when it comes to the size of the network.

A larger network often means longer routes and longer routes means that the about of People Expert Power-Is, source overhead in jarus each packet grows. On Flexible Schedules: This Interest?? The current implementation limits each packet to carry a source route of maximal 16 hops. This can of course be adjusted, but one should keep in mind the large overhead this causes. Jarus? One could imagine a network with 20 nodes connected in a straight line. Then this implementation would not manage to route to all nodes. We therefore recommend this protocol for pizza hut sizes small and medium sized networks.

63 5.9.3 Network scenarios Conference For low mobility scenarios, like the conference scenario that we did simulations on, DSR is the best protocol to use if the owen, hopcount is small (fewer than 5 hops). The reasons are high delivery rate, low delay and low message overhead in terms of packets and Essay on Flexible Work Schedules: What Factors Are Driving, byte overhead. If the number of hops increases and get as many as 10 hops, each packet must carry a very large byte overhead, which can be very costly, when the load increases. Another good candidate for this scenario when the number of hopcount increases is one of the AODV versions that use MAC-layer support. AODV has also a very high delivery ratio, but the number of control packets is somewhat larger.

Event coverage In average mobile scenarios, like the event coverage scenario, where nodes tends to cluster and jarus, almost all communication is within the clusters, DSR is by all means the best protocol. Pizza Hut Sizes? It has a very large delivery ratio and the overhead is very small, even counted in owen jarus bytes, because of the Impact on Firms Profitability Essay, few hops required to reach the destination. Jarus? The AODV versions show a very good result also, but the overhead is larger. About With Expert Power-Is It Enough?? So for these type sort of jarus networks DSR it the best protocol. Preventi`on And Intervention Essay? Disaster In networks that become partitioned, DSR with eavesdropping show the best results in this scenario. It has a high delivery ratio, high throughput, a delay around 1.2 seconds and low packet overhead.

It also uses only 5 hops in average to reach a destination. Jarus? This protocol is therefore recommended in this type of scenario. Eavesdropping might however be undesirable because of security issues. One other candidate for this scenario is AODV with MAC support. It has almost as high delivery ratio as DSR and bbc bitesize, also a lower delay. The packet overhead is twice as high but the byte overhead is smaller. 5.10 Improvements The simulations have shown that DSR with and without eavesdropping and the AODV versions that use linklayer support has the overall best result in almost all simulations. DSR has as mentioned earlier the advantage that it learns more information for owen each request it sends out. Pizza Hut Sizes? If a request goes from S to D and jarus, the reply from system, D to S, S will learn the route to owen jarus all intermediate routes between S and Management Profitability, D. This means that it is not necessary to send out as many requests as for example AODV.

The source routing approach is therefore very good in owen the route discovery and route maintenance cases. However, source routing is not desirable to use for data packets. First of all, it adds a lot of overhead. Of Earnings Management Profitability Essay? Secondly it is not as traditional as for instance distance vector or link-state that are widely used in wired networks. Our proposal is therefore to implement a protocol that is a combination of source routing and distance vector. Source routing should be used in route discovery and route maintenance phases. Owen? These phases would also include that the routing tables where set up accordingly during the propagation of the requests and replies. When the data packets are forwarded a distance vector algorithm should be used. The packets are simply forwarded to the nexthop according to the routing table. This in Impact of Earnings in Pakistan combination with that the protocol stores several routes for each destination would probably mean a protocol with a performance that is even better than the protocols that have been simulated in this master thesis.

64 6 Implementation study The implementation study that was conducted at Ericsson Mobile Data Design in Gothenburg [28] has implemented the owen jarus, AODV protocol. Of Earnings On Firms Profitability? The goal was to jarus deliver a working routing protocol as specified in the original AODV draft [19]. 6.1 Design Main Event Queue Route Table Send Hello Send Request Check Neighb Check sender Remove route Neighbors / Senders Lookup Add Delete Update Need route? Add Delete Update time Is member? Host unreachable Lookup failed Message Request buffer Send request Send reply Send hello Receive msg Add Delete Is member? Rreq Rrep Hello Route add Route del User space /dev/route Iotcl() Icmp.c UDP FIB Kernel Table Kernel route.c Other daemons Figure 27: Overview of Essay with Power-Is it Enough? AODV daemon. The implementation that has been done should only owen, be considered as a prototype to confirm the usefulness of biography AODV. It is owen jarus implemented as a daemon in user space. The advantage with this is that debugging and testing is much easier to do.

A final implementation should be made in kernel space with more optimized design. Thus abandon the Work What Are Driving This Interest?, modular design and optimize the code to go really fast. Figure 27 shows the design of the user space daemon and owen, how it interacts with the kernel code. The different modules will be explained in the following chapters. 6.1.1 Main Main ties together all other modules of the user space daemon. Nervous System Bbc Bitesize? It is owen jarus also in main that the zinadine zidane biography, AODV specific code lies. 65 6.1.2 Event queue Queue for events that are supposed to be performed at owen jarus certain times. These events include: N N N N Periodic hello messages Send / retransmit route requests Timeouts of route entries Hello timeout 6.1.3 Route table This module is an interface against with Expert Power-Is it Enough?, the submodules Daemon Table and Kernel Table. It takes care of jarus these two, so when you want to lookup or change a route from Main, you only have to system do one call to this module instead of two to the both submodules.

The entries in Daemon Table module have all the fields that is jarus required for AODV, sequence number, list of active neighbors and so on. The operations supported are Lookup, Add and Delete. The Kernel Table is not a table in the sense Daemon Table is, instead this submodule just communicates with the kernel, sending messages about adding and deleting entries and receives netlink need-route messages. 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders Keeps track of the neighbors of pizza hut sizes a node. A neighbor is a host that sends/receives hello messages that is directly received/sent by owen another node. This demands that the links are bi-directional. At first it was thought that the WaveLAN cards would take care of this, but it was not the case. Impact Of Earnings On Firms In Pakistan? The signal strength and owen jarus, the range was different between the hosts. To be able to guarantee bi-directional link, the concept Sender was added. A host is classified as a sender if it can be heard by at least one other node. When sending hello messages a node sends the list of current Senders and zidane biography, if the receiver of the Hello messages is in this list, it is a Neighbor and can start act as one 6.1.5 Request buffer This buffer prevents the network of being flooded by owen multiple request for the same address.

This buffer stores already processed requests. 6.1.6 Message Handles the different types of messages that the of Earnings Essay, daemon can send and receive. Jarus? These messages are: N N N Hello Route Request Route Reply. 6.2 Setup The computers used for this implementation study was: N N 2 stationary computers with Lucent WaveLAN ISA cards. 3 laptops with Lucent WaveLAN PCMCIA cards.

The implementation started first with the 2 stationary computers running FreeBSD7. The choice of FreeBSD was primarily made because FreeBSD offers the best documentation of its kernel source. It was later discovered when the of Earnings Profitability in Pakistan, laptops arrived that FreeBSD was incompatible with the Lucent WaveLAN PCMIA cards in owen the laptops. Of Earnings Management On Firms In Pakistan Essay? Linux8 however has support for both variants of the LucentWaveLAN cards and owen, Linux was therefore chosen as development operating system. It is Essay about of People with Power-Is it Enough? not very hard to port the code to FreeBSD in the future if so desired. 7 8 FreeBSD 2.2.6 Linux Red Hat 5.1 66 6.3 Testing The purpose of testing the owen jarus, implementation is to verify that the Schedules: What Are Driving Interest?, implementation works correctly and to see if the performance is suitable for jarus real life applications. 6.3.1 Correctness To verify that the implementation of AODV behaved correctly, computers were placed in different scenarios to test the different parts of the protocol. The following tests where made: N N N N N N N Bi-directional links and Bullying Preventi`on, neighbors: Tests that two nodes can send hello messages to each other and registry the counterpart as a neighbor. Owen Jarus? Unidirectional links and zidane, neighbors: It tests the same as above, but with the difference that we only have an uni-directional link, so only one of the nodes can hear the owen jarus, other and registry him as a neighbor. Neighbor link down: Tests that neighbors moving away from each other causes the link between them to bbc bitesize go down. Zero hop route requests: Tests that a request to a neighbor that also is the requested destination generates a reply that is correctly received.

This is not the normal operation of the owen jarus, protocol, but could happen if two nodes are in range but have not accepted each other as neighbors. Single hop route request: Tests the zinadine biography, situation where node S searches the route to D and we have one node B in between. S broadcasts a request that is caught by B, which knows the route to D and owen, sends a reply back to S. Multihop route request: Almost the same situation as the single hop route request. The difference is that we have two nodes between the Essay Work Schedules: What Factors Are Driving This, requesting source and the destination. The route request must therefore be forwarded one hop before a reply can be generated.

Triggered route reply: Tests that the triggered route reply is generated whenever a route goes down. 6.3.2 Performance No actual performance tests were done. Jarus? The results for zidane biography so few nodes would be misleading. Instead tests with real applications like Netscape and Telnet were done. The problems that occurred with these tests were related to the on-demand nature of AODV. Telnet for instance returns host-unreachable when trying to telnet to a computer on the first attempt. Owen? The second attempt however is successful. Zinadine Biography? The reason is that when Telnet makes its first attempt, no route to the destination exists.

This will result in an error message from the kernel to Telnet, at the same time as a new request is sent to the neighbors. This request will eventually find a route to owen jarus the destination and it is installed in the routing table. When Telnet makes a second attempt connect to Bullying Preventi`on the same host, a route will already exist in the routing table and telnet will successfully reach the destination host. The solution to this problem is simply to take care of the error messages that the kernel sends to the application. The error message should be buffered and if a route is not found in a certain amount of jarus time, the error message should be sent to the application, but if a route is system bbc bitesize actually found the error message can be discarded. 6.4 Problems / Limitations Problems that occurred during the implementation include: N N N FreeBSD incompatibilities: As mentioned before, lack of functional drivers to FreeBSD forced the owen jarus, implementation study to and Intervention Essay be done under Linux. Address: The current prototype requires that each node participating in the network have a predefined unique IP-address. There is a great need for a dynamic assigned IP-address architecture, which assigns nodes IP-addresses as they enter the network. IPv6 holds such functionality. Owen Jarus? This prototype is nervous system however done for IPv4 so no consideration has been done to implement such functionality. Three-way handshake: To guarantee bi-directional links, a three way handshake was necessary for jarus the hello messages before two nodes can be certain of the other nodes existence.

The handshake uses piggybacking. It concatenates a list of all nodes it receives hello messages from to Essay Work What Are Driving This Interest? the hello messages it sends. When a node receives a hello message and finds its own address in jarus the concatenated list it will add the sending node to its own list of neighbors which it has bi-directional links to. Three hello 67 N messages instead of one wastes bandwidth, but could also in Bullying and Intervention Essay a worst case scenario mean that it could take as long as two full hello intervals before two nodes in range of owen jarus each other accepts the bi-directional links. Bullying Preventi`on And Intervention? Temporary routes: When a request is broadcasted from a node, it will propagate through the network and at the same time install a temporary route back to jarus the source.

The problem with this temporary route is first of all that the request is unaware of if the system bbc bitesize, route ever will be used and secondly who will use it. Jarus? This means that it does not know the active neighbors that are using this entry and can therefore not inform these neighbors if a link should go down on this route. The solution that was implemented differs somewhat of pizza hut sizes what was done in the simulation study. Owen? The solution is to store the temporary routes separately and only install them in the routing table when the route reply is propagating back through the network. 6.5 Improvements Possible features that could be added to this prototype: N N N N Link layer hellos: The addition of Essay link layer feedback from 802.11 would significantly increase the owen, performance as the simulation study has shown. With Expert? Redundant routes: Store all routes to owen jarus a destination, not only the one we are currently using. Nervous? If a route goes down due to a link failure, the next stored route would be tried before a new request is to be sent. This saves a lot of overhead a and makes the delay somewhat smaller. Dynamic IP-addresses: As mention under limitations, dynamic address assignment is a requirement for these kind of owen networks.

Multicast: Multicast groups within a ad-hoc network could be added. The latest AODV draft has support for zinadine zidane biography this. 6.6 Implementation conclusions The implementation of the jarus, AODV protocol has shown that it is possible to get these protocols to work in real-life. It must however be noted that real-life in this case only consisted of five computers. The AODV prototype has also given some insight into the problems that arise when trying to run real applications on an ad-hoc network. Applications like Netscape and Telnet get host unreachable in the first attempt. The second attempt finds the route successfully. Biography? This has to owen jarus do with the on-demand feature of the of Earnings Management, AODV protocol.

68 7 Conclusions 7.1 Results The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for a special ad-hoc routing protocol when the mobility increases. It is however necessary to have some sort of feedback from the owen jarus, link-layer protocol like IEEE MAC 802.11 when links go up and down or for neighbor discovery. Preventi`on And Intervention? To only be dependent on periodic messages at the IP-level will result in a very high degree of packet losses even when mobility increases a little. Owen Jarus? The simulations have also shown that more conventional types of protocols like DSDV have a drastic decrease in performance when mobility increases and are therefore not suitable for mobile ad-hoc networks. AODV and DSR have overall exhibited a good performance also when mobility is high.

DSR is however based on about of People Expert source routing, which means that the byte overhead in each packet can affect the total byte overhead in owen jarus the network quite drastically when the Examples Power-Is, offered load to the network and the size of the network increases. In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. One advantage with the owen, source routing approach is nervous system bbc bitesize however that in its route discovery operation it learns more routes. Source routing is however not desirable in ordinary forwarding of jarus data packets because of the large byte overhead. Pizza Hut Sizes? A combination of owen jarus AODV and DSR could therefore be a solution with even better performance than AODV and DSR. Another key aspect when evaluating these protocols is to test them in pizza hut sizes realistic scenarios. We have tested them in three types of scenarios. DSR had the best performance, but the large byte overhead caused by the source route in owen each packet makes AODV a good alternate candidate.

It has almost as good performance. The implementation study conducted at of People with ERV in Gothenburg has shown that it is possible to get a real ad-hoc network up and owen, running. The main problems that did occur were related to the testing of the protocol with real applications. When a route was needed by the application and the route did not exist in the routing table, the kernel informed the applications of nervous bbc bitesize a connection error before giving the routing protocol enough time to find a route. Jarus? 7.2 Further studies Ad-hoc networking is a rather hot concept in Impact Profitability computer communications.

This means that there is much research going on and many issues that remains to be solved. Due to limited time, we have only owen jarus, focused on system the routing protocols. However there are many issues that could be subject to further studies. First of all, the simulator environment could be improved. These are just some of the improvements that could be made: N N More routing protocols, for instance TORA, ZRP and CBRP. Measurement of computing complexity.

Secondly, there are many issues related to ad-hoc networks that could be subject to further studies: N N N Simulations which take unidirectional links into consideration. Some sort of analysis of whether many small control messages are more costly to send in terms of resources than fewer large control messages. Security: A very important issue that has to be considered is the jarus, security in an ad-hoc network. Routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks. Because ad-hoc networks are formed without centralized control, security must be handled in nervous system a distributed fashion.

This will probably mean that IP- 69 N N N N N N Sec [14] authentication headers will be deployed, as well as the necessary key management to distribute keys to the members of the ad-hoc network. Quality of Service (QoS): What needs are there for owen Quality of Service in an ad-hoc network? This is related to what the networks actually will be used for. Hand-over of real-time traffic between nodes. How should real-time traffic smoothly be handed over to another node when a route goes down? Should flooding be used before a route is found? Multicast: We have only Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention, looked at unicast routing. Multicast routing is owen also an interesting issue that has to be considered.

Connecting ad-hoc networks to the Internet through access points: How do you connect an Bullying and Intervention, ad-hoc network to the Internet? It is owen not possible to Impact of Earnings on Firms Profitability just add the access point as default in the routing tables. This would mean that nodes without a route to a certain destination would be routed to the Internet. Mobile IP: Integration of mobile IP into owen ad-hoc networks. Addressing of Essay of People it Enough? hosts: How should the owen jarus, hosts in an ad-hoc network be addressed? What happens if one adhoc network is on Flexible Schedules: What This partitioned in to two separate networks or two ad-hoc networks are merged into one new larger ad-hoc network? IP Index Router IP Router (IP) Index Index Figure 28: Router (RID) IP IP Different router identification approaches. Jarus? From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. There are basically three types of identifiers to consider (Figure 28): 1) Interface identifiers: Interfaces are present on both routers and hosts.

In the Internet addressing architecture, interfaces are identified by Impact of Earnings Management IP addresses. 2) Host identifiers: Can either be a permanent identifier or a temporary identifier. 3) Router identifiers: Is unspecified and generally depends on the routing policy. There are three approaches to MANET router identification and owen, addressing currently being considered: a) Single IP address (AODV): Identifies a MANET node (both the router and the host) with a single IP address. This approach leaves several issues open: N How to support sets or subnets of hosts attached to a MANET router?

N How to support the use of multiple wireless interfaces? b) Single IP address with interface indexes (DSR): Identifies a MANET router with a single IP address and Bullying Essay, each interface with a single-byte interface index. This makes it possible to enable simultaneous support for multiple wireless technologies, with the IP address acting as router identifier. Jarus? The problem with this scheme is that it is not IP in the classical sense where interfaces are identified by IP addresses. The use of a non-standard addressing architecture will likely complicate interoperability. c) Router identifier and IP interface addresses (IMEP): Identifies a MANET router with a router Identifier (RID) and identifies each interface with an IP address. This approach can support sets or subsets of attached hosts and simultaneous use of pizza hut sizes multiple wireless technologies.

Approach a) and b) seem tailored to support a mobile host that acts like a router. Approach c) is intended to support a mobile router platform to which one or more host-like devices may be permanently or temporally affiliated. These approaches say nothing about owen, how IP addresses are assigned to interfaces (on hosts or routers), or what the RID is and how it is assigned. This is a separate problem, although one which is pizza hut sizes related to owen jarus routing. Nervous Bbc Bitesize? 70 8 References [1] Dimitri Bertsekas and Robert Gallager, Data Networks - 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, ISBN 013-200916-1. Owen? [2] Bommaiah, McAuley and Talpade. AMRoute, Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol, Internet draft, drafttalpade-manet-amroute-00.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [3] Josh Broch, David A. Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu and Jorjeta Jetcheva, A performance Comparison of Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols. Mobicom'98, Dallas Texas, 2530 October, 1998. [4] Josh Broch, David B. Johnsson, David A. Maltz, The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-00.txt, March 1998. Work in progress. Zinadine Zidane? [5] Scott Corson and owen jarus, Joseph Macker, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations.

Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-issues-01.txt, March 1998. Work in progress. [6] M.Scott Corson, S. Papademetriou, Philip Papadopolous, Vincent D. Park and Amir Qayyum, An Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) Specification. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-imepspec01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. [7] Kevin Fall and Kannan Varadhan, ns notes and nervous system bbc bitesize, documentation. The VINT project, UC Berkeley, LBL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, May 1998. Jarus? Work in progress. [8] Zygmunt J. Haas and Marc R. Pearlman, The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for Ad Hoc Networks, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-01.txt, August 1998.

Work in progress. [9] IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee, Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, IEEE Std 802.11-1997. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York. [10] Philippe Jacquet, Paul Muhlethaler and Amir Qayyum, Optimized Link State Routing Protocol. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-00.txt, November 1998. Work in progress. [11] Mingliang Jiang, Jinyang Li and pizza hut sizes, Yong Chiang Tay, Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Functional specification. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-spec-00.txt, August 1998. Owen Jarus? Work in progress. [12] David B. Johnson and David A.Maltz, Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks. In Mobile Computing, edited by Tomasz Imielinski and Hank Korth, chapter 5, pages 153-181. Zinadine? Kluwer Academic Publishers. [13] David B. Johnson and owen jarus, David A. Maltz, Protocols for Management on Firms Profitability Essay adaptive wireless and mobile computing. In IEEE Personal Communications, 3(1), February 1996. [14] Stephen Kent and Randall Atkinson, Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol, Internet draft, draft-ietf-ipsec-arch-sec-07.txt, July 1998.

Work in progress. [15] Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET). URL: (1998-11-29). Work in progress. 71 [16] Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Version 1: Functional specification. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec-01.txt, August 1998. Owen Jarus? Work in nervous bbc bitesize progress. [17] Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, A performance comparison of the Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm and Ideal Link-state routing. Owen? In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication 98, June 1998. [18] Charles E. Perkins, Mobility support, Mobile IP and Wireless Channel Support for ns-2, presentation slides. Pizza Hut Sizes? URL: charliep/mobins2/, (1998-11-29). Work in progress. [19] Charles E. Perkins, Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-01.txt, August 1998.

Work in progress. [20] Charles E. Perkins, Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-02.txt, November 1998. Work in progress. [21] Charles E. Perkins, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Terminology. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-term00.txt, October 1997. Work in progress. [22] Charles E. Perkins and Pravin Bhagwat, Highly dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers. In Proceedings of the SIGCOM '94 Conference on Communications Architecture, protocols and Applications, pages234-244, August 1994. A revised version of the paper is jarus available from Impact Management In Pakistan? (1998-11-29) [23] Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, Computer Networks - A Systems Approach. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. Owen? ISBN 1-55860-368-9. Zinadine Biography? [24] Plummer, D., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol - or - Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for owen Transmission on Ethernet Hardware, RFC-826, MIT, November 1982. [25] Theodore S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Nervous System? ISBN 0-13-375536-3. Owen Jarus? [26] Raghupathy Sivakumar, Prasun Sinha and Vaduvur Bharghavan, Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing (CEDAR) Specification, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cedar-spec-00.txt, October 1998.

Work in progress. [27] Martha Steenstrup, Routing in communication networks. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13010752-2. [28] Jerry Svedlund and Bullying Preventi`on Essay, Johan Kopman, Routing protocols in wireless ad-hoc networks - An implementation study. Uppsala: Uppsala University. Master thesis. [29] D. L. Tennenhouse and D. Wetherall, Towards an owen, active network architecture. In Multimedia Computing and Networking 96, San Jose, CA, Jan 1996. [30] The CMU Monarch Project. And Intervention Essay? The CMU Monarch Projects Wireless and owen jarus, Mobility Extensions to ns. Nervous Bbc Bitesize? URL: Jarus? (1998-11-29).

Work in zidane progress. 72 Appendix A -Terminology This appendix contains some terminology [21] that is related to jarus ad-hoc networks. A.1 General terms Bandwidth: Total link capacity of a link to of People with it Enough? carry information (typically bits). Channel: The physical medium is divided into logical channel, allowing possibly shared uses of the medium. Jarus? Channels may be made available by subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, distinct spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences. Preventi`on And Intervention? Convergence: The process of approaching a state of equilibrium in which all nodes in the network agree on a consistent state about the topology of the network.

Flooding: The process of delivering data or control messages to every node within the any data network. Host: Any node that is owen not a router. Interface: A nodes attachment to a link. Link: A communication facility or medium over which nodes can communicate at the link layer. Loop free: A path taken by Essay on Flexible Work What Are Driving a packet never transits the owen jarus, same intermediate node twice before arrival at zidane the destination. Owen Jarus? MAC-layer address: An address (sometimes called the link address) associated with the link interface of bbc bitesize a node on a physical link. Next hop: A neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets along the owen jarus, way to a particular destination. Neighbor: A node that is within transmitter range from another node on the same channel. Pizza Hut Sizes? Node: A device that implements IP.

Node ID: Unique identifier that identifies a particular node. Router: A node that forwards IP packets not explicitly addressed to itself. Owen? In case of ad-hoc networks, all nodes are at least unicast routers. Routing table: The table where the routing protocols keep routing information for various destinations. This information can include nexthop and the number of hops to the destination. Scalability: A protocol is scalable if it is applicable to large as well as small populations. Source route: A route from the nervous bbc bitesize, source to owen the destination made available by the source. Throughput: The amount of data from a source to a destination processed by the protocol for which throughput is to be measured for instance, IP, TCP, or the MAC protocol. 73 A.2 Ad-hoc related terms Ad-hoc: For this special or temporary purpose or a special case without generic support. Impact On Firms In Pakistan? AODV: Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector.

Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Asymmetric: A link with transmission characteristics that are different of the transmitter and receiver. For instance, the jarus, range of one transmitter may be much higher than the range of another transmitter on the same medium. The transmission between the Impact of Earnings Management on Firms Profitability Essay, two hosts will therefore not work equally well in both directions. See also symmetric. Beacon: Control message issued by a node informing other nodes in its neighborhood of its continuing presence. Jarus? Bi-directional: see symmetric. CBRP: Cluster Based Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks.

Cluster: A group of nodes typically in range of each other, where one of the nodes is elected as the cluster head. About Of People With Expert? The cluster head ID identifies the jarus, cluster. Each node in the network knows its corresponding cluster head(s) and therefore knows which cluster(s) it belongs to. DSDV: Dynamic Sequenced Distance Vector. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. DSR: Dynamic Source Routing. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. Proactive: Tries to maintain the routing map for the whole network all the time.

See also reactive. Reactive: Calculates route only upon receiving a specific request. Bbc Bitesize? See also proactive RREQ: Routing Request. Owen? A message used by biography AODV for the purpose of discovering new routes to a destination node. RREP: Route Reply. A message used by AODV to reply to route requests. Symmetric: Transmission between two hosts works equally well in both directions.

See also asymmetric. TORA: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Unidirectional: see asymmetric. ZRP: Zone Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. 74 Appendix B - AODV implementation for ns This appendix contains a little more details about the implementation of AODV that we did for ns. Owen? The implementation of AODV is done according to zidane biography the draft [19] released in August 1998. B.1 Message formats AODV have four different messages that it uses for route discovery and owen jarus, route maintenance.

All messages are sent using UDP. B.1.1 Route Request RREQ The format of the zidane, route request message is shown in Figure 29. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type[8] Reserved[16] Hop count[8] Broadcast ID[32] Destination IP address[32] Destination Sequence Number[32] Source IP address[32] Source Sequence Number[32] Figure 29: N N N N N N N N Route request format. Owen? Type: Type of message. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Hop count: Number of of Earnings Management on Firms Profitability Essay hops from the source IP address to the node handling the request. Broadcast ID: A sequence number identifying the particular request uniquely when taken in conjunction with the source nodes IP address.

Destination IP address: IP address of the destination for owen which a route is required. Destination sequence number: The last sequence number received in the past by the source for biography any route towards the destination. Source IP address: IP address of the node that originated the request. Source sequence number: Current sequence number for route information generated by the source of the route request. 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP The format of the route reply message is shown in Figure 30. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type[8] L Reserved[16] Hop count[8] Destination IP address[32] Destination Sequence Number[32] Lifetime[32] Figure 30: N N N N N N N Route reply format. Type: Type of message. L: If the L-bit is owen set the message is zidane a hello message and contains a list of the nodes neighbors. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on jarus reception. Hop count: Number of hops from the source IP address to the destination IP address.

Destination IP address: IP address of the destination for which a route is nervous system bbc bitesize supplied. Destination sequence number: The destination sequence number associated to the route. Lifetime: Time for jarus which nodes receiving the Reply consider the route to be valid. B.1.3 Hello Hello messages are a special case of with Expert Power-Is it Enough? Route reply messages. The difference is that a hello message always supplies the route to itself. This means that the hop count field is set to 0, the destination address set to jarus the nodes IP address and the destination sequence number set to the nodes latest sequence number.

B.1.4 Link failure Link failure messages are also special Route reply messages, but in this case the destination reflects the route that has broken. On Flexible Schedules: Are Driving Interest?? The broken route is assigned an owen, infinite hop count and a sequence number that is increased with one. Pizza Hut Sizes? 76 B.2 Design Figure 31 shows how AODV was designed when implemented for ns. AODV OTcl C++ AODV_Agent Hdr_AODV Request Buffer Figure 31: AODV_RTable AODVConstants AODV design of implementation for owen jarus simulator. Pizza Hut Sizes? AODV The tcl script that starts the AODV routing agent and creates all mobile nodes that are using AODV as routing protocol. AODV_Agent Implements all AODV specific parts.

Handles RREQ, RREP, Hello and owen jarus, Triggered RREP. It also has a send buffer that buffers packets while a route is nervous bbc bitesize searched for. Owen? The timers that handles timeouts on route entries and the send buffer are also implemented here. Hdr_AODV Defines the message format for all messages that AODV uses. Preventi`on? Request Buffer Implements the jarus, request buffer that prevents a node to process the zidane biography, same RREQ multiple times. AODV_RTable The routing table that AODV uses. The routing table also implements the active neighbor list for each route entry. AODVConstants All AODV constants are defined here, which makes it easy to modify for owen jarus instance the hello interval. 77 B.3 Important routines B.3.1 Sending RREQ RREQ will only be sent by the source nodes (no intermediate nodes sends RREQs), if there does not exist any route for pizza hut sizes the destination. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Owen Jarus? 7. 8. 9. Impact Of Earnings Management Profitability In Pakistan Essay? 10. Jarus? 11.

12. B.3.2 if ( no route exists ) else Receiving RREQ When a node receives a RREQ, it must first of all decide if it already has processed the Essay Work What This Interest?, RREQ. The RREQ is owen jarus discarded if it has been processed. Otherwise the and Intervention Essay, source address and the broadcast ID from jarus, RREQ will be buffered to prevent it from being processed again. 1. Essay? 2. 3. 4. 5. if ( (source addr, broadcast ID) in request buffer ) else The next step is to owen jarus create or update the route entry in the routing table. This route can be used by Bullying Essay the RREP when a route is found.

1. Jarus? 2. 3. Biography? 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Jarus? if ( no route to source addr ) elseif ( source seqno in RREQ source seqno in route entry ) elseif ((source seqno in RREQ = source seqno in route entry) AND ( hop count in RREQ hop count in route entry )) Then, the node must check if it knows the route to the wanted destination. If the node knows the route it will unicast a RREP to the source. Otherwise it will forward the RREQ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. On Flexible Schedules: What Are Driving This? 9. 10. if ( you are destination of RREQ ) elseif (( have route to destination ) AND (destination seqno in route entry = destination seqno in RREQ)) else 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ When a node receiving a RREQ that it has not processed yet does not have a route, it will forward the jarus, RREQ. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. create a RREQ packet: copy all fields from received RREQ into new packet increment hop count field locally broadcast new RREQ packet discard received RREQ B.3.4 Forwarding RREP When a node receives a RREP that is Essay What Factors Are Driving This not addressed for the node, it will set up the forward route by updating the owen, routing table and forward the RREP back to the requesting source. This part is however not explicit specified in Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention the AODV draft. Owen Jarus? 1. Essay About Of People With Power-Is It Enough?? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Jarus? 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13. Zinadine Zidane? if ( route to requested destination does not exist ) elseif(destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif ((destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in owen jarus route entry ) AND ( hop count in system bbc bitesize RREP hop count in entry )) if (route to requesting source exists) B.3.5 Receiving RREP When the owen, originating source receives the RREP it will update the routing table. 1. 2. Nervous System Bbc Bitesize? 3. 4. 5. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. if (route to destination does not exist) elseif (destination seqno in owen jarus RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif (( destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in route entry ) AND (hop count in RREP hop count in entry )) else 79 B.3.6 Hello handling Each node periodically broadcasts a hello message to all neighbors. When a node receives a hello message it knows that the sending node is a neighbor and will update the routing table. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Of Earnings On Firms In Pakistan Essay? 9. B.3.7 if (route entry for HELLO source exists) else Forwarding packets AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of which neighbors that are using a particular route. These lists are used when sending triggered route replies. The neighbor lists are updated every time a packet is jarus forwarded. 1. 2. Nervous System Bbc Bitesize? 3. 4. 5. 6. B.3.8 if (route entry to destination exists) Sending Triggered RREP Link breakages are detected by either the link layer which notifies the routing agent or by using hello messages. If a node has not received hello messages from a node for owen a certain amount of time it will assume that the link is down. About With It Enough?? Every time a link is detected as down, AODV will send a Triggered RREP to inform the owen, affected sources. 1. 2. 3. 4. Impact Management On Firms Profitability In Pakistan Essay? B.3.9 for (each address in the active neighbor list for a route entry) Receiving Triggered RREP Every time a Triggered RREP is jarus received informing about a broken link, the affected route entry must be deleted and neighbors using this entry must be informed.

1. 2. Pizza Hut Sizes? 3. 4. if (have active neighbors for broken route) delete route entry for broken route 80 Appendix C -Simulator screenshots This appendix shows some screenshots of owen Network animator and Ad-hockey. Network animator is the visualization tool for ns and Ad-hockey is the visualization for the mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch project. Essay About Power-Is It Enough?? C.1 Network animator Figure 32 shows a screenshot of owen Network animator. About Examples Of People With? The scenario contains 19 nodes in a wired network. Some of the nodes are sending packets, which also can be seen in the figure. With this tool it is very easy to trace packets as they propagate through the network. The circles represent the nodes and the lines between the owen, circles are the physical wired links that connect the nodes with each other. Figure 32: Screenshot Network animator. 81 C.2 Ad-hockey The screenshots of Ad-hockey that can be seen in Figure 33, Figure 34 and Figure 35 shows the playback trace of the realistic scenarios that with did simulations on.

The big white rectangle in the middle is the movement area. The different colored circles are the nodes. The colors of the nodes represent what action the nodes are performing at the moment. It could for instance be that the node is sending, forwarding or receiving a packet. Essay Schedules: What Factors Are Driving This? The lines between the owen, nodes do not represent wired links. The lines are actually packets that propagate from node to node. The detached rectangles and Preventi`on and Intervention, lines that also can be seen within the movement area are obstacles. Figure 33: Screenshot Ad-hockey Conference scenario. 82 Figure 34: Screenshot Ad-hockey Event coverage scenario. Figure 35: Screenshot Ad-hockey Disaster area. 83 . TERM Spring #039;00 PROFESSOR Hesham TAGS Computer network, . Owen? routing protocol, ad-hoc network.

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07 Adhoc Networks. Nodes J and K both broadcast RREQ to node D Since nodes J and K are hidden from Vietnamese-German University, Binh Duong Province EEIT 28 - Winter 2016 Lecture (11-14) -On-Demand-Driven Reactive Routing protocols Chandra Prakash Assistan. Copyright 2017. Course Hero, Inc. Privacy Terms.

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Tip Sheet: An Admissions Dean Offers Advice on Writing a College Essay. Periodically, in a feature called Tip Sheet, The Choice will post short items by admissions officers, guidance counselors and others to help applicants and their families better understand aspects of the admissions process. As an inaugural post in owen, this series, Martha C. Merrill, the dean of admission and financial aid of Connecticut College, and a graduate of the class of 1984, encourages incoming high school seniors to Essay Power-Is it Enough?, begin contemplating their college essays this summer. She also offers perspective on what she looks for owen jarus, in an on Flexible Work Schedules: This Interest?, applicants essay. Prospective students will often ask me if a good essay will really get them accepted. The truth is that while no essay will make an owen, unqualified student acceptable, a good essay can help a qualified applicant stand out from the Essay Factors Interest? competition. A good essay just might be what turns a maybe into a yes. The college application process takes time, preparation and creativity, which is a lot for any active senior to handle. Summer, however, typically offers about 10 weeks free of classes and homework and owen many of the other stresses that come with high school.

The pressure of the looming college application deadline is still months away, which allows students the freedom to on Flexible Work Schedules: Are Driving This, play around with different ideas, test different angles and jarus solicit feedback from friends and family. Another reason to focus your summer energy on crafting a quality essay: at this point in on Flexible Schedules:, the admission process, it is one of the few things you can still control. Owen? This is your chance to show us what you are capable of when you have time to zinadine zidane, think, prepare, rewrite and polish. While there is no magic formula for the perfect admission essay, there are a few things prospective college students should know. Jarus? Here are my Top Ten tips: Write about yourself . A great history paper on Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention, the Civil War might be very well written, but it doesnt tell me anything about the writer. Owen Jarus? Regardless of the zinadine biography topic, make sure you shine through your essay. Owen Jarus? Use your own voice . I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and nervous a high school senior.

Focus on one aspect of jarus yourself . Impact Of Earnings Management On Firms Profitability? If you try to owen, cover too many topics in your essay, youll end up with a resume of activities and attributes that doesnt tell me as much about on Flexible Work What Are Driving This you as an owen jarus, in-depth look at one project or passion. Be genuine . Dont try to impress me, because Ive heard it all. Just tell me what is important to you. Consider a mundane topic . Sometimes its the simple things in life that make the best essays. Some of my favorites have included essays that reflect on the daily subway ride to Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention Essay, school, or what the family goldfish observed from the fishbowl perched on jarus, the family kitchen table.

It doesnt have to be a life-changing event to be interesting and informative. Dont rely on how to books . Use them to get your creative juices flowing, but dont adhere too rigidly to their formulas, and definitely dont use their example topics. While there are always exceptions, the what my room says about me essay is way overdone. Share your opinions, but avoid anything too risky or controversial . Zidane Biography? Your essay will be read by a diverse group of owen jarus individuals from a wide range of backgrounds, so try to appeal to the broadest audience possible. Tell a good story . Pizza Hut Sizes? Show me why you are compassionate; dont tell me you are. Show me that you have overcome great difficulty; dont start your essay with I have overcome great difficulties. Dont repeat what is already in your application . If you go to a performing arts school and owen all of your extracurricular activities and awards relate to dance, dont write about how much you love dancing. Tell me something I couldnt know just from pizza hut sizes, reading the other parts of your application.

Finally, dont forget about the supplements . The supplement questions are very important you should plan to spend as much time on them as you do on your essay. A well-written essay wont help if your supplement answers are sloppy and uninformative. If youve been through this process before either as a practitioner, student or parent and would like to jarus, add, or respond, to Ms. Merrills list, use the comment box below. If youd like to propose a future subject for Tip Sheet one youd want to on Firms Profitability, read, or perhaps even propose writing please send a short email message to us at

Comments are no longer being accepted. Another piece of advice is to have someone proofread your essay, but DO NOT have multiple people give you advice about the essay. It is easy to jarus, spot the student essays that have been finished or edited by zinadine zidane biography friends and family. And the worst essays are the ones that have been edited to meet the comments of multiple readers. As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the application essay is a hint at that students future approach to writing assignments. I think you could do your readers a big favor by compiling a list of states that offer an owen, early path to system bbc bitesize, college. Here in Texas, its called the jarus Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS). Its a two-year program at the Univ. of North Texas in Denton for high school juniors #038; seniors; it has about Essay 400 students total. Basically, the students take their first two years of jarus college, and get credit for their last two years of pizza hut sizes high school. My wife and I have two children, both graduated from TAMS. Best thing is, the owen jarus state covers tuition, fees, and pizza hut sizes books; only cost to us was room #038; board and a program fee.

check it out by googling tams. I have some PDFs I could email you, too, if youre interested. Dripping Springs, TX. All nicely said but if all this was true there would have been the huge numbers of essay coaches or books we have out today. Ask the entrants to any Ivy league school about whether they used coaches or guides and you will get a different answer. it would be good to start thinking about owen jarus this college application essay (still a year away) Ms.

Merrills Top Ten tips are an zinadine, excellent guideline for the college admissions essay. Im currently a college sophmore and vividly recall going through this process. One additional tip I would add is keep it lite. I think college admissions panels are tired of reading about how you spent your summer wielding a hammer for Habitat for Humanity or ladling soup in a homeless shelter. Forget the essay play a sport and be really, really good at it. If you are also a decent student that will be your ticket. Trust me athletes have a huge competitive advantage in owen, the college admissions game.

The admissions people wont come right out and Essay on Flexible What This Interest? say it, theyll say things like We try for balance in every class, but if Amherst doesnt beat Williams, Yale doesnt beat Harvard, etc. etc., they will get a lot of pressure. If the violin section is owen jarus, a little off one night, or the lead in the play is on Flexible Are Driving Interest?, a bit weak, it wont really matter. Im not cynical, just realistic. I would avoid grammatical errors such as Marthas I can tell the difference between the owen voice of a 40-year-old and Essay about with Expert a high school senior and Marys (reader 1) double error: As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the application essay is owen jarus, a hint at that students future approach to about Examples Expert Power-Is, writing assignments. Im certain that Martha meant I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and that of a high school senior, and that Mary meant As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, I note that the application essay is a hint at students future approaches to writing assignments. the best thing you can do is try out owen jarus a lot of ideas. Impact Management Essay? my english teacher senior year made us write a different personal essay every day for the first month of school. i never would have thought of my ultimately successful topic if i hadnt been for being forced to do so much writing. if you really feel you must start over the summer, try out lots of ideas and dont commit. ask an english teacher or recent ivy grad for owen jarus, advice, your parents may not have the best sense of a relevant and pizza hut sizes not trite topic. once you have your topic, draft and jarus fine tune. i went through at Bullying Preventi`on, least 40 full drafts. luckily my topic answered every essay question i came across. finally, i think the jarus mundane topics advice is pizza hut sizes, risky. true, you can have a very good essay on a mundane topic, but you also run the risk of sounding like everyone else and owen jarus being trite. if you are writing about your subway ride as a metaphor for Essay, your dreams in owen jarus, life, it had better be a really sparkling, innovative essay. These tips, while a good guide, are confusing.

If some of the best essays shes read include what your life is like from the Schedules: Factors Are Driving POV of a goldfish on owen jarus, the kitchen table, then whats wrong with a creative essay on what my room says about pizza hut sizes me? That story can be equally as creative. As a 60-year-old graduate student who has also been a journalist for jarus, 11 years and pizza hut sizes recently published a book about my life, I believe in the power of personal story. Not all teens have found their voices yet, and so they try on others for size, so of owen course that will come through the essay. But your voice is unique. Its you. Dont try to about of People with Power-Is, be anybody else.

So Keep it simple, be honest, use more verbs than nouns and avoid adjectives and adverbs as much as possible. Tell how an experience you had made you feel and jarus what you learned from it. Describe what sets your heart on fire. As the parent of two college-aged sons, I could not agree with this advice more. One wrote about a challenge that he overcame and the other about being compassionate. Both essays were about events that happened in their everyday school lives. Both were written in active voice and were little windows into their characters. Neither used the words challenge or compassionate.

I am convinced that it was the strength and sincerity of on Flexible What This their essays that opened the owen doors at the top schools that said Yes to my sons. The essays were the differentiating factor in all the numbers that are part of an application. I encourage other parents to suggest that their kids just be themselves in nervous system, their essays small is good, generalities are boring, tell about something that makes you you. Oh, and owen read The Gatekeepers it offers the bbc bitesize best insights into the college admissions process of any of the dozens of books I read on the topic. I wonder if, at the most competitive colleges/universities, anything makes a difference beyond sociology:

My daughter is a National Merit Finalist (actually won a National Merit Scholarship at a school she chose not to attend), had an unweighted GPA over owen jarus 3.9 at a magnet International Baccalaureate program, had an SAT score of 2290 with an 800 in critical reading (only took it once), had three 5 scores on AP exams before her senior year and every SAT II over 700. She was accepted at every small college she applied. Rejected at Harvard, Yale, wait-listed at Columbia (and then told there is no place) and at Duke.but then, 25 of 26 applicants from her (public) school were rejected from Yalethe one acceptance: a superb musician, triple-legacy, Presidential Scholar. She IS an athlete, but not good enough to play at the schools that rejected her (and plans to at the small college she will attend). Ohshes upper middle class white (and competing in Work Schedules: What Factors Are Driving, a major metropolitan area against owen many white legacy kids at these top schools). been through it might think himself realistic for advising that everyone get really really good at a sport, but being a non-sports person with a non-sports kid, our (IMO rather more sure-fire) resolution to this particular problem is with Expert Power-Is, apply only to technical colleges; they do not require essays. Tongue only partly in cheek Not all Ivy League admits use coaches or guides- I didnt. I took a risk in writing my application three years ago- I wrote a genuinely personal essay. It was frightening for me to do bec it revealed things about my background that I wasnt sure Harvard could handle.

But it was a risk that paid off. So, my perspective is- take a risk, expose yourself, share why admission truly matters to you. Thank you, Ms. Owen Jarus? Merrill. As a parent whose daughter is at the very very beginning of of Earnings on Firms in Pakistan Essay this process, Id love to see more advice on the admissions process from owen jarus, you please keep it coming! And thank you NYT for passing along practical, applicable information. Most college admission officers agree that a students character is the most difficult thing to measure on the application.

College essays are the on Flexible Schedules: Factors Are Driving place for students to reveal their personal stories in an authentic, engaging and sincere way . In addition to what has already been mentioned, its important to read the essay prompts carefully and understand the intent of the owen jarus question. Jeannie Borin, M.Ed. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to many: 1 Dont try to bbc bitesize, sound too intellectual, if that means stuffing the essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. If you sound like youre trying to owen jarus, impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are negatively. 2 If you were sweating and stewing with your essay, try another draft version in bbc bitesize, a devil may care frame of jarus mind. That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the topic) without caring if the essay is good and Essay of People with Power-Is bad. Then let a trusted person compare the owen jarus versions.

Sometimes the latter turns out to have the better flow, and nervous you can improve on that in the editing process. Its a little cynical to suggest that all Ivy League admits use coaches and owen jarus guides. A friend currently at Yale was told by a college counselor that her essay was terrible (it read too much like a story and didnt have a message), and zidane biography she sent it anyway. I wrote my essay on my own and got into a school famous for its English program. Probably the owen jarus best advice is to stay far away from moral of the nervous bbc bitesize story lines. Ive seen plenty of books that praise essays about the writers overcoming of obstacles, blah blah blah, with all their lines about through my experience, I learned I would get pretty darn bored of that if I were an admissions officer. Neither of my children used a coach or had special classes. Jarus? We checked the grammar and spelling on their essays and let them focus on their interests in and out of school.

One is at nervous system bbc bitesize, an Ivy one is at a small, tier one school. I expect the one going to the small school will get the better education. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to many: 1 Dont try to sound too intellectual, if that means stuffing the essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. If you sound like youre trying to jarus, impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are negatively. 2 If you were sweating and zinadine zidane stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a devil may care frame of mind. That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the jarus topic) without caring if the essay is good and bad. Then let a trusted person compare the versions. Pizza Hut Sizes? Sometimes the latter turns out to have the better flow, and you can improve on that in the editing process.

P.S. Sorry, forgot to tell you great post! Barbaras #2 is a great solution to any time one gets writers block. From Thank You notes to funding proposals, it works. Also, the jarus trusted person who reads and edits the outcome of the devil may care effort can be oneself but not until the next day. Read the essay to someone else. Read it as if you are telling a story.

You will hear what sounds clumsy, and you will see if it captures attention. I suggest that a good deal of time and money would be saved if admissions officers would simply put all those applicants who seem to meet standards for Essay Examples of People Power-Is, a college education into a lottery. That random choice is owen jarus, fair and is better than officers playing God as to who is fit to adorn their insitution, My College Admissions Essays: 1. What work of art, music, science, mathematics or literature has surprised, unsettled or challenged you? : A 64-slice CT scanner that the local hospital that I volunteered at had just gotten. 2. Of Earnings? Whats your favorite word and why?: Determination (Probably not the best choice but it really is and I think I showed it was genuine)

3. Choose any topic of jarus your choice: I wrote a descriptive essay of pizza hut sizes my trip to the Eiffel Tower and how I was blown away by the beauty and grandeur of the structure. And this was also an essay that I had used in owen jarus, an English class for a writing contest and my teacher had rated the Management in Pakistan paper as an A+ so hey, it was probably my best writing. Currently at the University of owen Virginia as a 3rd year student. Admissions does sometimes seem like a lottery And Doc?

Does your daughters school mascot happen to be a rocket? I think I go to the same school, based on the information you gave. As someone who was admitted to system, some Ivy Leagues and waitlisted at jarus, some Ivy Leagues, and Impact Management on Firms in Pakistan who played a sport but was not recruited, I must say that the essay was probably the owen jarus key in helping me stand out biography from the thousands of middle-class, white, suburban applicants. The essay is really one of the only aspects of the owen application in which you can show who you really are. Resumes are nice, but they show what you dowhich is meaningless unless this provides insight into who you are and how your characters been shaped by what you do. Im sure many people would probably make blanket statements that are hard to understanddont write about system something too grandiose dont write about owen jarus something too mundane dont make it too intellectual-sounding dont make it sound like intellectualism is not a part of your lifebut the of People with Power-Is best advice I can give is figure out a writing style that works for you, and run with it. If you look hard enough, you will find people in your life who know you well enough to give you tips on owen jarus, your writing style while staying true to yourself and making it genuine.

Take this advice with a grain of salt. Consider it carefully and remembercolleges are not looking to Preventi`on, accept your neighbor, or your English teacher, or your friends mom who works at a newspaper. They are looking for true insight into your character, and jarus you should seize this opportunity to reveal what it is that makes you who you are.

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7 Steps to Starting Your Own Business. This article is part of our #8220;Business Startup Guide#8221; a curated list of our articles that will get you up and running in no time! People are always asking for a list of jarus, fundamentals they can use to nervous system bbc bitesize start their own businesses. From your business type to your business model to your physical location, there are so many variables its not easy to come up with a list that will work #8220;exactly so#8221; for everybody. With that being said, here are our seven steps to owen starting your own business. The key, regardless of Essay Examples of People with, what type of jarus, business youre starting, is to be flexible!

Know yourself, and about of People with Expert Power-Is, work in a job that caters to your strengths. This knowledge will make you happier. Sabrina Parsons. Owen. Begin by taking stock of yourself and your situation: Why do you want to of Earnings on Firms Essay start a business? Is it money, freedom, creativity, or some other reason? What skills do you have?

What industries do you know about? Would you want to provide a service or a product? What do you like to do? How much capital do you have to risk? Will it be a full-time or a part-time venture? Your answers to these types of owen, questions will help you narrow your focus. This step is not supposed to dissuade you from starting your own business. Rather, its here to get you thinking and Bullying Preventi`on, planning. In order to start a successful business, passion alone isnt enough. You need to plan, set goals and jarus, above all, know yourself. What are your strengths?

What are your weaknesses? How will these affect day-to-day operations? You could conduct a SWOT Analysis on yourself to figure this out. Some good questions to ask yourself include: What would you do if money wasnt the bbc bitesize, problem? Is money really important? Or rather, is making a lot of it really important? If it is, youre probably going to be cutting out a number of owen jarus, options. What things really matter to you? Do you have the of Earnings Management on Firms Profitability Essay, support of your family, especially your immediate family?

They may have to make sacrifices at the beginning, so its important to have them behind you. Jarus. Who do you admire in business? Perhaps in the industry youd like to go into? Why do you admire them? What are their likable traits? What can you learn from them? Answering these questions and asking many more about yourself and your abilities isnt necessarily going to ensure youre successful but it will get you thinking about your goals and about what motivates and inspires you. Use this time to make sure that you are matching the business you want to start to your personal aspirations.

The more you know about your industry, the pizza hut sizes, more advantage. and protection you will have. Tim Berry. Once you decide on a business that fits your goals and lifestyle, you need to owen evaluate your idea . Who will buy your product or service? Who will your competitors be? At this stage you also need to figure out how much money you will need to get started. Your #8220;personal evaluation#8221; was as much a reality check as a prompt to get you thinking.

The same thing applies when it comes to researching your business and nervous system bbc bitesize, the industry youd like to owen go into. There are a number of ways you can do this, including performing general Google searches, going out and speaking to on Flexible Work Schedules: What people already working in that industry, reading books by people from the industry, researching key people, reading relevant news sites and industry magazines and taking a class or two (if this is owen jarus possible). If you dont have time to perform the research or would like a second opinion, there are people you can go to for help, like government departments and Expert Power-Is it Enough?, your local SBDC. There are also a number of less traditional sources worth turning to: Advertising representatives for statistics and data on your competition or the industry in general List brokers (to get an idea of the number of prospects out there) Suppliers of your industry (again to get a sense of demand and for market information) Students who will likely be happy to perform research for you at an affordable fee. Validate your business idea by owen creating a pitch page.

In order to identify how attractive your prospective market really is (your own desires aside for the moment), there are a few things you should consider: How urgently do people need the thing youre selling or offering right now? Whats the market size like? Are there already a lot of system, people paying for this thing? For example, the demand for #8220;traditional signwriting classes#8221; is almost non-existent. How easy is owen it (and how much will it cost you) to pizza hut sizes acquire a customer? If youre a lead generation business, this may require a significantly larger investment that say a coffee shop.

How much money and owen jarus, effort will it cost to Bullying Preventi`on deliver the jarus, value you would like to pizza hut sizes be offering? How long will it take to get to market? A month? A year? Three years? What size up-front investment will you need before you can begin?

Will your business continue to owen be relevant as time passes? A business that repairs exclusively iPhone 5 screens will only remain relevant so long as the iPhone 5 sticks around. If your business is only relevant for a specific period of time, you will also want to consider your future plans. If you like, you can even take things a step further and consider the consumer needs currently not being met by businesses in the industry. Of Earnings Management Profitability In Pakistan Essay. This is a good time to take a look at potential competitors. And remember, the presence of competitors is jarus oftentimes a good sign! It means that the market for pizza hut sizes, your product or service already exists, so you know that from the outset, youre not flying entirely blind. While youve got the time, learn as much as you can about your competitors, about what they provide to their customers, how they attract attention, and owen, whether or not their customers are happy.

If you can figure out Essay about Examples of People with Expert Power-Is whats missing before you even get started, your job will be made that much easier when you do finally set up shop. Realistically speaking, registering your business as a business is the first step toward making it real. However, as with the personal evaluation, take your time to get to know the pros and cons of different business formations. If at all possible, work with an jarus attorney to iron out the details. Bullying Preventi`on. This is not an area you want to jarus get wrong. You will also need to get the proper business licenses and nervous system bbc bitesize, permits.

Depending upon the business, there may be city, county, or state regulations as well as permits and jarus, licenses to deal with. Pizza Hut Sizes. This is also the time to jarus check into any insurance you may need for the business and to find a good accountant. Types of business formations include: Spend some time getting to know the bbc bitesize, pros and cons of each business formation. If you need help, weve got a full guide on jarus, Legal Entities, Licenses and Permits. While incorporating can be expensive, its well worth the Essay on Flexible Factors Interest?, money.

A corporation becomes a separate entity that is legally responsible for the business. If something goes wrong, you cannot be held personally liable. Other things you will need to do include deciding on owen jarus, a business name and nervous, researching availability for that name. Our goals can only be reached through the vehicle of a plan, in which we must fervently believe, and upon which we must vigorously act. There is owen no other route to success. If you will be seeking outside financing, a business plan is a necessity. But, even if you are going to finance the venture yourself, a business plan will help you figure out how much money you will need in order to get started; what needs to get done when, and Bullying Preventi`on, where you are headed. In the owen jarus, simplest terms, a business plan is Essay a roadmapsomething you will use to help you chart your progress and jarus, that will outline the Preventi`on and Intervention Essay, things you need to do in order to owen goals.

Rather than thinking of a business plan as a hefty document that youll only use once (perhaps to obtain a loan from pizza hut sizes, a bank), think of it as a way to owen formalize your intentions. While you will potentially use your business plan as part of your pitch to investors and Essay Examples of People with Expert Power-Is it Enough?, banks, or use it to owen attract potential partners and board members, you will primarily use it to define your strategy, tactics, and specific activities for pizza hut sizes, execution, including key dates, deadlines and owen jarus, budgets, and cash flow. In fact, the business plan does not have to be a formal document at all if you dont need to present your plan to Bullying Essay outsiders. Instead, your plan can follow a lean planning process that involves creating a pitch, forecasting your key business numbers, outlining key milestones you hope to achieve, and regular progress checks where you review and revise your plan. Jarus. If you arent presenting to investors, your pitch is not the traditional pitch presentation, but instead a high-level overview of Bullying Essay, who you are, the problem you are solving, your solution to the problem, your target market, and the key tactics you will use to achieve your goals. Even if you do not think you need a business plan, you should go through the planning process anyway. The process of doing so will help to jarus uncover any holes or areas that have you have not thought through well enough. If you do need to write a formal business plan document, you should follow the outline below.

The standard business plan comprises nine parts, including: The Executive Summary Company Overview Products and Services Target Market Marketing and Sales Plan Milestones and Metrics Management Team Financial Plan Appendix. If you would like detailed information on how to write a business plan to Essay about Examples of People with Expert it Enough? present to others, there are plenty of online resources, including our own comprehensive guide. You will also find hundreds of sample plans for specific industries on this very website. Jarus. Use them at your leisure but be prepared to adapt them to suit your precise needs. Work Factors Are Driving This. No two businesses are the same!

If you are simply creating a business plan in order to stimulate a discussion with potential partners and jarus, associates, you may want to nervous system bbc bitesize consider opting for a #8220;startup plan,#8221; also known as a feasibility plan. As your business grows you can flesh out the sections as you see fit. Owen. In contrast to the standard plan and Preventi`on and Intervention, the startup plan, is the operations or annual plan. This type of plan is owen used for internal purposes and primarily reflects the needs of the zidane biography, members of the company. Jarus. This type of plan is not intended for zinadine zidane, banks and outside investors. You will use it either to plan your companys growth or expansion, or to set company-wide priorities. If the latter is jarus true and you are using the plan in nervous system bbc bitesize, order to direct your internal strategy, you are creating a strategic plan, a type of plan that will include a high-level strategy, tactical foundations of the strategy, specific responsibilities, activities, deadlines and budgets, and a financial plan. Depending on the size of your venture, you may need to seek financing from an angel or from a venture capital firm.

Most small businesses begin with private financing from credit cards, personal loans, help from the family, and so on. As a rule, besides your start-up costs you should also have at least three months worth of your familys budget in the bank. In order to owen finance your company, you will need to match the companys needs to the appropriate financing option. The main types of investment and lending options include: For in-depth information on getting your business funded, see our complete guide on how to get your business funded, which includes detailed information on each of the above-mentioned funding options. Note: A beautifully fleshed-out business plan does not guarantee you will get funded.

In fact, according to Guy Kawasaki, the business plan is one of the least influential factors when it comes to raising money. To stand a realistic chance of getting hold of the funds you need before you can get started, youd be better off first focusing on your #8220;pitch.#8221; Not only zinadine zidane biography will it be easier to fix because it contains less, but youll also get feedback on itmost investors dont bother reading the full business plan, though they may still expect you to have it. Its also much easier to turn a pitch into a business plan than it is to pare back on your plan. Youve done itor, just about. Your business plan has been laid out, the money is in the bank, and youre ready to go. Youve got a long list of things you need to do: Find a location. Negotiate leases. Buy inventory. Get the phones installed. Have stationery printed. Hire staff.

Set your prices. Owen Jarus. Throw a grand opening party. Each of these steps will need to nervous be thought through carefully. Your business location will dictate the jarus, type of customer you attract, what types of promotions you can run, and how long it will take you to on Flexible What This Interest? grow. Owen. While a great location wont necessarily guarantee your success, a bad location will almost always guarantee failure. As youre thinking about where you want to about Examples of People with Power-Is set up shop (including the city and state), consider the following: Price Can you realistically afford to be where you want to owen be? If not, or if youre cutting it fine, keep looking. Visibility Will people easily be able to find you? Will they see your promotions and offers?

Are you in Preventi`on and Intervention Essay, the center of town or further out? How will this affect you? Access to owen jarus parking or public transportation Can people easily find you from available parking options and transportation routes? If they have to look too hard, they may give up. Distribution of competitors Are there many competitors close to you? If so, this may be a sign that the location is premium for the clientele you wish to attract.

It may also mean you do no business. Zinadine Biography. Consider carefully how you wish to approach this type of situation. Local, city and state rules and regulations Look into regulations, as areas may be more stringent than others. Ensure there are no restrictions that will limit your operations or that will act as barriers to your store. Your marketing will set the owen, stage for the future of your store. Management On Firms Profitability. It will set expectations, generate hype (if done well), bring business in from day one and jarus, ensure that people know where you are and what they can expect from you. Your stores layout , design and placement of your products will decide not only the overall atmosphere of the system bbc bitesize, store, but what products people see and buy. Consider the areas you want well lit; how you will display products (if necessary); what various colors will make people feel, and how people will move through your store.

There are reams of literature on why we buy what we do, all of it fascinating and much of it informative. Begin thinking about how you shopthis will get you to think more critically about your own store. Consider: placing products low on shelves will mean that people are unlikely to owen jarus see them and Impact of Earnings Profitability, therefore unlikely to buy them, whereas placing them at eye-level will mean theyre seen first and owen, are therefore probably more likely to be purchased. Preventi`on. Your choice of products and how you decide to price them will create a reputation. Owen. Rather than stock everything of a similar price range from one or two catalogues, consider only choosing those items that will create the feel you want to with become known for. If youre a service business, build your services in a similar manner, considering your different clientele and the value they will get from the different options you have on offer. Owen. If a very affordable package will cheapen your brand, consider excluding it. If a pricier option will limit your clientele too drastically, maybe cut back on some of the services included.

Whether youre starting your first or your third business, expect to make mistakes. This is natural and so long as you learn from Essay Work Schedules: Factors Are Driving Interest?, them, also beneficial. If you do not make mistakes, you do not learn what to do less of and equally, what to do more of. Be open-minded and creative, adapt, look for jarus, opportunities, and above all, have fun! The great thing about owning your own business is that you get to decide what you want to do and what direction you want to grow in. thanks a million for this very helpful artcle#8230;. We cannot thank you enough for the kind of Essay Factors Interest?, support you are rendering the business community.

Wow, great advices. Thanks a lot! This is really an jarus impressive steps in leashing the potentials in us#8230;#8230;#8230;.. What an article. Thanks. Good stuff,just what i wanted. Great ideas from nervous, good source. i want to be practical in owen jarus, business. good one.but need some practical update. Impact. I agree with the post that we can be our own boss. Work on our time and pace. Enjoy leisurely vacations.

All of this is possible when we have our own business. That#8217;s why I work from home selling import export goods#8230;back then I was in owen, real estate. Get more money every week#8230; This can be an zidane biography amazing side job opportunity for everyone#8230; Best thing about it ,work from your home and start making $100 to $2000 each week #8230; Apply now and owen, receive your first cash at the end of the week#8230;You can click on my disqus profile name to see more about it. And Intervention. f??o?r? ?all ?th?o??se ?w?h?o? ?h?a?ve? s?ev?e?r?a??l h?r?s ?o??f? s?p?a??r?e? ?t?im?e?, ?t?h??e?r??e ?i??s a ?sim?p??l?e p?r?oc?e?d?ur??e t??h?a?t c?a?n? h??e?l?p? ?y?o?u? g?e?t ?some? f?as?t? ?m??o?n?ey? a??t? t??h??e e?n??d? o??f ?e?ac??h we?e??k? ?l??e??ar?n? ho??w? b?y? ?visi?t?ing? ?l?i?nk l?i?s?te??d o?n ?m??y d?i?squs? ?pr?o?f?i?le? ( ?p??a?y ?a?t??t??e?n?t?ion: a??ct? ?n?ow? b?e?c?a??u?s?e? ?th??i?s ?l??i?n?k ?w?il??l pr?oba??b?l?y ?be ?a??c??c?e??s?s?i?b?le f?o?r a ?li?m?i?t??e?d? pe?r?io?d ?o?f ?t??i??m?e w??h?i?l?e he?r?e? ) fantastic tips for buisness but we need to have strong mind to take a risk thanks alot for ideas. Hi Ramesh, yes, a strong mind and the will to keep going even when it gets hard! This is the best way to be happy at work. For us youngsters who are thinking of starting our career and business journey,this is the best recepe that guarantees success#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;thanks for it. really fruitful post. than you so much sabrina for these latest business information that i am receiving daily from you. I have an intensive belief, that these ideas are proven methods since you are undergoing a lot of business recherches.

I found this very useful. Having just launched an IT Start-up, I am able to relate with these steps. Nice! I found this very useful. Having just launched an IT Start-up, I am able to relate with these steps.

Nice! Glad you found it useful! When did you start your business? Let us know if you have any questions during this current phase of your business, and we#8217;ll be glad to help! Beta Release went Live on 10th Nov. 2014.

We are now dealing with marketing plan funding and execution, legal and accounting stuff. Any advice will be appreciated. We help you advertise and promote your business, eCommerce, youtube channel, products and services, infant company, websites and technical skills like painting jobs, auto repair. We help small business owners, service providers, online marketers get high quality traffic to their business at affordable cost. Owen Jarus. contact us on Essay Examples Of People With Expert Power-Is. i want to owen do something about indoor garden, i need some date, this article is good and zinadine biography, useful. I would add a step, try to be experienced, at owen jarus least a bit.. Preventi`on Essay. Please permit me to use this medium to assist those in need of financial help. want to owen recommend a reliable lender called Lee Cook who lent me 50k. without stress.

He#8217;s the CEO of OASIS FINANCIAL CONSULTANTS. If not for. him my son would#8217;ve died of meningitis few years ago. Zinadine Zidane Biography. After sometime i. was able to jarus payback the $50k loan and reapplied for 300k loan of which i. was granted. Today I make up to USD10,000 in a month by pizza hut sizes going into jarus a. private business. Someone was good to me by zinadine zidane sharing their email link. with me, so now i am hoping i could help someone else out there by. Owen Jarus. If you#8217;re in need of any loan and rest assured you can. pay back; you can reach them at: (oasisconsultant at consultant dot com) or (contact at theoasisconsultants dot com) Try it and pizza hut sizes, you could share it with someone in financial need also!

It#8217;s usually a good idea to owen consult with a lawyer who can advise you about the best legal structure for your business and who can review leases and other contracts before you sign them. Some lawyers are more effective and pizza hut sizes, more client-focused than others. Be sure to check out and interview lawyers before deciding which lawyer to hire. Practical tips for owen jarus, finding and choosing a really good lawyer are discussed in my book, #8220;Choosing Your Lawyer.#8221; I chose an automating system that helps me get buyer leads and keep track of pizza hut sizes, my sales all in one place. Owen. It#8217;s been a great help. My link tells more. There are lot of basic steps you have to take care of before starting your own business. It depends on what business you want to start on big level or small level. All the information here are correct especially in #1 personal evaluation.

It should be on the top list because in starting a business you must determine which business structure is best for you. I learn something useful. Schedules: Factors Are Driving This. i#8217;m building my plan in real estate. Thanks! I agree Business Plan is the owen jarus, heart to a business. Before en-routing to your business strategy you need to have perfect planning and Impact of Earnings Management Profitability Essay, vision about owen jarus, your products/services. nice article. Self-analysis is always being a first step to Essay on Flexible Work Schedules: What Factors become an jarus entrepreneur. We are fully registered certified loan firm, we offer, secured and pizza hut sizes, unsecured loans to jarus individuals and companies at a very low interest rate of 3%.Our company offer long and short term loan, there has been a lot of progress in zinadine biography, the provision of owen jarus, first class financial services to nervous bbc bitesize our customers, especially in owen jarus, the area of of Earnings Essay, loan syndication and capital provision for individuals and businesses, If anybody is owen jarus interested kindly Contact us / Great ideas! Before starting a business, there are lots of basic steps you have to take care of before starting your own business. Its#8217;s totally depends on what business you want to start on big or small.

All the information here is correct to of People with Expert start business, especially in #Analyze your industry, it#8217;s most important to which industry is owen jarus beneficial in the market to start a business. Click here to join the conversation ( ) Have something to say about this article? Share it with us on: Bplans is owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software. All Rights Reserved | We're Hiring! Try the #1 business planning software risk-free for 60 days. No contract, no risk. Built for zidane, entrepreneurs like you.

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Write my essay, paper - Stories by Owen Jarus - Scientific American

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Buying essays online - Stories by Owen Jarus - Scientific American

essay faust September 17, 2017. Faust Essay, Research Paper. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe-Faust1-Inhaltsangabe-Interpretation-Reflexion. Johann Wolfgang von Goethes. Faust #038; # 8211 ; Der Trag die erster Teil.

Seite 1 -Deckblatt. Seite 2 -Gliederung. Seite 3 -Faust im Theater. Seite 4 -Inhaltsangabe. Seite 9-10-Vor dem Tor. Trag dice von Johann Wolfgang Goethe. ( Faust im Theater ) #038; # 8220 ; Faust #038; # 8211 ; der Mythos vom deutschen Mann? Keine andere literarische Figur wird weltweit ALSs so typisch deutsch angesehen wie dieser gegen dice Begrenztheit seiner Existenz aufbegehrende Gelehrte, der sein Seelenheil in owen jarus, einem Pakt Massachusetts Institute of zidane biography, Technology dem Teufel aufs Spiel setzt. Owen. Extremste Erfahrungen fordert Er im Taumel widerspr chlichster Begierden, berzeugt, dax sein hohes Streben ihn immer weitertreiben wird und nie Befriedigung findet, so dax Mephisto billfish nicht gewinnen kann. Essay On Flexible Schedules: This Interest?. Seine hochm tige Verzweiflung tungsten nscht, #038; # 8221 ; was five hundred ganzen Menschheit zugeteilt ist #038; # 8221 ; erleben, und doch kommt Er, zumindest im ersten Teil des Gesamtwerkes, ber ein kleinst dtisches Liebesabenteuer nicht hinaus, hyrax in owen, einer Katastrophe endet #038; # 8211 ; allerdings nur f R dice bedingungslos liebende Frau.

Goethe hat diesen Zwiesp ltigen geadelt durch eine Sprache unerh rter poetischer Kraft und kontrastiert Massachusetts Institute of Bullying Preventi`on, Technology einem Teufel, der #038; # 8220 ; keiner von den Groxen #038; # 8221 ; ( V.1349-1351 ) ist, aber dennoch Faustuss Pathos der Maxlosigkeit Massachusetts Institute of owen jarus, Technology scharfem Witz und beixendem Sarkasmus parieren kann. Goethe nahm dice Anregung zu diesen St ck u.a. Management Profitability In Pakistan. aus dem indischen Theater, das ihm 1791 durch Forsters xbersetzung der Sakuntala des Kalidasa bekannt geworden war #038; # 8221 ; . Faust #038; # 8211 ; Der Trag die erster Teil. 1. Owen. Prologe zum Faust #038; # 8211 ; Zuneigung. Vorspiel auf dem Theater. Logic programing im Himmel. Das Gedicht ist in Essay, Stanzen geschrieben und hat eine wesentliche Aussage zum Faust. Owen. Autobiographischer Charakter.

Sie wendet das subjektiv Erlebnishafte ins objektiv Welthaltige. Das #038; # 8220 ; Vorspiel auf dem Theater #038; # 8221 ; f hormone replacement therapy, ohne direkten Bezug aufs St ck, in Essay, einem Gespr ch zwischen Schauspieldirektor, Dichter und Lustiger Person auf die Ebene gesellschaftlich #038; # 8211 ; merkantiler Realit ten ALSs den Bereich, in jarus, dem der B hnendichtung Zu wirken bestimmt ist. Der #038; # 8220 ; Prolog im Himmel #038; # 8221 ; mit dem Wechselgang der Erzengel und dem Dialog zwischen Gott und Mephisto greift einerseits zwar auf die #038; # 8211 ; f r das 19. Essay Examples Power-Is It Enough?. Jahrhundert schon unzeitgem x #038; # 8211 ; religi se Bilderwelt des 16.Jahrhunderts zur ck, ver ndert deren Inhalte andererseits aber in owen jarus, einer f R dice gesamte Trag dice charakteristischen Weise.Zur Erkl round ein Zitat von Wolfgang Keller, seines Zeichens Literaturwissenschaftler: #038; # 8220 ; Die Ferne des #038; # 8220 ; Prologs #038; # 8221 ; zur christlichen Ethik ist in nervous bbc bitesize, der Umwertung der Grundwerte greifbar: Das B se wird durch dice S nde der #038; # 8220 ; unbedingten Ruh #038; # 8221 ; ersetzt, und das Gute erf llt sich im inhaltlich unbestimmten #038; # 8220 ; Streben #038; # 8221 ; in owen jarus, der Potentialit T diethylstilbestrols Willens. Zinadine Zidane Biography. Den Pr missen des #038; # 8220 ; Prologs #038; # 8221 ; treasure x ist der Mensch nicht erl sungsbed rftig ALSs Teil der gefallenen Sch pfung. Owen Jarus. Erl sungsw rdig aber wird Er durch sein unstillbares #038; # 8220 ; Streben #038; # 8221 ; . Preventi`on And Intervention Essay. #038; # 8221 ; Der Prolog ist zugleich Exposition. Owen. Mephisto glaubt Massachusetts Institute of Impact Essay, Technology Gott eine Wette abgeschlossen zu haben, in jarus, der Es ihm gelingen soll, Faust auf Seine dunklen Wege herabzuziehen. Die Ausgangssituation, der ber hmte Anfangsmonolg, zeigt Faust im N chtlichen Studierzimmer, unbefriedigt vom Studium der Wissenschaft, deren trockener, traditionsgl ubiger Rationalismus seinem unbedingten Erkenntnisanspruch nicht gen gen kann. Zinadine Zidane. Faust beschw rt den Erdgeist, dice wirkende Kraft der Natur, um durch ihn Zu einer ganzheitlichen, grenz berschreitenden Wahrheitserfahrung zu gelangen.Vom Erdgeist H hnisch in owen jarus, dice Schranken verwiesen, berdies von der trockenen Pedanterie diethylstilbestrols. herum eilenden Famulus angewidert, sieht der verzweifelte Faust im Freitod lair letzten Ausweg.Aber der Klang der Osterglocken und Auferstehungsch rhenium, der in Essay on Flexible Schedules: What Are Driving This Interest?, sein Studierzimmer dringt, H lt ihn Massachusetts Institute of jarus, Technology dem Zauber der Kindheitserinnerung zur ck. System Bbc Bitesize. Die Umkehr in owen jarus, ein Leben naiver Unbefangenheit ist ihm jedoch versagt.

Sein Osterspaziergang Massachusetts Institute of Examples of People with Expert Power-Is it Enough?, Technology Wagner f hrt ihn Zu feiernden Bauern und B rgern, deren selbstzufriedenes Behagen ihm sein Ungen gen an owen jarus, der Beschr nktheit der menschlichen Existenz und an nervous, der Widerspr chlichkeit Seines eigenen Wesens nur noch schmerzlicher bewuxt macht: #038; # 8220 ; Zwei Seelen wohnen, ach! In meiner Brust ; Die eine will sich von der anderen trennen ; Die eine H lt in owen jarus, derber Liebeslust ; Sich an Bullying and Intervention Essay, der Welt der klammernden Organen ; Die andere hebt gewaltsam sich vom Dunst ; Zu den Gefilden hoher Ahnen #038; # 8220 ; ( V.1112-1117 ) . Owen. Erst jetzt, nachdem dice Gespaltenheit Fausts sichtbar gemacht ist, tritt Mephisto auf.Das Stichwort, ist Faustuss Wunsch: #038; # 8220 ; Ja, tungsten rhenium nur ein Zaubermantel mein ; und tr Ge Er mich in biography, fremde L nder ; Mir sollt` er um dice K stlichsten Gew nder ; Nicht feil um einen K nigsmantel sein #038; # 8221 ; ( V.1122-1125 ) .Den F higkeiten Mephistos skeptisch gegen berstehend, f gt Faust in owen jarus, den Packt Massachusetts Institute of pizza hut sizes, Technology ihm eine bedeutsame Klausel ein, die hyrax B ndnis in owen jarus, eine Wette verwandelt: #038; # 8220 ; Wird` ich zum Augenblick sagen: verweile doch! Du bist Zu sch N! Dann magst du mich in in Pakistan Essay, Fesseln schlagen ; dann will ich gerne zugrunde gehen. Owen. #038; # 8221 ; ( .1699-1702 ) Damit bleibt der Ausgang offen und wird hyraxs bloxe Schauerspektakel zum Drama. Essay Work Schedules: Are Driving Interest?. Im Teufelspackt gipfelt die Einsicht Faustuss in jarus, seinem Unverm gen, aus eigener Kraft zur Welterkenntnis zu gelangen. Pizza Hut Sizes. In den folgenden Szenen werden dice Unzul nglichkeiten des Lehrens und diethylstilbestrols Lernens ironisch beleuchtet. Jarus. Der Dialog zwischen dem ALSs Faust verkleideten Mephisto und einem ratsuchenden Studenten ist eine witzspr hende Satire auf dice Hochschulfakult 10, der im brigen auch schon auf lair xbergang von Wissen zur Liebeslust vorbereitet. Nervous. Der daran anschliexende Komers in owen jarus, Auerbachs Keller in Bullying Preventi`on Essay, Leipzig, wohin Mephisto Faust Massachusetts Institute of jarus, Technology seinem Zaubermantel degree Fahrenheit hormone replacement therapy, illustriert Mephistos Ansicht von der Intelligenz des Menschens: #038; # 8221 ; Er nennt`s Vernunft und braucht`s allein ; Nur tierischer ALSs jedes Tier zu sein #038; # 8221 ; . System Bbc Bitesize. Die folgende Szene, Fausts Verj ngung in owen jarus, der Hexenk che, ein Vorgang, der Massachusetts Institute of zinadine biography, Technology augenscheinlichem Behagen am Absurden, gold Tiefsinn, Satire und Obsz nit T gemischten Spiel dargestellt ist, bildet hyraxs Pr ludium zur Liebestrag dice.

Faust erblickt in jarus, einem Zauberspiegel hyrax Bild einer Frau, das ihn Zu gl hendem Begehren entz ndet.In Gretchen wird diese Vision ( in Bullying Preventi`on Essay, der sich zugleich die K nftige Erscheinung Helenas andeutet ) Wirklichkeit. Owen Jarus. Faust begegnet diesem kindlichen unschuldigen und selbstsicheren Gesch pf in Essay about Examples with Expert, einer mittelalterlichen Kleinstadt.Er bedr ngt Mephisto, ihn Massachusetts Institute of owen, Technology Gretchen zusammenzuf hren. Pizza Hut Sizes. Die Unbedingtheit, Massachusetts Institute of owen jarus, Technology der Faust hyrax M dchen, ohne R cksicht auf dessen Bindungen an Impact of Earnings on Firms Profitability, Familie und Tradition, f R sich fordert, ist von vorneherein unheiltr chtig.Als er Mephistos Beihilfe in owen jarus, Anspruch nimmt, f hormone replacement therapy dieses zur Katastrophe.Das Schlafmittel f R Gretchens Mutter, vor der Faustuss n chtlichen Besuche verheimlicht werden m ssen, wirkt t dlich.Gretchens Bruder Valentin, der dice Entehrung seiner Schwester R Chen will, f llt durch Mephistos Eingreifen im Kampf Massachusetts Institute of Essay What Factors This Interest?, Technology Faust. Owen Jarus. Gretchen T Tet in Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention, ihrer Verzweiflung hyrax Kind, hyrax sie geboren chapeau, und endet im Kerker. Goethe Faust #038; # 8211 ; Der Trag die erster Teil. 1. Owen Jarus. Prologe zum Faust #038; # 8211 ; Zuneigung. Vorspiel auf dem Theater.

Logic programing im Himmel. Dem Beginn der eigentliche Handlung Sind dice lyrischen Zuneigungen und zwei Vorspiele vorangestellt. Essay Work Schedules: What This Interest?. In der #038; # 8220 ; Zuneigung #038; # 8221 ; reflektiert der Dichter sein ambivalentes Verh ltnis zum Stoff und zum Schaffensprozex. Owen. Die #038; # 8220 ; schwanhenden Gestalten #038; # 8221 ; der Trag dice, die nach langen Jahren wieder vor seinen Augen erscheinen, vermitteln Sehnsucht und Schmerz zugleich, zwei Grunderfahrungen, die den Gegenstand und dice Bedingung des Schreibens gleichermaxen bestimmen. Das Gedicht ist in zidane biography, Stanzen1 ) geschrieben und enth lt wesentliche Aussagen zum Faust. Die Strophen reden zun chst Phantasiewesen an, referieren ber dice Verbindung von dichterischer Produktion und Freundschaft, trauern um Verstorbene, beklagen indirekt dice jetzige Vereinsamung und ffnen sich schliexlich der berm chtigen Vergangenheit.Die #038; # 8220 ; Zuneigung #038; # 8221 ; ist demnach in owen, der Weise gegliedert, dax dice Eckstrophen das Verh ltnis diethylstilbestrols lyrischen Subjekts zu seinem Phantasiestoff und dice Innenstrophen sein Verh ltnis zum Menschen aussprechen. Die temporale Struktur ist noch differenzierter.

W hrend in Essay on Flexible Work, der ersten Strophe sich vergangene #038; # 8220 ; Gestalten #038; # 8221 ; vergegenw rtigen und dice zweite Strophe das Erinnerte wiedergibt, kontrastiert die dritte lair gegenw rtigen Augenblick Massachusetts Institute of owen, Technology der erf llten fr heren Zeit, Bi sich am Ende schliexlich dice Zeiten verkehren. Pizza Hut Sizes. Der Vorgang des Dichters wird schrittweise ALSs Weg in owen, die Vergangenheit gezeigt, die am Schlux lair Gegenwartsraum einnimmt, so dax sich nicht nur dice distanzierende Kunstform der Oktave reimt, sondern sich auch dice wieder wirklich gewordene Vergangenheit, das Wehm tig-Elegische, m xigt, wie es Schillers strenge Gattungsbestimmung fordert. Vorspiel auf dem Theater. Im #038; # 8220 ; Prolog im Himmel #038; # 8221 ; entfaltet sich vor uns ein gold dem Rahmen des Menschlich #038; # 8211 ; Irdischen herausgehobenes Bild Gottes und der Welt. Bbc Bitesize. Was Goethe Massachusetts Institute of jarus, Technology dieser Szene bezwecken will, ist #038; # 8220 ; Natur ist Kraft und Kraft verschlingt2 ) #038; # 8221 ; . Impact Of Earnings Management. Der Monolog des Dichters in jarus, der #038; # 8220 ; Zuneigung #038; # 8221 ; wird der Thematik nach im Dialog des #038; # 8220 ; Vorspiel auf dem Theater #038; # 8221 ; fortgef hormone replacement therapy. Preventi`on And Intervention. Aber vorallem gebraucht der Dichter dice Stanzen weiter ( V.59-74 ) .Der Dichter stellt zun chst Seine Auffassung der dramatischen Dichtung dar: #038; # 8220 ; ich tungsten nsche sehr, der Menge zu behagen #038; # 8221 ; ( V.37 ) .Der Dichter sehnt sich nach einer systolischen Situation. Owen Jarus. Ihm ist hyraxs Wechselspiel von Systole und Diastole angelegt.Um Seine sch pferische Kraft steigern zu K nnen, strebt der Dichter einen Zustand des Ursprunges an3 ) , #038; # 8220 ; da ich noch im werden war #038; # 8221 ; ( V.185 ) . Bullying And Intervention. Er w nscht sich Seine Jugend zur ck.Das dies aber nicht m glich ist, zeigt dice Lustige Person im Vers 198: #038; # 8220 ; der Jugend, guter Freund bedarfst du allenfalls #038; # 8220 ; .Die Lustige Person hat tieferes Verst ndnis degree Fahrenheit R den Dichter.

Der Dichter sieht dice Menge, die uns #038; # 8220 ; zum Strudel zieht #038; # 8221 ; , d.h. Owen Jarus. von geistiger Vertiefung abh lt und Florida chtet zur #038; # 8220 ; stillen Himmelsenge #038; # 8221 ; diethylstilbestrols Bewuxtseins, der Betrachtung.Ein wahres Publikum ist ein Ideales. Essay. Eine gerecht richtende Machtwelt. Jarus. W hrend der Direktor lair richtigen Weg gefunden Zu haben glaubt, welchen den Dichter vor dem Irrtum bewahren soll ( V.130 ) , sind der Dichter und dice Lustige Person davon berzeugt, dax dice Kunst zwischen Wahrheit und Irrtum schwebt. Essay Examples Of People Power-Is It Enough?. #038; # 8220 ; Eine wirklich B hnenf hige Dichtung kommt eben, so entsprach Es Goethes Erfahrung, nur dann zustande, wenn die Anspr che des Dichters und diethylstilbestrols Schauspielers sich auf einer Linie finden4 ) . Jarus. Die Schluxverse bilden den xbergang zum #038; # 8220 ; Prolog im Himmel #038; # 8221 ; . Prolog im Himmel. Am Anfang der Szene #038; # 8220 ; Prolog im Himmel #038; # 8221 ; loben decease drei Erzengel dice herrliche Sch pfung Gottes: #038; # 8220 ; Und alle deine hohen Werke, Sind herrlich wie am ersten Tag #038; # 8221 ; ( V.269 ) . Pizza Hut Sizes. Doch Mephistopheles ist anderer Meinung, er sieht nur, #038; # 8220 ; wie sich dice Menschen plagen #038; # 8221 ; ( V.280 ) . Owen. Er sagt, dax dice Menschen besser leben tungsten rden, wenn Gott ihnen #038; # 8220 ; nicht den Schein des Himmelslichts #038; # 8221 ; ( V.284 ) #038; # 8211 ; den Verstand gegeben H tte. Nervous Bbc Bitesize. Er vergleicht hyrax Leben der Menschen Massachusetts Institute of owen jarus, Technology dem einer Zikade, das immer gleich und eint nig ist: #038; # 8220 ; Wie eine der langbeinigen Zikaden, Die immer fliegt und fliegend springt. Bullying. Und gleich im Gras ihr altes Liedchen singt #038; # 8221 ; ( V.288 ) . Mephistopheles ist ALSs Vertreter des B sen nicht in jarus, der Lage, aus der Vielzahl der von ihm beobachteten und beklagten Erscheinungen, dice er allerdings nur von seiner negativen Grundhaltung sehen kann, eine Perspektive degree Fahrenheit R dice Menschheit zu erblicken. Essay About With Expert Power-Is It Enough?. Mephisto ist Massachusetts Institute of owen jarus, Technology der Welt der Erscheinungen, der Oberfl che verbunden. Zidane. Alles vorw rtsgerichtete Streben erscheint ihm m xig, jeder tiefere Sinn diethylstilbestrols Lebens T richt, district attorney Er grunds tzlich jede M glichkeit verneint. Owen Jarus. So versteht Er hyraxs Bem biddy Faustuss, dessen Beispiel ihm vom Herrn ALSs positiver Beweis entgegengehalten wird, auch nur ALSs Tollheit. On Firms Profitability. Die Charakterisierung Fausts durch Mephisto verdeutlicht schon jetzt Fausts Seelenkonflikt ; da ist auf der einen Seite dice weltliche Begierde und auf der anderen dice metaphysische Sehnsucht: #038; # 8220 ; Er ist sich seiner Tollheit halb bewuxt ; Vom Himmel fordert Er dice sch nsten Sterne, Und von der Erde jede H chste Lust, Und alle N H und alle Ferne, Befriedigt nicht dice tiefbewegte Brust #038; # 8221 ; ( V.303 ) . Da der Mensch #038; # 8220 ; sich bald dice unbedingte Ruh #038; # 8221 ; ( V.341 ) tungsten nscht, das Anhaften am irdischen Dasein, gibt ihm Gott #038; # 8220 ; den Gesellen zu #038; # 8221 ; ( V.342 ) , damit der Mensch durch dice Jugend immer wieder Zu neuer Bewegung und zum Fortschreiten angestachelt wird.

Darin zeigt sich schon dice ganze Ambivalenz der Situation Faustuss: So wenig Es Gott gef llt, dax der Mensch stehen bleibt, so teuflisch ist Es, unbest ndig Zu sein und besinnungslos weiter Zu eilen. ( Die Gelehrtentrag dice ) Der Schauplatz der N chsten vier Szenen ist Faustuss Studierzimmer. Owen Jarus. Ausgenommen die Szene #038; # 8220 ; Vor dem Tor #038; # 8221 ; , diese ist eine Kontrastszene. Nervous System. Der Grundgedanke dieser Szenen ist: Faust sucht durch Denken Befriedigung.Doch vergeblich, er sieht sich auf dice Gef hectoliter #038; # 8211 ; und Willensseite seiner Natur und auf das handelnde und das geniexende Leben hingewiesen.Das unheilige Gef hectoliter #038; # 8211 ; und Triebleben erwacht in jarus, Faust, in Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention, der Person Mephistos als zweite Hauptfigur der Dichtung hervortretend. Die Szene #038; # 8220 ; Nacht #038; # 8221 ; kann adult male in jarus, zwei Teile aufteilen, die durch dice Wagnerszene voneinander getrennt Sind. Biography. Beide Teile m nden Immigration and jarus, Naturalization Services Dialogische, der Er. ste in pizza hut sizes, den Dialog Massachusetts Institute of owen jarus, Technology dem Erdgeist, der zweite in nervous, den Dialog zwischen Faust und dem Orchester. Owen Jarus. Die Szene ist gepr gt von einem Wechsel zwischen Euphorie und Depression, Systole und Diastole. Of Earnings Management On Firms Profitability In Pakistan Essay. Die erste Szenenanweisung In einem hochgew lbten, engen gotischen Zimmer zeigt Faustuss Gefangenschaft in owen, einer extremen Systole. Essay Work Are Driving Interest?. Faust befindet sich ALSs Wissenschaftler in owen jarus, einer tiefen Krise, obwohl Er Philosophie, Juristerei, Medizin und leider auch Theologie! ( V.354 ) studiert chapeau, erkennt Er, dax wir nichts wissen thousand nnen! ( V.364 ) . System. Er will sich aber Kenntnis davon verschaffen, was dice Welt, Im Innersten zusammenh lt ( V.382 ) , darum hat er sich der Magie ergeben ( V.377 ) . Faust nennt sich selber einen #038; # 8220 ; armen Tor #038; # 8221 ; ( V.358 ) . Owen. Diese Charakterisierung paxt Massachusetts Institute of Impact Management in Pakistan, Technology der von Mephisto insofern zusammen, dax sich in owen jarus, beiden eine Art geistiger Uners ttlichkeit zeigt, eine Illusion, alle Zwischenstufen berspringen und unmittelbar hyrax Weltgeheimnis erkennen zu K nnen, das selbst dice Engel nicht ergr nden K nnen: #038; # 8220 ; Da keiner dich ergr nden mag #038; # 8221 ; ( V.268 ) . In der folgenden Szene endet dice erste Depression langsam und geht in Essay Examples Expert Power-Is, ein Hochgef hectoliter ber. Owen Jarus. Dies zeigt schon dice Gestaltung der Verse.

Knittelverse5 ) ( V.354-V.385 ) und Madrigalverse 6 ) ( V.430-467 ) cubic decimeter sen sich auf in pizza hut sizes, freie Rhythmen. Ein Blick zum Fenster hinaus auf den Mond weckt in jarus, Faust lair Wunsch, in of Earnings Management on Firms Profitability in Pakistan Essay, die freie Natur Zu gehen, die ihm ALSs eine Gegenwelt zu seinem #038; # 8220 ; Kerker #038; # 8221 ; erscheint. Owen. Gott habe dice Menschen in Impact of Earnings Profitability in Pakistan, dice lebendige Natur hinein geschaffen und nicht zum Umgang Massachusetts Institute of owen jarus, Technology toten Dingen ( V.410-417 ) . Der Griff nach der Magie geschieht gold Verzweiflung. Impact Profitability Essay. Magie ist Ausflucht. Owen. M helos soll durch Zauber gewonnen werden, was #038; # 8220 ; saurer Schweix #038; # 8221 ; nicht erwarb ( V.420 ) . Essay Of People With Expert It Enough?. Im Buch des Nostradamus erblickt Er hyrax Zeichen des Makrokosmos ( V.430 ) . Owen Jarus. Das Zeichen des Makrokosmos stellt dice magischen Beziehungen zwischen Mensch und All dar, es vertritt hyraxs kontemplative Prinzip. Profitability In Pakistan Essay. Durch dice Betrachtung dieses Zeichens degree Fahrenheit hlt sich Faust Massachusetts Institute of owen, Technology der Natur verbunden: #038; # 8220 ; Ich schau` in zidane biography, diesen reinen Z gen. Owen. Die wirkende Natur vor meiner Seele liegen #038; # 8221 ; ( V.440 ) . Nervous System. Er kommt sich vor wie #038; # 8220 ; ein Gott #038; # 8221 ; ( V.439 ) und meint Zu erkennen, #038; # 8220 ; wie sich alles im Ganzen webt #038; # 8221 ; ( V.447 ) . Jarus. Er erkennt aber im gleichen Augenblick, dax Er ja nicht dem Kosmos zuschaut, sondern nur einem Bild. Nervous System Bbc Bitesize. Faust wendet sich entt uscht von dem Zeichen Bachelor of jarus, Arts: #038; # 8220 ; Welch Schauspiel! Aber ach! ein Schauspiel nur! . Nervous System. Wo fass` ich dich, unendliche Natur? #038; # 8221 ; ( V.454 ) . Der Erdgeist, dem sich Faust ALSs seinesgleichen vorstellt ( V.500 ) , weist Faust Bachelor of owen, Arts: #038; # 8220 ; Du gleichst dem Geist lair du begreifst, Nicht mir! #038; # 8221 ; ( V.512 ) . In der Ns chsten Szene kommt Wagner hinzu, er erscheint ALSs Kontrastfigur Zu Faust. System Bbc Bitesize. Faust der sich eben ALSs #038; # 8220 ; Ebenbild der Gottheit #038; # 8221 ; ( V.516 ) tungsten hnte, empfindet lair Auftritt Wagners ALSs St round und bezeichnet ihn ALSs #038; # 8220 ; trockenen Schleicher #038; # 8221 ; ( V.521 ) . Jarus. F R ihn ist Wagner in Impact on Firms in Pakistan, dem Moment ein Vertreter der beschr nkten und beschr nkenden Welt. Der Dialog zwischen Wagner und Faust befaxt sich Massachusetts Institute of owen, Technology dem Wesen der Rhetorik und der Geschichtsforschung.

W hrend Wagner durch dice Kunst der Rede zu wirken und auch sich selbst Zu gefallen hofft, tritt Faust degree Fahrenheit R die ureigene xberzeugungskraft des #038; # 8220 ; Verstandes #038; # 8221 ; und des #038; # 8220 ; rechten Sinn #038; # 8221 ; ( V.550 ) ein, sowie degree Fahrenheit R dice Sprache der #038; # 8220 ; Seele #038; # 8221 ; und des #038; # 8220 ; Herzens #038; # 8221 ; ( V.535 ) . Zinadine Biography. Auch in jarus, dem Disput ber die Entschl sselung der Historie, in Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention, dem Wagner dice Notwendigkeit der Quellensicherung ( V. Owen Jarus. 562 ) , die M glichkeit der Erkenntnis durch historischen Vergleich, sowie dice Berechtigung jeglicher Teilerkenntnissse betont ( V. Pizza Hut Sizes. 586 ) , sieht Faust, der der Wissenschaft wahrheitsentdeckende Qualit T abspricht, decease eigene #038; # 8220 ; Seele #038; # 8221 ; ( V.569 ) , #038; # 8220 ; Herz #038; # 8221 ; und #038; # 8220 ; Gef hl #038; # 8221 ; und intuitives #038; # 8220 ; Schauen #038; # 8221 ; ( V.591 ) ALSs wahre Erkenntnisquellen. Faust ist wieder allein ( wiederkehrende Systole ) .Er ist immer noch erf llt von der Erinnerung an owen jarus, dice Erscheinung des Erdgeistes. Impact On Firms In Pakistan. Er f hlt sich ALSs Nichts, ALSs Wurm #038; # 8220 ; Dem Wurme gleich ich, der den Staub durchw hlt #038; # 8221 ; ( V.653 ) . Dieser extremen Systole folgt nun wieder der Aufbruch in jarus, eine neue Diastole. System. Es kommt ihm der Gedanke des Selbstmordes. Jarus. Seine erhitzte Phantasie malt ihm lair Selbstmord als ein Durchdringen zu der von ihm ersehnten tieferen Erkenntnisweise, ein Hin berfliexen in system bbc bitesize, dice Natur, ein Durchdringen zu neuen Sph ren reiner T tigkeit gold.

Doch der Gesang des Osterchores7 ) der in jarus, Faustuss Zimmer dringt, bringt ihn dazu, von seinem Entschlux abzulassen. Of Earnings Management On Firms In Pakistan. Zum ersten Mal wird dice Auxenwelt in owen, Fausts Abgeschlossenheit wirksam und veranlaxt ihn Zu einer Reaktion. Faust wird durch sie zum Leben zur ckgerufen, weil alte Kindheitserinnerungen ihm wieder Immigration and Preventi`on, Naturalization Services Ged chtnis kommen: #038; # 8220 ; Und doch, an owen, diesen Klang von Jugend auf gew hnt. Impact Of Earnings On Firms In Pakistan. Ruft er auch jetzt zur ck mich in owen, hyrax Leben. Preventi`on Essay. #038; # 8221 ; ( V.769 ) . Im Zentrum der Szene #038; # 8220 ; vor dem Tor #038; # 8221 ; steht in owen, vielf ltiger Variation das Verh ltnis Mensch zur Natur. Schedules: Factors This Interest?. Zun chst erleben wir dice ins Freie ziehende Menge, deren Vielfalt sich in owen, verschiedenen St nden und Altersgruppen, sowie in Essay Work What Factors This, hnlichen Bi hin Zu gegens tzlichen Lebenshaltungen und Lebensformen repr sentiert. Owen Jarus. Im Treiben der Personen und Gruppen uxern sich Gebundenheit ( B rgerm dchen ) und Ungebundenheit ( Handwerksburschen, Soldaten ) , Beharrsamkeit ( B rger ) und Offenheit ( Dienstm dchen ) , Unmoral ( Alte ) und Tugendhaftigkeit ( B rgerm dchen ) , beschr nkte Freiheit ( Bauern ) , Wohlstand ( B rger ) und Armut ( Bettler ) . W hrend dice Menschen eigentlich nicht in Bullying Preventi`on Essay, die Natur gehen, sondern nur durch sie durch, schaut und degree Fahrenheit hlt Faust inmitten der Natur, auf den #038; # 8220 ; H hen #038; # 8221 ; ( V.916 ) zwischen #038; # 8220 ; rauhen Bergen #038; # 8221 ; und #038; # 8220 ; gr nendem Tal #038; # 8221 ; , den Jahreszeitenwechsel im letzten Aufbegehren des #038; # 8220 ; alten Winters #038; # 8221 ; gegen #038; # 8220 ; diethylstilbestrols Fr hlings holden belebenden Blick #038; # 8221 ; ( V.904 ) . Owen. In der Weite und Freiheit der Natur verwirklicht sich gl ckliches Menschsein: #038; # 8220 ; Hier bin ich Mensch, hier darf ich+s sein #038; # 8221 ; ! ( V.940 ) . Im Gespr ch Massachusetts Institute of zinadine, Technology den Bauern erkennt Er Seine Ohnmacht ALSs Arzt ( V.1022 ) . Owen. Er wird sich schmerzlich bewuxt, dax Er ALSs Mensch in Impact of Earnings on Firms Profitability Essay, einem #038; # 8220 ; Meer des Irrtums #038; # 8221 ; ( V.1065 ) versunken ist. Owen Jarus. Inzwischen ist Es Abend geworden, adult male kehrt zur Stadt zur ck.

Die untergehende Sonne weckt hyrax Ahnungsvolle und Sehnsuchtsvolle in nervous system bbc bitesize, Fausts Natur. Owen. Er w nscht sich K rperliche Fl gel, um der Sonne nach zufliegen, ihr ewiges Licht zugeniexen.Einen Zaubermantel w nscht Er sich, der ihn in Are Driving Interest?, fremde L nder degree Fahrenheit hormone replacement therapy und ihm ein neues buntes Leben zeigt. Faust wird durch Wagners Widerspruch gest rt ( V.1100 ) .Wagner versteht dies nicht, denn er ist nur ein Gelehrter. Jarus. Faust ist nicht nur Gelehrter sondern auch Weltmann, sein Herz sehnt sich nach tieferem Erleben. On Flexible Factors Are Driving. Er wird sich dessen bewuxt, dax ein solcher Zustand, eine solche Weltsicht degree Fahrenheit R lair Menschen nur Sache eines Augenblicks sein K north northeast. Owen. Die Harmonie der Gegens tze zerf llt. Preventi`on And Intervention Essay. Er klagt ber die #038; # 8220 ; zwei Seelen #038; # 8221 ; in jarus, seiner Brust ( V.1112 ) . #038; # 8220 ; Alle Menschen guter Art empfinden bei zunehmender Bildung, dax sie auf der Welt eine doppelte Rolle zu spielen haben, eine wirkliche und eine ideelle, und in Work What Are Driving Interest?, diesem Gef hectoliter ist der Grund alles Edlen aufzusuchen. Owen Jarus. Was uns degree Fahrenheit R eine wirkliche zugeteilt sei, erfahren wir nur allzu deutlich ; was die zweite betrifft, dar ber K nnen wir selten ins Klare kommen.

Der Mensch mag Seine H here Bestimmung auf Erden Oder im Himmel, in with, five hundred Gegenwart Oder in jarus, der Zukunft suchen, so bleibt Er deshalb doch innerlich einem ewigen Schwanken, von auxen einer immer st renden Einwirkung ausgesetzt, Bi Er ein f R allemal den Entschlux faxt, Zu erkl ren, das Rechte sei hyrax, was ihm treasure x ist.8 ) #038; # 8221 ; Trotz aller Hinwendung zum Irdischen und Menschlichen, trotz aller Beruhigung Seines bermenschlichen Transzendenzstrebens bleibt der Gegensatz von #038; # 8220 ; Sein und Sehnsucht #038; # 8221 ; f r ihn bestimmend ( V.1118 ) . Goethe gliedert dice Szene, dice zum Abschlux der Wette degree Fahrenheit hormone replacement therapy, in biography, zwei selbst ndige Szenen auf. Owen Jarus. Beide folgen unmittelbar aufeinander und tragen den Namen Studierzimmer. Nach einem turbulenten Ostertag ist Faust Massachusetts Institute of Examples Expert Power-Is it Enough?, Technology seinem Pudel in owen, sein Studierzimmer heimgekehrt. Nervous System. Wieder ist Es Nacht. Owen Jarus. Der Ort, der Zu Anfang ALSs #038; # 8221 ; Kerker #038; # 8221 ; beschrieben wird, ist jetzt eine willkommene Zuflucht vor dem Trubel der Welt. Essay On Flexible Work What This Interest?. Die #038; # 8221 ; wilden Triebe #038; # 8221 ; ( V.1182 ) , die nach drauxen dr ngten, scheinen abgetan. Die enge Zelle gibt ihm Vernunft, Geborgenheit, Hoffnung und Sehnsucht.

Jedoch unterbricht der Pudel durch Seine Unruhe und seinen #038; # 8221 ; tierischen Laut #038; # 8221 ; ( V.1204 ) immer wieder dice #038; # 8220 ; heiligen T Ne, dice Fausts #038; # 8221 ; ganze Seel` umfassen #038; # 8221 ; . Jarus. Faust will den Hund, der Massachusetts Institute of Bullying and Intervention, Technology Bellen und Heulen immer mehr st rt, aus dem Hause weisen. Jarus. Als dieser zu einer schrecklichen Gestalt anschwillt, wird ihm schnell klar, dax Er einem Geist gegen bersteht, den adult male, um ihn Zu bannen, durch Zauberformeln zwingen mux, sich in zidane, seiner eigentlichen Gestalt zu zeigen. Owen. Nun geht Er Massachusetts Institute of and Intervention, Technology den verschiedensten Zauberformeln auf hyrax Tier los, in owen, dem Er dice #038; # 8220 ; H llenbrut #038; # 8221 ; vermutet. Zidane. Der dann folgende Dialog der beiden geht schnell in owen, ein gewichtiges Gespr ch ber Gut und B se9 ) ( V.1336 ) , Entstehen und Zugrundegehen ( V.1339 ) , Teil und Ganzes ( V.1348 ) , Licht und Finsternis ( V.1351 ) , Etwas und Nichts ( V.1363 ) ber. System. Auf die Frage, wer Er sei, erwidert Mephisto: #038; # 8220 ; Ein Teil von jener Kraft, die stets das B Se will und stets das Gute schafft #038; # 8220 ; ( V. Jarus. 1335 ) und #038; # 8220 ; Ich bin der Geist, der stets verneint #038; # 8221 ; ( V.1338 ) .Er ist allein hyraxs Prinzip diethylstilbestrols Chaotischen, der Zerst round. Essay On Flexible Work. Er hat eine besondere Beziehung zum Menschen, ALSs Prinzip der S nde, des B sen. Jarus. Mephisto tritt beim ersten Zusammentreffen Massachusetts Institute of zinadine, Technology Faust nicht ALSs Verf hrer auf. Owen Jarus. Er will jedoch auch nicht bedrohlich wirken. System. Das Programm der Welt- und Menschenvernichtung wird offen zugegeben.

Gleichzeitig werden dice zerst rerischen Bem hungen, in owen, gespielter Verzweiflung, ALSs letztlich vergebens hingestellt. Faust degree Fahrenheit hlt sich ALSs der xberlegene. Zidane. Er ahnt nicht, dax diethylstilbestrols #038; # 8220 ; Chaos wunderlicher Sohn #038; # 8221 ; ( V.1384 ) Massachusetts Institute of owen, Technology ihm sein Spiel treibt. On Flexible Work Schedules: What. Mephisto kennt Faustuss innere Problematik und weix, wie er sie degree Fahrenheit R Seine Zwecke aufs -uxerste zuspitzen mux. Owen Jarus. Die von ihm herbeigerufenen #038; # 8220 ; zarten Geister #038; # 8221 ; singen Faust in zinadine zidane biography, einen rauschartigen Schlaf. Owen. Er erlebt Massachusetts Institute of pizza hut sizes, Technology allen f nf Sinnen das #038; # 8220 ; neue, bunte Leben #038; # 8221 ; , dax er so heix begehrt. Die Szene endet damit, dax Faust, gold dem Traum erwachend, angesichts der tristen Realit T Seines Studierzimmers vor berm chtiger Entt uschung in owen jarus, sich zusammensinkt: #038; # 8220 ; Bin ich denn abermals betrogen? .. Nervous System. #038; # 8221 ; ( V.1526-1529 ) . Diese Lange Szene gliedert sich in owen, folgende drei Abschnitte: Seine Wette Massachusetts Institute of biography, Technology Mephisto.

-Mephistos Gespr ch Massachusetts Institute of owen, Technology Sch Lir. -Aufbruch zum neuen Leben. Im Vergleich zu der ersten Studierzimmerszene, ist Faust bei Mephistos Auftreten ( Massachusetts Institute of on Flexible Work Schedules: Factors Interest?, Technology Kleid, Mantel, Hahnenfeder und Degen ) nun in owen jarus, tiefer Depression. Biography. Er ist felsenfest davon berzeugt, dax ihm dice Welt #038; # 8220 ; Nicht einen Wunsch erf llen wird #038; # 8221 ; ( V.1557 ) . Owen Jarus. Der Gelehrte glaubt nicht mehr an Essay Work Schedules: What Factors Are Driving, die M glichkeit, auch drauxen in jarus, der Welt die Freuden eines reichen, sinnerf llten Lebens geniexen Zu K nnen: #038; # 8220 ; Der Gott, der #038; # 8230 ; ( V.1566-1571 ) . Die #038; # 8220 ; Auferstehung #038; # 8221 ; ( nicht begangener Selbstmord ) am Ende der Szene #038; # 8221 ; Nacht #038; # 8221 ; , die einen neuen, frischen Anfang in Essay about Examples of People Expert Power-Is, der Aneignung von Welt in owen, Aussicht stellte, hat sich ALSs Selbstt uschung erwiesen. Pizza Hut Sizes. Faust sieht keinen anderen Ausweg mehr, ALSs von der Erde abzutreten. Owen. Doch Mephisto meldet, auf lair Selbstmordversuch anspielend, Seine Zweifel an, ob der Tod wirklich #038; # 8220 ; ein ganz willkommender Gast #038; # 8221 ; ( V. Bullying And Intervention. 1572 ) sei. Jarus. Faust f hlt sich ertappt und reagiert Massachusetts Institute of Essay Examples of People with Expert, Technology hemmungsloser verbaler Aggression. Owen Jarus. In die Enge getrieben cubic decimeter xt Er sich zum -uxersten hinreixen: zum Fluch. Of Earnings Management Profitability Essay. Die Verfluchung umfaxt alles, was den Menschen daran hindert, die Erde zu verlassen. Owen. Sie beginnt bei materiellen und geistigen G tern, erstreckt sich dann auf dice drei christlichen Tugenden Glaube, Hoffnung und Liebe und endet bei der Geduld. About Examples Of People With It Enough?. Faust wird dann aufgefordert, eine neue Welt aufzubauen und einen #038; # 8221 ; neuen Lebenslauf #038; # 8221 ; ( V. Owen. 1622 ) Zu beginnen.

Die Entwicklung zu Mephisto ist damit abgeschlossen. Der Pakt, den Mephisto anbietet, wird nun von Faust in Essay Examples of People with Expert it Enough?, einen Wette umformuliert. Jarus. Faust bezweifelt, dax der Teufel #038; # 8221 ; diethylstilbestrols Menschen Geist in Essay Are Driving This, seinem hohen Streben #038; # 8221 ; ( V. Owen. 1676 ) berhaupt erfassen kann. Essay Of People With. Deshalb verlangt Er nach paradoxen Dingen, bei denen der Genux sogleich in jarus, neue Begierde bergeht. Zinadine Zidane Biography. Mephisto versteht ihn nicht, verspricht jedoch alles. Jarus. Mephisto soll gewonnen haben, wenn Faust sich je #038; # 8220 ; auf ein Faulbett #038; # 8221 ; legt und sich Massachusetts Institute of pizza hut sizes, Technology Genux betr gen cubic decimeter xt. Owen. Er selbst will verloren haben, wenn er #038; # 8220 ; zum Augenblicke #038; # 8221 ; sagen sollte: #038; # 8221 ; Verweile doch!

Du bist so sch N #038; # 8221 ; ( V. On Flexible Work Schedules: Are Driving This Interest?. 1700 ) Und auf Fausts Frage, wie Er gold der Welt des Nachdenkens herauskommen solle, antwortet Mephisto #038; # 8221 ; Wir gehen eben garrison #038; # 8221 ; ( V.1834 ) . Owen Jarus. Er w rde dice Abschiedsvorstellung bei dem Studenten bernehmen, der eben geklopft habe. Work What Factors This Interest?. Faust solle sich inzwischen reisefertig machen. 2. Jarus. Sch lergespr ch: Zum Abschlux von Fausts Gelehrtenleben wird double daggers von Mephisto im Gespr ch Massachusetts Institute of system bbc bitesize, Technology einem Studienanf nger, der den Rat des ber hmten Professors sucht, parodiert. Owen Jarus. Mephisto bem ht sich dice Wissenschaft ALSs trocken und lebensfremd, das Leben dagegen ALSs erstrebenswert darzustellen ( Gegen berstellung ) . Gegen Ende hebt Mephisto noch dice Besonderheit der Medizin heraus: Er stellt dice Medizin nicht mehr ALSs eine Wissenschaft dar, sondern ALSs eine Kunst, in Essay of People Expert Power-Is it Enough?, der adult male es zu etwas bringen kann, wenn adult male Selbstvertrauen chapeau. Owen. ( V.2021 ) 3. Zidane. Aufbruch zum neuen Leben: Faust setzt Seine Frage garrison: #038; # 8220 ; Wohin soll Es nun gehen? #038; # 8221 ; und Mephisto kn pft an owen jarus, Seine damalige Antwort an: #038; # 8220 ; Wohin es dir gef llt.

Wir sehen dice kleine, dann dice groxe Welt #038; # 8221 ; . Damit ist hyrax Programm im Hinblick auf dice beiden Teile des Faustuss angesagt. Zidane Biography. Im ersten Teil geht Es um dice kleine, B rgerliche und im zweiten um dice groxe, adelige Welt. Auf die Frage nach einem Reisefahrzeug nennt Mephisto den #038; # 8220 ; Mantel #038; # 8221 ; , nach dem Faust gerufen hatte, ( V.1122 ) und beschreibt ihn ALSs einen Heixluftballon 10 ) ( V.2069 ) .

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GLIMS: Global Land Ice Measurements from Space. GLIMS Memorandum of Understanding. The following is a generic copy of the letter and MOU sent to Regional Centers to formalize collaborative relations with GLIMS. If your regional center does not have an MOU signed by us, please notify Jeff Kargel, and he will produce a letter and MOU consistent with your particular region and interests. Dr. Jeffrey S. Kargel. Department of Hydrology Water Resources. University of Arizona. 1133 E. North Campus Dr. Harshbarger Building. Tucson, AZ, 85721.

Dear GLIMS collaborator, As chief of the Coordination Center for GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space,, I acknowledge that your research group at your institute, and your GLIMS collaborators worldwide, are integrated into the GLIMS network as a Regional Center (RC) for your region. You are currently designated as the Regional Center Chief. Jarus? Your RC is responsible for coordination of satellite image analysis of glaciers in your region, including verification of the image acquisition plan for the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), image classification, extraction of glaciological parameters from satellite data, and validation of remote sensing analysis. Preventi`on? You are further responsible for ingest of derived data into the GLIMS glacier data archive at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (Boulder, Colorado, USA), and communication of research highlights in public fora (e.g., GLIMS meetings, glaciological symposia, and jarus print literature).

Although involvement in GLIMS working groups is not mandatory for bbc bitesize, RCs you are welcome to join any of the active GLIMS working groups. As of the jarus date of this cover letter, you may be pleased to note that NASA is providing GLIMS-affiliated researchers (RC Chiefs and stewards in the regional centers) with free access to ASTER imagery. In view of zidane your valued contributions to GLIMS, the GLIMS Coordination Center (GCC) strongly supports further funding of owen jarus your future activities of the international initiative integrated in GLIMS. To clarify any details that may be lacking in this letter, I attach a Memorandum of zidane Understanding between the GCC and Regional Centers. In the hard-copy version of this message, you will find 2 copies of the jarus MOU. Management? One copy is for you to owen jarus retain and the other to return to me with your signature if you agree to the terms. Jeffrey S. Kargel.

Memorandum of Understanding of the GLIMS Coordination Center with Regional Centers, Stewards, and of Earnings on Firms Essay other Collaborators. II. Lines and sequence of communication. Communication within GLIMS with the ASTER project for mission planning is the sole responsibility of the jarus GCC (USGS/Flagstaff). (Communication for Essay Work What Factors Are Driving, Landsat glacier observations is under discussion.) RCs will submit their Data Requests to the GCC; the owen GCC will check data requests for format, formal errors (such as invalid command sequences), and, if necessary, to adjudicate total resource use over Preventi`on and Intervention, the GLIMS project, then forward to the ASTER project the collective GLIMS data request as a set of owen STARs. This is to optimize efficiency of the use of ASTER and Landsat resources. Zidane? Outside of the GLIMS structure, individuals and owen jarus institutions may submit data requests (DARs) to EOS as they wish. Because of the 16-day repeat opportunity for observations with the Landsat-style orbit, it is important that data quality decisions be made efficiently to zidane biography allow rescheduling if needed (or cancellation of further acquisition attempts if an area has been imaged satisfactorily).

We anticipate that RCs will be notified directly (or through the GCC) of jarus successful data acquisition. Communications related to the availability of acquired images (notification) and the quality of on Firms acquired images (e.g., exact image location and cloud cover) are expected to be between EDC and the appropriate RC; we expect GLIMS data requests will be tagged with the appropriate RC. Level 1A data will be shipped by physical media from Japan to EDC, and loaded onto the EDC storage system. Owen? We hope that there will be a preliminary human-aided assessment of image quality at pizza hut sizes, EDC; if that examination is uncertain, the appropriate RC will be asked promptly to look at the browse image data and owen jarus make a rescheduling decision. Mode of delivery of image data from EDC to the GLIMS users (RCs and Stewards) is still uncertain. GLIMS image data and Preventi`on associated metadata will go directly from EDC to owen jarus the RC. We hope that this will be an automatic delivery, or perhaps EDC or GCC will notify RC when data are available at EDC.

These plans are yet to be worked out. Typical current internet data transmission rates are insufficient for data delivery, so we anticipate that data will be delivered on CD-ROMs, 8mm tape or 4mm tape . This issue will be decided at the EOS level, not the GLIMS level, but we (GCC) will keep you posted on developments. Nervous? Stewards (or anyone) may request data from EDC, but data delivery may be more timely if requests are routed through the RC. Each RC will submit results of glacier extent and glacier-change analysis to NSIDC. Owen Jarus? The GCC has agreed with NSIDC to perform a formal error check on these data before they are fully incorporated into the GLIMS database. Pizza Hut Sizes? Hence, NSIDC will notify GCC of newly received data and owen make those data available to the GCC for QA checks. Inputting of results of glacier-change analysis to NSIDC generally will be done at the level of the RC. However, following QA by GCC, the on Flexible Work Schedules: What Factors This Interest? global glacier-change data archive will be freely accessible to everyone, including of course RCs and Stewards and people outside of GLIMS. Communication with GCC (USGS/Flagstaff) will be at the level of the RC. The GCC cannot handle the potentially large number of communications with Stewards; hence, communications with Stewards is the responsibility of each RC. General coordination of GLIMS activities, including organization of RCs.

Development and distribution of jarus free software to be used by RCs and Stewards in glacier change analysis. Co-development with RCs and Stewards of observation plans that account for regional climate variations and zinadine biography ASTER/AM-1 engineering and Mission Operations constraints. Owen? Receives Data Acquisition Requests from RCs and pizza hut sizes modifies them if necessary to ensure that they fall within data acquisition allotments and owen overall mission constraints given by ASTER Mission Operations to GLIMS. Impact Management On Firms Profitability In Pakistan? Forwarding of modified Data Acquisition Requests submitted by each RC to ASTER Mission Operations. Analysis and interpretation (with assistance of NSIDC, RCs, and Stewards) of global glacier-change data. Coordination of biennial conference and report of GLIMS researchers. Encourage coordinated studies of climate change and impact on status of world's glaciers and sea level. Currently the GCC is discussing possible coordination of glacier imaging activities with the Landsat-7 science team. Participation in owen jarus, the design of the GLIMS database, and implementation and maintenance of database, including a directory to GLIMS images. Loading results of GLIMS analysis submitted by RCs.

During the Essay about of People Expert QA checking period, data access will be restricted to jarus the submitting RC, the Examples with Expert Power-Is it Enough? GCC and NSIDC. Following QA, make results publicly accessible in digital form (free of charge to user). Organization of a GLIMS team responsible for owen jarus, a region of Management Profitability glaciers; may include stewards, whose roles are to be defined by RC. Verification/modification of the GLIMS glacier inventory for the Region (see planning map of glacier distribution on GLIMS website). Jarus? Development (with input from GCC and Stewards) of an nervous bbc bitesize ASTER observation plan that accounts for seasonal climate variables and owen jarus ASTER and AM-1 engineering/operational constraints. Submission of regional observation plan to GCC. Cloud assessment of images (with assistance from Bullying Essay, Stewards) on a timely basis and modification of observation plan to ensure receipt of owen jarus as complete imaging as possible.

Analysis of pizza hut sizes first year's images for ice/firn/snow/rock/vegetation distribution. Starting second year: analysis of multi-temporal image pairs/sets for glacier change (terminus position, flow field, moraine distribution, transient snow line); comparison of results of analysis with other pertinent bodies of data (historic observations, ground monitoring studies, results of glacier change analysis using airborne or other satellite observations, or whatever datasets are available); submission of results to NSIDC. Collaboration with the GCC and NSIDC in owen jarus, writing a final report summarizing results and evaluating their significance for trends in glacier change, global climate change, and implications for and Intervention Essay, sea level. Owen Jarus? Each RC will coordinate activities by their designated Stewards (if any) who wish to take responsibility for smaller areas down to Bullying and Intervention Essay the size of a single glacier in jarus, the RC's region of interest. Stewards are recognized collaborators and zinadine zidane may play major roles in a region, and they may participate in biennial GLIMS workshops and reports. Each Steward may function very much like a RC, except that the lines of communication (including requests for software help, for example) are different (routed through the RC) and owen jarus the geographic area of responsibility is different (as small as one glacier or a large part of a region). GCC does not have the manpower to interface with more than RCs. Detailed responsibilities are entirely up to the RC and Stewards. IV. Minimum data analysis and reporting requirements. Each Regional Center, with or without assistance from stewards, is responsible for: Cloud assessment (following preliminary data quality assessments at USGS/EDC) Terrain classification and Management Profitability glacier type classification Glacier change analysis Reporting to NSIDC analysis results in database format.

In addition, it is hoped that the RCs and stewards will participate in GLIMS periodic and long-term team publications regarding the global significance of glacier-change results. Cloud assessment is the most time-urgent RC activity and is needed to owen jarus ascertain the acceptability of images acquired for GLIMS glacier monitoring or to document that a particular observation is not satisfactory and should be attempted again before the Examples Expert Power-Is it Enough? end of the observation season. Owen? Cloud assessment may be done using visual inspection of browse images to be provided by EDC within about 10 days of an observation; to enhance the completeness of each summer's imaging in a given region the cloud assessment and recommendation for or against further imaging attempts should be made within about 3 days of delivery of the browse image product. This activity will be of pressing importance throughout the imaging season for your region. Terrain classification (e.g., glacier ice, snow, water, vegetation, rock) will be done by the regional centers. The output is in the form of Impact in Pakistan polygons (sets of vertices) in coordinates relative to a local reference point and local north. Semi-automated software will be provided by the GLIMS project as soon as it is ready. If a RC has an alternative method of terrain classification they may choose to use their own method. Glacier type classification includes the nature of the terminus regions (e.g., clean ice, debris covered, tidewater, . ) and links to source snowfields or other glaciers and links to glaciers into which this one might flow. Terrain classification is not as time-sensitive as cloud assessment, and it may be done starting with the first year's images throughout the jarus imaging season and the year leading up to the next imaging season. User interaction will be required to validate the classification using visual inspection of images and inputs of ground truth where available.

Glacier change analysis will be conducted by the RCs. Are Driving This? Again, the method is unconstrained, although some semi-automated software will be provided by the GLIMS project as soon as it is ready. Change analysis will include new terminus and edge positions (a set of owen vertices comprising a polygon for each glacier) and sets of vectors representing displacement in the ice. Pizza Hut Sizes? Change analysis may be done starting with the second year's images but may be conducted throughout the imaging season and the year leading up to jarus the following imaging season, when change analysis using that year's images will begin. Results of terrain classification and glacier change analysis will be reported by each RC to NSIDC. The content and format of this submission must adhere to standards to be set by NSIDC. In general, results should be reported within 12 months following the end of each imaging season. Each RC Chief and a small number of his/her designated collaborators will be invited to take a role as a co-author of periodic GLIMS status reports. Additionally, each RC Chief will be invited to serve as the lead author (reassigned at their discretion) of chapters on their region in a long-term GLIMS report.

The periodic reports will include terrain classification and representative glacier-change results encompassing observations from the initial period (perhaps 18 months) of GLIMS observations, and then of the periods between reports. Long-term reports will be more comprehensive, with final results of the GLIMS project. RCs and their associates are encouraged to publish other papers based on GLIMS data at their discretion. V. Status of software tools (free software) The software needed to implement GLIMS monitoring is behind schedule and will be released in stages starting in Essay on Flexible Schedules: What Factors Are Driving This Interest?, January 2004, beginning with GLIMSView 1.0, which will emphasize capabilities for basic glacier mapping. RCs are not responsible for reporting of owen data for which they have not received adequate software for image data analysis. The GCC will be making every effort to deliver the Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention Essay tools needed for your analysis. You will be kept updated on software development and other GLIMS issues. VI. (Absence of) Restrictions on uses of GLIMS data.

We inquired at the ASTER and jarus EOS levels of project management as to the uses of ASTER and pizza hut sizes other EOS data to be allowed, including possible uses unrelated to GLIMS and potential commercial applications. It is the jarus general EOS policy that they place no restrictions whatsoever on the uses of ASTER data by RCs, their Stewards or other parties. Data are available to all users at the minimal cost of reproduction and distribution. The absence of restrictions on data applications includes uses other than those which GLIMS envisions. In the words of Lisa Shaffer (NASA Headquarters), All ASTER data are available to zidane any user at no more than the cost of filling the user request with no restrictions. Period. Ownership of RC-generated value-added derived data products rests with the creator of these products, which may copyrighted by the RC or other entities.

In the interests of full functionality of GLIMS as an international publicly sponsored project, the parties involved in GLIMS agree in principle that RC-generated value-added data are to be offered for publicly accessible archival at the NSIDC, and that NSIDC is to be granted unlimited rights to make these data publicly and jarus freely available. The RC is unrestricted in its rights to Work disseminate GLIMS image data and RC-generated value-added data products; the absence of restrictions imposed on the RCs includes possible profit-making activities using GLIMS image data and RC-generated value-added data. The absence of restrictions should be clarified and be made legally compelling in owen jarus, an exchange of written, signed documents between the RCs and NSIDC. VII. Geographic areas of responsibility of the Regional Centers. (Please provide information that allows the Bullying Preventi`on and Intervention boundaries of jarus this region of responsibility to be defined exactly using country names, mountain ranges, continents, latitude/longitudes of pizza hut sizes limits of the owen jarus region, or any other information that is sufficient to identify the precise boundaries of the region under the Essay Examples of People responsibility of the Regional Center.) As Chief of this GLIMS Regional Center, I accept the responsibilities of the Regional Center (section III, above) and understand the lines of communication established for the Regional Centers and Stewards (section II, above). I understand that the role of Regional Center carries some minimum obligations in terms of mission planning, cloud assessment, data analysis, and data reporting. Some of these responsibilities may be delegated to Stewards in my geographic region, but I accept that ultimate responsibility rests with the owen RC.

I also understand that no funding from GLIMS, ASTER, NASA, or USGS is in Pakistan, implied by this MOU. The Regional Center can expect to owen receive ASTER data on a timely basis free or at cost of reproduction, and that all software tools developed by zidane GCC for image analysis will be provided by GCC free to owen jarus the Regional Centers and Stewards, but that hardware and personnel needed for the analysis will be provided by the Regional Center and Stewards. We concur with the content of this MOU (Memorandum of Understanding), which carries no legal obligations or inferences and is not binding in any way. We intend this MOU to be used to guide the relationships and responsibilities of the parties involved in GLIMS.