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book report typer Centre for Academic Success. A report is a systematic, well organised document which defines and analyses a subject or problem, and which may include: the record of man theme, a sequence of Essay Bus by Jonathan, events. interpretation of the significance of these events or facts. Dead. evaluation of the bisection method, facts or results of research presented. discussion of the outcomes of a decision or course of dead, action. Marketing Research Case Essay. Reports must always be: Various courses require you to man theme write reports (as opposed to Essay essays), notably business and dead, scientific or technical subjects. There are, however, different interpretations of essays, what a report should look like, so it is dead important that you check with your course tutors and course documentation as to of Adoption Essay the report format and man theme, content expected. For This Case. In addition, there is at man theme times some blurring between what “essays”, “reports” and “assignments” are, so again check within your department.

Much of the advice given in Guide 1.01, How to method write an dead man theme essay, also applies to strategic position reports. Always analyse your brief carefully, making sure that you fully understand the dead man theme, topic, question or case, that you know what the for This Research Case Essay, purpose of the dead, report is, and emerson's, who it is being written for. Man Theme. The clearer these things are in your mind, the easier the Essay on Disabilities Bus by Jonathan Mooney, report will be to write and dead man theme, the more effective it will be. When you are researching, planning and eventually writing, continually ask yourself what the position, main purpose of the report is, what your objective is in dead, writing it: is sociology it to dead inform; to bisection argue; to persuade; to evaluate? What does your reader want to see in the report and dead man theme, what will they do with it? You first need to decide your basic framework. With your main topic or question as a central focus, jot down your initial thoughts and sociology, start to group these together. You may find the Mind Mapping technique useful: see Guide 2.11. Start to divide key ideas from subsidiary information, and man theme, continually ask yourself if everything is Marketing Research Essay relevant; if it isn’t, then delete it. Dead. From your prior knowledge (from reading and emerson's, lectures), you should be able to dead put together a fairly basic structure.

You will now be able to privilege plan your research. Ask yourself what you need to man theme find out, maybe in smart, the form of dead, questions that need to be answered, then approach your reading from this starting point. Privilege. If you have specific information to look for, it will make your reading easier and less time consuming. (See Guide 2.02 Reading techniques). Try not to dead gather too much information. Emerson's Essays. Again, keeping your topic or question in mind, reject anything which is not 100% relevant. When you’re making notes, always try to summarise the main points as concisely as possible. Remember to dead man theme make a comprehensive record of any sources consulted in order to be able to correctly reference these.

Make a record of the research methods you used. Unlike essays, reports are written in sections with headings and sub-headings, which are usually numbered. Below are the possible components of sociology, a report, in dead man theme, the order in strategic, which they would appear. Man Theme. Check within your department which of these you should include. Sampling Research Case Essay. This should normally include the title, your name and the name of the tutor to man theme whom it is Techniques Research Case Essay being submitted, date of dead, submission, your course/department, and if applicable, the name of the person and/or organisation who has commissioned the essays, report. Avoid “fancy” fonts and dead, effects and don’t include any clipart. Acknowledgements (usually just in strategic, long reports) A list of people and organisations both within and outside Birmingham City University who have helped you. Man Theme. Contents page (always included in The Benefits of Adoption, reports of 4+ pages) A clear, well-formatted list of all the sections and dead man theme, sub-sections of the report. Don’t forget to put the page numbers! If applicable, there should be a separate list of Techniques for This Marketing Research, tables, figures, illustrations and/or appendices after the dead, main index.

Make sure that the headings in this list correspond exactly with those in method, your main body. It is best to do your list of contents right at the end. Terms of dead, reference (sometimes included) A definition of the privilege sociology, task; your specific objective and purpose of writing. Dead Man Theme. Even if you don't include this as a heading, it is Sampling Techniques Marketing Research Essay a vital process to man theme go through in your planning. Privilege Sociology. If it is group work, who exactly is responsible for what? How long have you got? What is your task timescale? Why are you writing the report?

What exactly are the assessment criteria? Who are you writing the report for? Are you actually playing a role? What does your reader want to dead see? Procedure (sometimes included) How your research was carried out; how the information was gathered. Position. Materials and dead man theme, methods (included if applicable) Similar to procedure, but more appropriate to scientific or engineering report writing. The following advice comes from Robert Barrass' book Scientists Must Write (Chapman Hall,1978:135-136): Summary (usually included in longer reports; may be called Executive Summary, Abstract or Synopsis) This is The Benefits Essay a very brief outline of the report to give the potential reader a general idea of dead man theme, what it’s about. A statement of: method/procedure used (unless included in separate section) main conclusions and privilege sociology, recommendations.

Introduction (always included) This should show that you have fully understood the dead man theme, task/brief and that you are going to cover everything required. Indicate the basic structure of the report. Nursing Goals. You should include just a little background/context and dead man theme, indicate the nursing, reasons for writing the report. You may include your terms of reference and procedure/research methods if not covered elsewhere. Man Theme. Your introduction will often give an strategic indication of the conclusion to the report. Main body/findings (always included) This is the man theme, substance of essays, your report. The structure will vary according to the nature of the material being presented, with headings and sub-headings used to dead man theme clearly indicate the different sections (unlike an smart goals essay). A situationproblemsolutionevaluation approach may be appropriate.

It is not sufficient to dead man theme simply describe a situation. Your tutor will be looking for position, analysis and for man theme, a critical approach, when appropriate. Charts, diagrams and acid rain reaction, tables can be used to reinforce your arguments, although sometimes it may be better to include these as an dead appendix (particularly if they are long or complicated). Do not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations in method, this section. Results (possibly included in dead man theme, scientific/engineering reports) This section records your observations (in the past tense) and goals, would normally include statistics, tables or graphs.

Your conclusion should draw out the dead, implications of emerson's, your findings, with deductions based on man theme, the facts described in your main body. Don’t include any new material here. Recommendations (sometimes included) These should follow on logically from your conclusion and acid rain chemical, be specific, measurable and dead man theme, achievable. They should propose how the bisection, situation/problem could be improved by suggesting action to be taken. A “statement of cost” should be included if you are recommending changes that have financial implications. Recommendations can be numbered if you wish. Appendices (sometimes included) An appendix (plural=appendices) is detailed documentation of dead, points you outline in your findings, for example, technical data, questionnaires, letters sent, tables, sketches, charts, leaflets etc. It is method supplementary information which you consider to dead man theme be too long or complicated or not quite relevant enough to include in on Disabilities in The Short Bus by Jonathan Mooney, your main body, but which still should be of interest to dead man theme your reader. Each appendix should be referred to of Adoption in your text.

You should not include something as an appendix if it is man theme not discussed in the main body. This is a list giving the full details of on Disabilities in The Bus by Jonathan, all the man theme, sources to which you have made reference within your text. By far the most common method in Essay, use at Birmingham City University is the Harvard method. Bibliography (sometimes included) This is either a separate list of sources which you have used during your research, but have not actually made reference to dead man theme in your writing, or this list together with your list of sociology, references. Check in man theme, your department what you are expected to Marketing Research Essay use. Dead Man Theme. Glossary (occasionally included) Include a glossary if the report includes a lot of specialised vocabulary or acronyms which may not be familiar to the reader. Chemical. Always use clear and concise English, avoiding jargon and dead man theme, colloquial language. Write in fairly short sentences. Essay In The Short Jonathan Mooney. Make sure you develop each paragraph sufficiently (usually a minimum of 5/6 sentences). Most of your report should be impersonal, although it may be appropriate in man theme, your conclusion or recommendations to include more personal language.

Be extra careful with verb tenses. Grammar, spelling and acid rain chemical, punctuation. Links to further resources on dead man theme, writing reports. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Bisection Method. Centre for dead man theme, Academic Success.

City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Smart Nursing Goals. Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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OS X Yosemite Available Now as a Free Download. Apple has released OS X Yosemite, officially versioned as OS X 10.10. Man Theme! The update to Macs is available now as a free download. OS X Yosemite brings a redesigned user interface to strategic position, the Mac, as well as many new features that intend to improve productivity and interoperability with iOS devices. The newest version of OS X runs on all Macs that are capable of running Mavericks, if you haven’t done so yet, you can prepare your Mac for the Yosemite update by following a few simple tasks, including updating your software and backing up the computer before installing the free update.

OS X Yosemite is available as a free download from the Mac App Store. To download and man theme install the update, head to the ? Apple menu and The Benefits of Adoption Essay choose “Software Update”, the OS X Yosemite installer is several GB in man theme, size and can be found under the “Updates” tab. You can also use the download link below to head directly to OS X Yosemite in the App Store. To start the download of emerson's essays Yosemite on dead, your Mac, simply open the above link and bisection method click on the “Free” button. The download weighs approximately 5.1GB and will begin immediately. If you are having trouble downloading OS X Yosemite, with either a “null” error, a “We could not complete your request” error, or a timeout, it’s likely due to Apple Servers being overwhelmed by requests. Dead! Simply try again, or wait a minute or two. Many users are currently experiencing a “This item is temporarily unavailable” error message when trying to download OS X Yosemite. This simply means you should try again later, as the download is rain likely propagating through Apple servers. This would be a good opportunity to prepare your Mac for the OS X 10.10 update and backing up the dead man theme computer if you haven’t done so yet.

Update: Users have reported successfully downloading OS X Yosemite by hitting Command+R to refresh the emerson's Yosemite page in the App Store, then try clicking the dead man theme “Free” button again. The download will begin and appear under the emerson's essays “Purchases” tab: Users who wish to create a bootable USB installer for OS X Yosemite will want to do so before completing the dead installation of Yosemite, or, at least make a copy of the OS X Yosemite Installer, which is found in the /Applications/ folder. Separately, new versions of chemical iWork are also now available as a free download. hi , just a question , can i update to man theme, yosemite without a backup? i dont have time machine , if i go ahead and update will i loose my data or will it just update as normal with no loss ? Upgrading to rain chemical, Yosemite should not result in man theme, data loss – the point of an upgrade is to update the emerson's OS version, while preserving apps and data. With that said, backup. I know backing up is a pain, but it’s made super easy with Time Machine, and man theme you’ll thank yourself one day when you have to essays, restore from a backup or experience data loss. Trust me on this one. great thanks for answering my question. can anyone give me a direct link to get yosemit without going to apple store plz ! anyone that did already download it and put it somewhere where ppl having trouble with apple store get it without checking applstore.

You need to download OS X Yosemite from the dead man theme App Store from The Benefits of Adoption Apple, do not trust other than official sources for installing an man theme operating system. Do you please have a direct download link because it’s not available in the French store yet :( It’s not available anywhere in the world just yet. It’s 4:32 pm EST (USA) here and Twitter is abuzz about the fact it’s not been released yet. Some rumors that it will go within 30 minutes from now when business networks slow at the end of the workday. Just a heads up to to those who think something is wrong during the install: If you find that OS X Yosemite update gets stuck on emerson's, a white screen with Apple logo and a progress bar for a while – DONT DO ANYTHING – just wait, it seems to stall late in dead, the process as the installation completes. DO not interrupt that update process, just let the acid reaction white screen and progress bar go away on it’s own, yes it can take a while. It seems to be related to the state of the battery.

If charging from a low charge while installing, Yosemite seems to hang in dead man theme, the last few minutes until the moment full charge is emerson's achieved. If charging and dead unplugging and The Benefits Essay re-plugging battery while charging, this also slows the installation. When installing on full charge while plugged in and no state change in the battery, Yosemite installs the quickest. I had not seen this forum entry. I got that white screen and it just sat there. So, after awhile, so I turned the machine off with the on-off button and rebooted with Command-R and restored Mavericks.

I’m doing this on an iMac, not a laptop, so (with me) it was not a battery issue. I’ve been waiting for 10.10.1 because I’m afraid of going through the whole process again and finding the man theme same white screen just sit there. Are you suggesting that I do just let it sit there … and for how long? Well, I, unfortunately did do something. I restarted my Mac.

I am now stuck on the white page with no way to proceed. It will not even load from a startup disk! Bill. I am facing issues downloading yosemite. its telling me that its currently unavailable in U.S store. any solution? The download is rolling out now across the App Store, it should be available to you shortly if you try again soon.

Time is of Adoption Essay now 16:44 East coast U.S. Yosemite still shows as being unavailable in dead, the U.S. store. Maybe they figure that NY, Boston, Washington, Miami, etc. aren’t looking to sociology, jump in dead, and write reviews on their product. Or maybe they want to make sure the Essay Short Bus by Jonathan reviewers start out with a negative image… Ive been trying since noon does the dead same thing to me! Put in the search OS X or OS X Yosemite. It won’t appear in the update section.

Same thing for me. You’re not the Essay in The Bus by Mooney only one. For the beta program users, how is the adviced update method? Fresh install or the man theme classic differential update is The Benefits fine? Hi mate of course fresh is better im used beta 6 but in few hours install FULL OS X. Calm, same happen in Mexico Store, they are preparing the dead server to The Benefits Essay, deploy by zones and don’t saturate servers. Any update let you know.

hi, im in the uk and can find a link for the new os can someone help please. Hi Tony, it’s not up in the UK yet. heres a link to uk app store but not available to dead man theme, download yet: try between 1am – 1pm: Its available now :) can not it was meant to say sorry folks. I don’t think that you people understand what “will be available today” and “Download Link Coming Soon” means….. it is not even 13pm in the US….

Yes – it is chemical certainly NOT 13pm. (Course because 13pm does not exist, it never will be…) 13pm arrives right after 12th noon. 13pm = 1300 = 1pm :) No OS XY for man theme, Brazil Store so far… Waiting… Yosemite still not available in US Store, no one at Apple tech support seems to know when it will be out. 3:46 PM Eastern. Wow…. 3hrs after the Keynote, and The Benefits of Adoption Essay people are already complaining something is dead man theme not available…. Wow…

We are all moving way too fast, chill… Dont chat if you can’t deliver (referring to apple) Why have a link to “upgrade now” if it has NOT yet been released? Still not there in the Netherlands. Dutch not allowed to sociology, use this. hi, how can i merge the man theme partition again ? and what’s the privilege sociology correct way to dead man theme, uninstall the dual boot yosemite beta ? i have installed yosemite this way and would like to strategic, upgrade my mavericks to yosemite released today. Wow, with so many people waiting for the download I bet their servers will crash ! :) It seems that the download is dead not available anywhere. why post a link that is bisection method not currently working. Because it is available to download, perhaps just not for you. That means you should hit Command+R to refresh, then try to download Yosemite again.

Don’t upgrade, make a fresh new install … it makes a lot of dead difference (you don’t keep the strategic dust and broken pieces from the old system, just restart from man theme scratch) backup your data, install, filevault the disk and you are good to acid rain chemical, go until the next release :) Still not available in US stores… Not yet available in Indian App store.. Dead Man Theme! :( Even in rain reaction, Poland not available ;) hmm 20th october is man theme more looking like it for Australia. thats when a new version of bisection iOS 8.1 or 8.2 comes into play as well. and here is 10:44pm and man theme I must go to rain, work tomorrow morning… As of 4:48PM EST, I still get the dead man theme not available in the US Store. Try again later.

Maybe they screwed up and setup the strategic position wrong links pointing to iOS 8.1 for today and Yosemite comes out Monday=P. still not available in us store. Hello from the dead future :P it’s now 22:55 :D Europe baby :D. talked to apple care they said it was still downloading to the server. She said possibly tonight or most likely tomorrow. Woohoo! Finally the download is available! BTW, how do you create a USB installer for acid rain, Yosemite? Not yet here in San Diego….

sudo /Applications/Install OS X Yosemite.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia —volume /Volumes/Untitled —applicationpath /Applications/Install OS X Yosemite.app —nointeraction. “You must specify both the volume and install application path.” sudo /Applications/Install OS X Yosemite.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia –volume /Volumes/Untitled –applicationpath /Applications/Install OS X Yosemite.app –nointeraction. Downloading in Sweden now! The link just worked for me! It’s out in the US! If you are unable to dead man theme, download OS X Yosemite due to an error message, hit Command+R on the Yosemite page in the App Store, then click the “Free” button to successfully begin the in The Short Jonathan Mooney download on your Mac. This just worked for me, it may be due to a caching issue. still cannot download in Indonesian (ID) appstore… Yo, will this work in the final build?

Yes, and we wrote a thorough walkthrough on creating a USB boot installer for OS X Yosemite final here: search for “OS X Yosemite” in dead, app store and it comes out as a standalone product download. Hi. How do I go about privilege sociology updating to dead, the official release of Yosemite when I currently have Yosemite Public Beta 6 running on my mbp? Thanks. You probably don’t need to, in terms of build numbers the OS X Yosemite Public Beta 6 is basically the same as OS X Yosemite Final. But if you want to, you can download the entire installer and update – it will likely be unnecessary to update from the Yosemite GM 3.0 build or the Public Beta build, however. I just download . Any feedback on using Yosemite on 2009 MBP? Specifically- any speed issues; – what conectivity features work and which dont? Anyone having installation issues with Yosemite?

I downloaded, went through all the acid rain chemical agreements, etc. It installed and then rebooted, Apple logo came up with another install and then to a totally blank white screen with a movable mouse cursor. Sounds like the harddrive is busy in the background but nothing happens. Totally blank, no status or installation update bars or logo, only the cursor. I’ve been all over the net and can only find stuff from dead June with developers posting all sorts of command structures for the beta that I don’t understand. Will it eventually just come up?

Late 2009 iMac, i7, 16g RAM. Exactly the same thing happened to me on my late 2012 iMac, the Essay Short Bus by Mooney download seemed to man theme, be ok, I went through all the legal steps, the white screen came up and the line status bar got stuck in the middle of the process. I pressed the power button to essays, reset it, but it took me again to the same white screen, with no other option, and the process is dead again stuck in the middle of the line status bar. Privilege! I did that 3 times, with the same results. Same problem here…anyone have a fix. This is very frustrating…tried rebooting and still have the dead man theme white screen. Here’s what to do if your Yosemite installation is stuck. Rebooting mid-installation of any operating system is never a good idea. Would you try to start a car while the bisection method engine was being serviced? Hope you had backups ready!

I went to bed with white screen on…did nothing and when I woke up all was good and installed. HUK same problem I have 3 computers 2 Blank screen 1 completed. Dead! Please help . Does anyone know how to download the public version if you are currently using the developer beta version? This. I got same problem.. =) Hi i downloaded yosemite this morning but when it starts installing its says 22 min remaning.

But mac it still stuck on white apple logo screen and loading line status bar is The Benefits of Adoption Essay kind of dead stuck in half way from last 4 hour . Dose anybody know how long will it take ? Has it happend to anyone out sociology there? Same here, it shows 22, then 21 and dead again 22 minutes remaining; and this is for strategic, last half an hour. Any solution? Yes, if your OS X Yosemite installation time remaining is stuck, here is man theme what to do: If your Yosemite download is privilege sociology stuck pause and try again to resume it. If Yosemite OS X download is dead still sticking, cancel the download and then download it again. It works inrownoadednitnesrkier roman road. Anyone know how to turn off the Macbook Pro’s display with the lid open when connected to an external monitor? The nvram terminal command method no longer works with Yosemite. Does ” redesigned user interface” mean that we will have to re-learn to use our macs? I hate it when that happens!

no, it means it looks better ;) the operations are the same. Have downloaded Yosemite the MacBook air has restarted but now stuck on the apple logo with the status bar at rain chemical half way been like that now for about 2 hours seems a lot of people having the same issue. Just waiting patiently for suggestions about the white/blank screen (with only the man theme moveable cursor). I’m stuck, but hopeful that there’s a fix. Just hard reset your Mac if the install hangs for a long time (hour +) by keeping the power button pressed untill the Mac powers down. Reboot and the install will probably continue and Essay on Disabilities in The Short finish without a problem. Nope this didnt help at all. After reset there was the apple logo with a progress bar and than white screen….again. Ok, I have installed OS X Yosemite, but iWork is still NOT for man theme, free.

Where is free iWork ? Mail app crashes… will not open… So far this is the only issue I have… [early 2011 MacBook Pro 17?/16GB RAM/500GB SSD/30? ACD using Apple’s TB to Dual Link DVI adapter] Was this ever solved? 2012 retina 15? with a mail app that will not open. Seriously killing my productivity.

Yosemite installed fine! But I don’t see a free iWork download anywhere. :( My 2012 Mac book air has been stuck at the gray boot screen for 12 hours. I’ve done the hard resets, but no luck. Calling AppleCare today, but does anyone have a fix in the meantime? Stuck at acid chemical white screen of death as well. I’m currently beta version 6, will i still have to update yosemite to get the full version or do I have to dead man theme, download the full version from the app store?

I downloaded many times the past hour. Bisection! None of them were successful. Dead! If I made it through the The Benefits Essay last few minutes of the download, I see the dead error message “no internal inconsistency exception” – what is that supposed to me? How do I fixed it? Thanks. I mean supposed to mean… Sorry! I am in of Adoption, Uganda, the download is available on man theme, app store and am currently downloading. I am read some reviews and am not sure if am to install but am gonna try. Not allowed in essays, Uganda. How can you turn off the MacBook Pro’s display with the lid open while using an dead external monitor on Yosemite?? No longer work.

Anyone? This do not work on Yosemite. I hope an update resolve this troubleshooting! Install says 22 min. It’s more then an hours now and it’s only 1/100 of the install line. Just installed Yosemite. I must say: it is just incredibly ugly.

Who designed the hideous Red/Orange/Green buttons – looks like they were designed by on Disabilities in The Bus by Jonathan, a 3 year old. The Menus look like you are running Windows XP – hideous colours, idiotic transparency … The whole thing feels ugly, bland and man theme corporate. Getting rid of it … moving back to Mavericks. Hi. I have successfully downloaded Yosemite but on installation it is emerson's essays going part way through then just freezing. Nothing. I have heard you have to dead man theme, wait it out but it’s been the same for the past 5 hours.

That can’t be right surely? Hey. I factory reset my mac every monthish, and forgot to emerson's, reset before i upgraded. Now that I’m on yosemity, when i restart and hold option, i now only dead see mac hd. Rain Chemical! not recovery disk. Can anyone help? How do you stop your cookies from disappearing when cleaning the history in safari, in the new os x Yosemite. Hello, my mac is frozen while i was trying to update it. It showed a message about the update was not going well and sent it to apple and now i can’t do anything with that. I didn’t back up it, so i hope nothing will happen to my mac:( what should i do? after down loadeding osx yosemite came up saying needed to download java 8 did this but now every time i turn on mac apple logo comes up with loading bar after loading loading all is dead man theme ok why does it keep having to load ? cmd L not working! stuck at logo and half black/ half grey loading bar for position, 3 hours now. Very amateur effort from apple.

Fine if needs to dead, take a long time but dont make everyone scurry on the internet for essays, solutions and reassurance. Put it in a troubleshooting guide or warning. Some people rely on their computer to earn a living, A stunning act of hubris apple team! get professional. Hi Scott, can you please let me know if and dead man theme how you sorted this. Scott (yes another scott) I got shocked when I saw the download time. The Benefits Essay! In the image above, it says – 1 hour 19 minutes.. In India, it says – 1 day 12 hours.. Dead Man Theme! mwahahaha :-/ And I even took Airtel 4g LTE service for this..

Speeds suck @ only 125KB/s-234KB/s I don’t think I’ll ever get to enjoy this release… Nevertheless, I’m gonna leave the computer on for downloading and my phone on privilege sociology, for tethering, lol :( You should see the download speeds in Japan or South Korea, a 5GB file like the Yosemite installer would take about 5-15 minutes! I am having problem while downloading Yosemite by dead, app store,would it will be safe and same if I download from torrent. plz someone tell me. No you should only download system software from rain reaction Apple, sketchy sources like a torrent could pack anything they wanted in there. Dead! Download OS X Yosemite from the App STore. After upgrading to 10.9.5 my macbook pro retina screen looks like a negative photograph. Of Adoption! I have no idea why or what to do? I love Apple products; however, I have installed Yosemite and have had nothing but trouble ever since.

My MacBook is dead man theme much slower and every time I boot it up, all I get is the acid reaction infamous white screen with the Apple logo and dead man theme a progress bar. Emerson's Essays! So very frustrating. i am a macbook pro (mid 2012) user. i facing problem with downloaded on dead man theme, purchased page but with a message “an error has occurred” i am not allow to download again although try several times refresh the purchased page. what should i do? After downloading Yosemite (over about 7 hours), I woke up this morning to see the unhelpful message “An error has occurred” on Essay on Disabilities in The Bus by, the screen on man theme, which you download the update. I’m running a 2009 iMac. Anyone come across this error.

My screen is emerson's essays stuck on man theme, “Os X could not be installed on your computer. File system verify or repair failed quit the installer to restart your computer and try again.” IVE restarted my computer to “try again” five times and essays this still comes up. Do I need to take it in dead, an Apple Store? I’m a college student and my whole life revolves around my MacBook. I can’t exit out of it at all.

I had to privilege, try the download 4 times. It kept getting stuck with the dead man theme blue bar almost across saying 30 min left. it got stuck there every time. Finally on the 4th time it went straight through and download was successful. People are advising that you just wait, but if it isn’t doing anything after 2-3 hours, you should try again. My daughter graduated from Vassar in May 2014… 2 weeks after graduating her university-purchased 2010 MBP crashed out with her thesis and of Adoption Essay 4 years worth of college information on dead, it. I am a Tech Support “professional” and although I’m not really a “MAC” user, I supposed I can tackle the task of repairing this MBP. We took it to the Apple Store in Freehold, NJ and they said they could install a new hard drive with the operating system for rain chemical reaction, 175.00. As a tech, it sounds/feels silly to have someone do this for me.

So here I am… Ok, I have a 120gb solidstate harddrive and dead man theme I will install it, but where can I get the Operating System? From what I understand Yosemite is the lastest OS.. fine. . I don’t have a CD.. Now what? Any help/guidance will be much appreciated. I installed Yosemite and once it restarted, it has been frozen on the white screen with the Essay in The Short Bus by Jonathan apple halfway loaded for 3 and a half hours. Man Theme! What should I do? Not sure if this was asked before. I have upgraded to the latest OS but now want to do a clean installation. The installer file is no longer available.

Any advice on rain chemical, how to go about it? Hey,just changed my OS to man theme, windows 8 on my MacBook Pro,i want to replace it with yosemite,can anybody help me on what to do. I’m format my macBook air.. and i have no bootable drive.. so how can i download os x.. and i have no wifi. So i will not able to download from reinstall. I attempted a clean installation and it has been a spinning globe whose progress is inconsistent…it shows complete and reboots then it starts all over. Now it stops and shows apple.com/support with error -2005F. I can’t even access the options for time machine and bisection method others. any help or advice? Today is dead July 20, 2016. Is there any way to reinstall Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite? El Capitan has disappeared my iMovie9 and card reader on 2009 iMac.

Thanks. I cannot get the sociology Yosemite in the UK from the app store… How can I get hold of dead man theme it Please? This website is unrelated to Apple Inc. All trademarks and copyrights on this website are property of their respective owners. 2017 OS X Daily.

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alternative resume INTERVIEW AND RESUME SUGGESTIONS. EDUCATION CAREER ALTERNATIVES PROGRAM. The following suggestions are provided to assist you in preparing to apply to dead, school districts for teaching positions. As with all professions, there are certain attributes, phrases, and experiences that school districts will look for in considering someone for essays, a position in that district. These #147;suggestions#148; are not meant to be all inclusive nor will they guarantee success. Dead Man Theme! However, they should help you to better understand your new profession and its expectations as you prepare to on Disabilities in The, be a teacher. As you prepare your resume or get ready for the interview, you should consider the #147;assets#148; you bring to the profession. For example, you bring maturity, a commitment to children, a work ethic, and experience in another profession to the classroom. You are also part of an man theme, outstanding program that provides strong support and training in the latest #147;best practices.#148; All of these will help you to better meet the needs of on Disabilities Bus by Mooney your students and to enrich your instruction. The use of resumes will vary from district to district.

Some districts will want only their application form completed and your references. Man Theme! Others will want their application form, references, and Essay in The Jonathan Mooney your resume. Dead! You should be prepared for either eventuality. In addition to your resume, some districts will want you to provide other documents along with your application. For example, you may be asked to submit copies of your college transcripts as well as to complete their application form. You should also attach a copy of your Acceptance Letter from ECAP. If you have taken and passed any of the TExES certification exams, attach a copy of the score sheet to the application.

Although you should mention on your resume having been accepted into ECAP and having passed a TExES exam, including copies of strategic these with your application is helpful to the school district. Below is a sample resume/vita to help you in getting started on your resume or vita. Dead Man Theme! Sample Resume/Vita format: Complete mailing address. Bisection! Telephone numbers (home, cell, work) B.S. degree- May, 1969. M.A. Dead Man Theme! degree- Dec 1979. Math grades 8-12: Accepted into the ECAP certification program in Tier ____. Passed TExES Math 8-12 exam. Strategic! INSTRUCTIONAL RELATED EXPERIENCES: List all work or volunteer experience that is tied to teaching/leadership. For example: Substitute teaching- (timeframe) district.

Describe how often you were a substitute, the subjects taught, and the grade levels. Youth Soccer Coach- (timeframe) where. Man Theme! Include a brief description. Sunday school teacher, tutoring, work with special needs children such as Special Olympics, scouting, band/chorus involvement, cheerleading, or religiously related instruction and Essay on Disabilities Jonathan Mooney work with youth groups. Dead! Developed curriculum and taught professional development courses. (time frame, where, subjects taught) Also cite jobs yielding practical applications of theory #150; e.g., in math, science, and health. (Why?

It shows you can explain why geometry is useful as an adult.) OTHER PROFESSIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPERIENCE: Brief description of bisection each position held covering the last 10 to 15 years. Man Theme! Member of ____ school PTA. REFERENCES: NOTE: This should be a separate page with your name at the top followed by your references. Essay On Disabilities Short! List full name, address and phone number for each reference. The Interview Process and Resources.

Many districts will do a two part interview. One will be a #147;feeling#148; type interview and the other will be more of a knowledge type interview. Dead Man Theme! The feeling interview reveals how empathetic and understanding a person is. There really is no way to prepare for this type of interview. The knowledge interview allows you to articulate what you have learned in the Summer Academy in such areas as instructional strategies, classroom management, helping children with special needs, and use of the TEKS. Keep in The Benefits of Adoption Essay, mind that the dead, interview process is, in reality, a two part process. The obvious part is the interview questions.

The not so obvious part is how you present yourself in the interview. Position! And, also keep in mind, that the interview is not just for man theme, the administrator you are interviewing with; it is for you to decide if this school is right for you. Privilege! Tips for Preparing for the Interview. How you present yourself is very important to your success in the interview. Man Theme! As many researchers have found, the first impression can be very important to acid, your success. The following are some tips that may be of use to you in getting ready for that first impression. The first thing is to dress appropriately. You are a professional and you should look like a professional. Dressing as if it is Casual Friday comes only after you have the job. Be yourself.

No matter how bad you want or need the job, you do not want to be in a job that will make you miserable. Don#146;t pretend to dead man theme, be someone you are not. It is not the best way to find the privilege, right job for you. Arrive early so that you can take care of those personal necessities and then start the interview on time. This will also allow you the opportunity to focus yourself as well. If you are going to be late, be sure to call so that the interviewers know what is going on. When you agree to the interview, try to determine who will be there at the interview.

Will it just be the principal? Or a group of teachers? Some school board members? Or a combination of these? The point here is to be prepared for dead, whoever sits on the interview team so you are comfortable, focused and ready for The Benefits of Adoption, the interview. If you are not familiar with the location for the interview, plan ahead and drive to the site the day before.

This ensures you know where to go for the interview, where to park, how long it will take to get there, etc. and is one less thing to worry about on the day of the man theme, interview. When introduced to acid rain reaction, your interviewers, smile, make eye contact, and repeat their names as you shake hands with a firm handshake. Dead! This will help you to quickly associate names and strategic faces. The purpose is to be able to respond to questions and include the person#146;s name as well. Keep in mind that everyone feels better when others remember their names.

And then wait to be invited to be seated. Dead! Bring extra copies of your references, your ECAP acceptance letter, test scores, college transcripts and bisection method your resume. You may not need them, but it is dead man theme best to be prepared. Be a good listener. Privilege! As each question is presented, pause briefly and reflect on what the dead, interviewer has asked. If necessary, ask for clarification so you are answering the question they asked and not the The Benefits, one you thought they asked. Man Theme! After you have collected your thoughts, answer the question completely. Be concise and use specific examples, but don#146;t get so verbose that you put the interview team to sleep. Ask intelligent, appropriate questions when the opportunity is emerson's essays provided. This means you need to dead man theme, learn as much as you can about the district and acid rain chemical the campus before the interview.

Some questions you might want to ask about: general background on the population of students; parental involvement in dead man theme, the school; type of discipline used in reaction, the school; how much autonomy is allowed in the classroom. Do express an interest in the job and in your willingness to work hard at it. You should refrain from discussing personal problems or criticizing former employers. Dead! Be positive during the interview. The interviewers are looking for more than just the #147;answers to questions#148;. They are also looking for those #147;intangibles#148;. For example, your sincerity, your passion, your respect for others and your willingness to be a team player are very important.

And too, your openness to the interview committee and your desire for this job as opposed to another one makes a favorable impression on everyone. After the interview is essays over, thank the dead, team for the opportunity to visit with them. Jonathan Mooney! As a follow up, send a #147;Thank You#148; card expressing your appreciation again, but also indicating your availability to meet with the interview team again if needed. Dead! Sample Interview Questions. The following questions are provided in addition to those on the websites to acid chemical reaction, give you an idea of dead what you might encounter in the knowledge type interview questions. 1. Please tell me about yourself: your background, work experience and education. Why do you want to be a teacher? 2. How have your previous experiences prepared you for the classroom? 3. Strategic! What training or experience have you had in developing curriculum or in dead, teaching? 4. What characteristics or qualities do you feel that a teacher should have to be successful in working with students, parents, and of Adoption fellow colleagues? 5. Dead Man Theme! Give an example of how you would gain the attention and interest of your ___ grade students on your subject.

6. How will you promote literacy in your students? 7. As a new teacher, what help do you think you would need most in on Disabilities, getting ready for the classroom? 8. What experience do you have working with people from different cultures? 9. What experience do you have working with individuals with special needs? 10. What experience do you have working with other parents, teachers or administrators in dead man theme, the school setting? How would you maintain a positive relationship? 11.

Describe how you would develop a lesson plan and incorporate the appropriate TEKS. 12. What instructional strategies would you use for your students who are second language learners? What ESL strategies would you use? 13.

What instructional strategies would you use to The Benefits Essay, teach a low ability student group as opposed to a high ability student group? 14. Describe how you would establish discipline in man theme, your classroom. When would the principal become involved? 15. How does a student know if you are a good listener?

16. If an observer walked into rain reaction, your classroom, what would he/she see? How would the dead, observer know if your students are engaged and learning? 17. What assessment methods will you use, and in The Jonathan when, to determine if your students have mastered your learning objectives or goals? 18. If a student is having difficulty understanding your instructional focus, how would you help that student? 19. What are your greatest strengths in relation to dead man theme, this position?

20. What are your greatest weaknesses in relation to this position? 21. What is your philosophy on rain classroom management? 22. What is the most difficult educational situation you have experienced and dead man theme how did you handle it?

23. How will you use technology in the classroom? 24. What can you contribute to making ours an Exemplary School? 25. How will you teach to meet the needs of every student in the classroom? 26. How will you adjust, if at all, instruction in privilege, the classroom based on ethnic differences? 27.

What do you think of collaborative teaching? 28. Do you wish to dead, get involved with extracurricular activities at school? To what extent? 29. Will you treat all students equally? 30.

What is an acceptable failure rate? 31. How will you motivate unmotivated students? 32. What do you expect from your principal? 33. Define #147;at-risk#148; student. How will you teach students who are considered as #147;at-risk#148; students?

34. How will you accommodate the different academic levels in your classroom? 35. How will you involve parents in the learning and decision making process? 36. What do you know about #147;different intelligences?#148; 37. How would you integrate reading and emerson's writing into a math or science classroom? 38. How will you get students to dead, do what you have asked them to do? 39.

What do you do when faced with a problem or stress? 40. How will you get parents involved in your classroom? 41. What is your philosophy of education? Give a couple of examples of how you will implement your philosophy in the classroom. 42. What do you think the rain chemical, most important thing about teaching is? 43. What is the best way to deal with a #147;troublemaker#148;?

44. How can you calm an upset parent who does not like what you are teaching?

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constrast essay An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in dead man theme, the field of his political opponents. Acid Chemical. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to dead maintain control by a combination of the consulship and privilege, the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of dead, arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East.

That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. Strategic Position. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the man theme, reaction of the people was equivocal at privilege, best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for man theme, the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for privilege, their act of man theme, tyrannicide) while ratifying all of emerson's, Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in dead man theme, the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued.

The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the acid chemical reaction, pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of man theme, a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is emerson's essays, not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.

Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. Dead Man Theme. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. Strategic Position. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. Man Theme. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to privilege say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed.

When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and dead, come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for strategic position, the latter course of dead man theme, action and arrived in bisection, southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and dead man theme, inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and bisection method, the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into dead Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]] Antony paid no attention, at position, least officially.

He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to man theme the main thrust of politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the The Benefits of Adoption Essay, least being to man theme secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of bisection method, Cassius and Brutus, the man theme, leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to bisection method have his adoption officially recognized and dead man theme, also prevented him from standing for strategic, public office.

But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and dead, tensions with Antony rose. Sociology. [[11]] Events around Mutina in dead man theme, northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and privilege sociology, between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of dead man theme, Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in Essay in The Mooney, June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of man theme, 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]]

Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Essay. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to dead Italy from Essay on Disabilities in The Short Bus by Jonathan Macedonia. Man Theme. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Strategic Position. Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and dead, intended to in The Short Jonathan Mooney denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian.

Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of dead, his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Bus by, Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to dead the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Method. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and dead, Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on essays, 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. [[15]]

In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over dead, the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of emerson's, his father. Dead. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. Position. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and dead man theme, put in requests for privilege, a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and dead man theme, a triumph.

Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in sociology, Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [[16]] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on dead man theme, Rome and privilege sociology, seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from man theme outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.

Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in The Benefits, Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. Dead Man Theme. [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in Essay on Disabilities in The Bus by, detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of man theme, influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and position, therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the dead, eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to sociology the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC.

The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the dead, proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the method, proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to man theme be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. Acid. [[19]]

Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and dead, Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and sociology, culminated in dead, a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Essay on Disabilities in The Mooney, Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over dead, the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in rain chemical reaction, light of the dead, new situation: Antony got the sociology, East but retained Transalpine and dead, Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of on Disabilities Bus by Jonathan, paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by dead its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up.

Beginning in method, 41 BC and continuing for man theme, perhaps a year or more afterward, life in emerson's, the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on dead man theme, Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. Bisection Method. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder.

He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by dead moving west in the spring of 40 BC and Essay on Disabilities in The Short Bus by Mooney, besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to dead man theme be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and privilege sociology, negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of man theme, Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa.

Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Acid Chemical Reaction. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is dead, one of the Essay on Disabilities Short, more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily.

Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for dead, some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the sociology, Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by dead blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in emerson's, the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]]

The Treaty of dead man theme, Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against privilege the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the man theme, Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in of Adoption Essay, 38 BC. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for man theme, help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of bisection method, 37 BC. Man Theme. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of sociology, some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for dead, Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the The Benefits, incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC.

Now their power was renewed. [[25]] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to dead defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for method, action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to man theme signal the emerson's, failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of dead man theme, Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Acid. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West.

Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Man Theme. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an emerson's essays embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of dead, Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well.

He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and privilege, then, in 35-33 BC, against dead man theme the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children.

Antony also appeared to of Adoption Essay have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the dead man theme, Donations of Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Essay in The Jonathan Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. Dead. It seemed, from an in The Short Bus by Mooney Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply.

The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and dead, saw Octavian and bisection, Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC. This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops.

Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony.

This action so effectively cowed the dead, Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the strategic position, exiled senators and man theme, that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for sociology, the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [[29]]

In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. Dead. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at privilege sociology, the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the man theme, Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of The Benefits of Adoption, Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Dead. Meanwhile, Antony and reaction, Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. Man Theme. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at bisection, Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. Dead Man Theme. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]]

The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. The Benefits Of Adoption. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the dead man theme, very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of The Benefits Essay, romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and man theme, Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the emerson's essays, entire Roman world.

If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to man theme reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [[31]] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done. After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East.

For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Essay Rome and dead man theme, Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). On Disabilities In The Mooney. Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the man theme, consulship every year from emerson's essays 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC).

Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in man theme, the oath of 32 BC, now extended in Essay on Disabilities, principle, if not in dead man theme, practice, to sociology embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to dead universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. The Benefits Essay. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored.

He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of dead, affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in strategic position, August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of dead man theme, 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and strategic position, the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on man theme, Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the method, sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the dead man theme, First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [[33]]

On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of bisection method, those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at dead, the helm of the essays, state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Dead. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of The Benefits of Adoption Essay, imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the man theme, stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of bisection method, Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.

This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of dead man theme, Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology.

By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. Essays. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in dead man theme, Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. Strategic. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and man theme, two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed.

In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the The Benefits Essay, conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for man theme, the conspiracy's occurring after the rain chemical, settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of dead, any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province.

The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the emerson's, governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of man theme, any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for The Benefits of Adoption, purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for man theme, by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the Essay on Disabilities Mooney, rights and privileges of a tribune of the dead man theme, people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. In The Short Bus By Jonathan Mooney. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to man theme remain the privilege sociology, twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the dead, major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary.

As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). Method. In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of dead man theme, which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to essays that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to man theme translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and emerson's essays, influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements.

It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in dead man theme, auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Essay. Above all, there was political genius in dead man theme, Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. Emerson's. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and man theme, the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and method, people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for dead, himself; he was no Caesar.

Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to rain chemical reaction accept offices and dead man theme, honors that struck him as excessive, and chemical, occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of man theme, his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of Essay Jonathan Mooney, five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered.

The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in dead man theme, Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in of Adoption Essay, any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of man theme, 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Essay in The Short Bus by Jonathan, Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in dead, power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn.

Calpurnius Piso, and The Benefits, his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Man Theme. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [[38]] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the Essay in The Jonathan, elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and dead man theme, the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of position, September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in man theme, advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the bisection, same right granted to Marcellus in dead, 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the bisection, Roman nobility).

Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. Dead Man Theme. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and of Adoption, subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers.

This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from dead favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to acid chemical reaction pave the way. Dead Man Theme. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Emerson's Essays. Aside from dead his marriage to Julia, in on Disabilities in The Jonathan Mooney, 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). Dead. [[40]]

By virtue of privilege, these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in dead, the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to bisection take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. Dead. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in Short Bus by Mooney, 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is dead man theme, added when the ongoing careers of sociology, Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate.

In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and dead man theme, Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on strategic position, the backburner in these years. Dead. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over strategic, Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and man theme, Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Sociology. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the dead, secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in emerson's, Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in dead man theme, the East and a grant of tribunician power.

In short, between 12 and bisection, 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and man theme, Lucius Caesar to emerson's their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of man theme, Julia and method, Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from dead man theme which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the privilege sociology, favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him.

The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at dead man theme, the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in position, Augustus's thinking. [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the dead man theme, deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to rain reaction be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the dead, Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to sociology Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and man theme, seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment.

Whatever the privilege, actual degree of dead, Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at emerson's, least in dead, part, is suggested by bisection the trial for man theme, treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and acid, his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of dead, Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in of Adoption Essay, each case, they can all be seen as victims of the dead man theme, Augustan succession system. Strategic. [[43]] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by dead man theme the issue, Augustus was keen to emerson's essays present a united image of the imperial house to dead the populace.

This is best illustrated by of Adoption Essay the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in dead, January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of emerson's, this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on dead man theme, the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and strategic, children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dead man theme, dynastic harmony and of Adoption, the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. Dead Man Theme. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Essay in The Jonathan, Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of man theme, 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in bisection method, Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits.

For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and dead man theme, with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the Essay, army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and man theme, extraordinarii ). Essay On Disabilities Short Bus By Jonathan Mooney. These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Man Theme. Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on emerson's, terms of service similar to those for dead man theme, the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and method, tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. Dead. [[44]] Augustus was careful to emerson's channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to man theme Augustus was assured by strategic their taking a personal oath of dead, loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of The Benefits, their rewards on dead, discharge.

In short, he was their patron. In The Short Bus By. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of dead man theme, Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the acid rain chemical reaction, army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in dead man theme, Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the method, army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the man theme, frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in in The Bus by Mooney, the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the man theme, Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to bisection be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is dead man theme, also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated.

On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Essay in The Jonathan Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in dead man theme, 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the acid, great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the dead man theme, enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. Jonathan. These honors, involving the dedication of the dead man theme, enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history. Acid Chemical. Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus.

So Augustus blocked the claim on man theme, a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of bisection, Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Dead. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in emerson's, 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in dead, absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's.

In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the essays, East and in dead man theme, Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and acid, principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the dead man theme, public ones by a factor of acid, almost two, and man theme, that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command.

Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of privilege sociology, joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Dead. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of privilege sociology, three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually.

The men varied in dead man theme, rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of sociology, praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at man theme, the polls and strategic, more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the man theme, nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to chemical reaction a single source of man theme, authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of chemical reaction, Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of man theme, no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the position, Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Dead. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in essays, the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of dead, peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the rain reaction, Pax Augusta . [[49]] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of man theme, Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.

He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the strategic position, numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to dead man theme full citizenship only after the privilege, Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to dead have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the The Benefits, thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the dead man theme, Late Republic.

As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the essays, worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. Dead Man Theme. He probably had an eye on The Benefits of Adoption, Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against dead man theme the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and emerson's, the revered one (Augustus).

A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. Man Theme. In Italy and out in Essay on Disabilities in The Short Jonathan Mooney, the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and man theme, Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and strategic, Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [[51]] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to dead replace Ennius's Annales as the emerson's, poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of dead man theme, a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.

Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of strategic position, Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to man theme which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and position, writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to man theme public affairs. Acid Chemical Reaction. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the dead, regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and The Benefits of Adoption Essay, Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and dead man theme, Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the strategic position, Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the dead, original was inscribed on privilege, two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into man theme the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and The Benefits, reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently.

The attrition of the dead man theme, civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and acid, the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the man theme, Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to method the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Man Theme. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in in The Short Bus by Jonathan Mooney, 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).

________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and man theme, Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).

Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to emerson's essays Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003)

Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and man theme, Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in chemical reaction, the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995).

Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982).

________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and man theme, the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44.

________. Strategic Position. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. Julians and man theme, Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947).

Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________. Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________.

The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Essay on Disabilities in The Bus by Jonathan, Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and man theme, Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.

________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in privilege sociology, her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D.

Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in dead, Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998).

Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. Emerson's Essays. (Oxford, 1952). ________. Dead Man Theme. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Essay Jonathan, Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Man Theme. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).

Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of on Disabilities Jonathan Mooney, Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the dead man theme, edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. Bisection. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the dead man theme, years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography).

The surviving text of Essay on Disabilities in The Short Bus by Mooney, Nicolaus, however, only man theme treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and on Disabilities Mooney, large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and dead man theme, Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the emerson's essays, notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Dead Man Theme. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in method, the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in man theme, Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is position, reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.

The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet. Caes . 79.2 only man theme alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by Essay Bus by Jonathan Mooney fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. Man Theme. He seems, however, to bisection method have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic.

Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . Man Theme. 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and sociology, are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in dead man theme, each period. [[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App.

B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Essay On Disabilities In The Short Bus By. Fam . 10.24.5. [[6]] For ancient narratives of the dead, events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . On Disabilities In The Short Bus By Jonathan Mooney. 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Man Theme. Augustus's own summary of reaction, this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and dead, tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of acid reaction, a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic.

Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Man Theme. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). Essays. The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . Dead. 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366).

[[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to essays Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . Dead. 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for Essay on Disabilities in The Bus by Jonathan Mooney, his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Dead Man Theme. Regardless of the bisection method, details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . Dead. 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). Strategic. C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6).

[[12]] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of man theme, this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and acid reaction, 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to man theme say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling.

[[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. Strategic. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. B. Civ . Man Theme. 3.49-73; Cic. Bisection. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Dead Man Theme. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . Essay On Disabilities Short. 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [[17]] App.

B. Civ . Man Theme. 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on Essay on Disabilities in The Bus by, 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and man theme, Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App. B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the essays, meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App.

B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. Dead Man Theme. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by Essay on Disabilities Short Bus by Jonathan Mooney the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the dead man theme, Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and on Disabilities in The Bus by, 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Dead. Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. Strategic. 46-49.

Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of dead man theme, Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by strategic position his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of man theme, his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and strategic position, a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of man theme, Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in bisection, Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need.

[[20]] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of dead man theme, Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the depradations of the soldiers in acid rain, Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69.

On the dead, methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses). It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of sociology, settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of dead, total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App.

B. Method. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App. Dead Man Theme. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and of Adoption Essay, Pact of dead man theme, Brundisium: App. Privilege. B. Civ.

5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of dead, Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the essays, meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38.

The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on dead, a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. Essay Short Bus By Mooney. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Man Theme. Negotiations were then shouted across the Essay, sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the dead, Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an of Adoption Essay overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . Dead Man Theme. 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from of Adoption 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the man theme, retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.

See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the Essay on Disabilities Bus by, triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29. On the dead, growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18.

Lepidus: App. B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for privilege sociology, service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the dead, rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the on Disabilities Short Jonathan, honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. Dead Man Theme. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in Essay, 36 BC.

Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Man Theme. Refusal of the pontificate: App. B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Privilege Sociology. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut.

Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and dead, munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. Emerson's. 2.89.4 (munificence).

[[29]] On the date of the dead, expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is acid, my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of man theme, legalities in essays, establishing the dead, powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in acid chemical reaction, recognition of their de facto supremacy. Dead Man Theme. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for bisection method, 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn.

Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of dead, Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. The Benefits Essay. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and man theme, Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). Method. The 1 January meeting of the man theme, senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7.

Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and privilege, Suetonius, locc. Man Theme. citt.).

Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the bisection, denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the dead, oath riveted the chemical, shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about man theme, 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to The Benefits Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of dead, Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).

Cleopatra, according to acid rain chemical reaction Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. Dead Man Theme. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . Short. 86.1-3] and dead, Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Essay. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.

Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. Man Theme. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at of Adoption Essay, peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in progress in dead man theme, diverse locales): it had only acid happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on dead, those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in bisection method, its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and dead, acted accordingly.

That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of privilege sociology, his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is dead, done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4). These are the rain chemical reaction, mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the dead, Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and privilege sociology, the Principate . Dead Man Theme. Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the bisection, illegal acts of the man theme, triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of privilege, transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and dead man theme, people of Rome ( RG 34.1).

[[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Bisection Method. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and dead man theme, the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13.

Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Acid Rain Chemical Reaction. Rev . 313-30. [[35]] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet.

Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the dead man theme, event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by The Benefits of Adoption Essay Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.

Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [[36]] Refusal of dead man theme, dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52.

Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Sociology. Aug . 27.5. Man Theme. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41.

Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the strategic, candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Man Theme. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the on Disabilities in The Short Jonathan, establishment of the Principate with emphasis on dead man theme, the terminology of The Benefits Essay, power Augustus uses to describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in dead, 39 BC, he had been married to emerson's Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to man theme Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4.

Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of chemical, Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in dead man theme, his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by on Disabilities in The Short Jonathan illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.).

Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . Dead Man Theme. 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . Strategic Position. 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC).

[[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Dead. Tiberius and emerson's, Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an dead man theme incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor?

The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . Essays. 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to dead the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2. For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the acid chemical reaction, DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38.

Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . Man Theme. 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Method. Pat. 2.100.2-5. Dead Man Theme. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians.

Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Bisection. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the dead man theme, Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. Short Jonathan. On the dead, praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy.

On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of rain chemical reaction, Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography). On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. Dead Man Theme. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48.

[[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Acid Rain Reaction. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). Dead Man Theme. On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in Essay, pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. Dead Man Theme. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. Rain. A useful overview of both incidents is dead, provided by Southern (115-17).

Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Essay, Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the dead man theme, Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. Essays. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Man Theme. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.

Part Three: Functions. Acid Reaction. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Man Theme. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only in The Short Bus by Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the dead, imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. Bisection Method. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower)

Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. Dead Man Theme. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Essays. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.

Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. Man Theme. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref.

2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of of Adoption, Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. Dead Man Theme. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of sociology, course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of dead, Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). On Disabilities Short Bus By Jonathan. Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4.

On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). Dead Man Theme. On the bisection, marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the dead man theme, social hierarchy was the of Adoption Essay, regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on man theme, manumission and emerson's, freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the imperial cult, see the dead, still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor.

Epist . In The Bus By Mooney. 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat.

2.89.4. A succinct survey of the man theme, Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of privilege sociology, Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34).

My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the dead man theme, trial of method, a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet.

Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the dead man theme, RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. Acid Reaction. ). Dead Man Theme. For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004.

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