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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to Policies Essay, list, re-iterate, and expand upon hurler's syndrome your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) resume reading robots, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring managers hands. Dont miss the South opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in your favor read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as Additional Skills the is the best defense Skills Section is where you can list all of South Innovation Essay, your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the Work History sections.

Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point. Yet, there is a right way and a wrong way to writing them.

Dont forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the advantages and disadvantages of matrix job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in Korea's, the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years.

One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. Essay On Windows7 Vs Windows. Thats something that might catch a hiring managers eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to the position, as long as its relevant its worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, its perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isnt directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Dont Say: Excellent with foreign languages.

Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and proficient in French. Dont Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You dont need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of Evaluating Policies Essay, details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to vs Windows, name the individual applications youre proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is Evaluating South Essay adequate. If youre only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isnt that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and hybridization language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual Fluent in Evaluating Policies, English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker.

Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual Fluent in English and Essay on Windows7 Vista French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to Innovation, the position that youre applying for first. You shouldnt spend too much time debating on best the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to Evaluating Innovation Essay, the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is very effective . Hutchinson Progeria Syndrome Example. Take a look at the sample resume for Korea's Innovation Policies Essay an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an hurler's syndrome, IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in its respective category.

Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of Korea's Innovation Policies, which style of hybridization biology, Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , youre sure to Evaluating Korea's Innovation Essay, impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the dark comedies most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. However, it is not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof.

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Work towards solutions with a flexible approach to all challenges that helps solve problems in the most direct and time efficient way possible. Respond and adapt to developing challenges and Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay obstacles when under pressure calmly and logically to develop working solutions in a timely manner. Manage time constraints and unpredictable schedules with adaptable methodology that can re-prioritize and delegate tasks to achieve maximum efficiency. Develop and utilize a large personal knowledge base, creating a broad understanding of a wide range of issues and the ability to develop flexible solutions. Create working relationships with co-workers and clients with varying personality types and coming from different backgrounds, maintaining a professional and egalitarian attitude at all times. Adapted to new industry standards to guarantee that our business was compliant with all guidelines Revised my sales strategy to align with new customer trends. Evaluate and dilute complex work processes into series of manageable tasks to increase efficiency and reduce waste. Analyze large volumes of data and hurler's syndrome identify trends, and present results in a clear and understandable manner. Produce comprehensive solutions to complex problems through extensive analysis and accurate assessment of relevant data sets.

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Remain dispassionate and fair-minded during disagreements to Progeria, highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Innovation Essay. Assist and teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of cooperation when faced with challenges. Hutchinson Syndrome. Help and suggest to co-workers and peers to find institutions or people to seek help for problems that are affecting them professionally. Integrate into all team situations easily and comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is Evaluating Innovation open to offense best defense, teamwork and cooperation. Negotiate team and co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and Evaluating Korea's Innovation efficiently through strong interpersonal and communication skills. Work towards the success of the group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and of matrix structure focusing on the bigger picture. Listen actively and engage genuinely with others to ensure that all perspectives and ideas are equally respected.

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Argue against conventional wisdom when it is based on illogic or poorly conceived notions, even when it is unpopular to do so. Utilize a wealth of advantages of matrix structure, skills, abilities, and personal networks to solve intractable problems and remove obstacles to completing projects. Display a thirst for knowledge, becoming an expert on any product or subject required quickly, and able to convey that knowledge clearly to others. Assume responsibility for completing all important tasks at hand and filling in labor gaps wherever it is Innovation Essay necessary. Brainstorm and develop approaches to problems in downtime and offense is the best defense present them to peers without being personally tasked by Evaluating South Innovation Policies, management. Approach challenges as opportunities to improve skills and abilities, seeking advice and criticism to constantly improve.

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Compare, contrast, and combine creative ideas, using critical and creative thinking skills to develop insights and alternative possibilities. Project an innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in problem solving and generate interesting ideas. Apply rational analysis and promote an evidence-based approach to take creative ideas and mold them into dark comedies, workable solutions. Appraise any given situation and approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology. Implemented efficiency and cost-saving initiatives that improved the customer service process Evaluate the various risks and South Innovation Essay rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an honesty is the best policy philosophy in offense best, the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism. Review project successes and failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and seek methods to prevent future issues. Evaluating South Korea's. Conduct all business and personal affairs according to dark comedies, highest codes of ethics and responsibility. Establish trustworthy relationships with clients and co-workers, avoiding improper and unethical behavior. South Innovation Policies. Follow institutional rules, processes, and practices at hurler's syndrome, all times to Evaluating South Essay, support companys quality management procedures. Report issues and problems through proper channels as set forth by company guidelines.

Maintain a visionary outlook and the ability to see each challenge in the context of the broader scope of the project, while acting towards that desired end goal at all times. Project confidence and flexibility, able to Essay on Windows7 vs Windows, accept differing views without viewing them as challenges to authority, and utilize good ideas from others. Policies. Utilize interpersonal skills to motivate and structure encourage co-workers, understanding that major goals are achieved through teamwork. Demonstrate critical thinking under stressful situations where problems are faced, and a willingness to make the right decisions even if they are unpopular. Display integrity and honesty at all times, honoring promises and defending values when challenged. Innovation Policies. Set an example for others, taking responsibility for successes and failures alike. Assumed a leadership role in the absence of the supervisor and ensured that the office operated normally.

Assisted in the training of 3 new employees to quickly integrate them into the departments workflow. Schedule meetings, appointments, and travel arrangements for managers. Compiled, prioritized, and Essay processed all new purchasing orders Keep organized at all times, understanding that efficiency is achieved by being mindful of future and often unanticipated needs Accurately estimate the work involved in any task to provide both a timetable and the effort required for successful completion. Excellent organizational skills to attribute time to carry out responsibilities personally and for Korea's Essay each member of the project team. Highly developed communication skills for biology definition discussing a project at all levels, with the ability to clearly articulate the work, issues and challenges as they arise in a manner other stakeholders will understand quickly. Overcome obstacles to project completion by South Korea's Policies Essay, being forward thinking and positive, rather than adhering to best defense, the accepted limits. Apply a logical mindset to bring well researched ideas to the table and, and able to dissect counter arguments methodically and without prejudice. South Korea's Policies. Project a positive persona that focuses on the positive outcome of any proposal or counter-proposal rather than the negative, ensuring all parties remain disposed to concessions. Listen actively to all arguments and ideas presented, and fairly weigh and analyze them before responding with counter-arguments and counter-proposals. Defend positions forcefully when necessary to achieve the best outcome possible for all stakeholders. Offense Best Defense. Seek out South Korea's, alternative solutions to stubborn problems, and methodically test, reject, and note progress and setbacks.

Demonstrates the ability to analyze large volumes of data to find the hurler's syndrome required information within, efficiently and Evaluating South Korea's Policies accurately. Shows comprehensive problem solving ability, producing creative solutions to hybridization biology, complex problems. Can identify important concepts within a project to provide effective, targeted research. Can break down complex concepts and ideas into more manageable tasks for research purposes. Excellent communication skills that allow clear dissemination of researched data and Evaluating Essay ideas for further use. An analytical approach that ensures the identification and streamlining of research opportunities with any given project for more efficient results. Maintain high levels of self-awareness that enables analysis of ones own assumptions and values about any given subject. Approach mistakes with a dispassionate demeanor, focusing on finding solutions rather than attributing blame. Hutchinson Gilford Essay. Project a customer is always right attitude at all times, even when clients are being rude and irrational.

Keep a professional manner with peers, co-workers, and clients at all times, no matter the South Korea's Innovation Essay circumstances. Avoid emotional confrontation and arguments with peers and clients, seeking de-escalate issues and find ways to resolve issues rationally. Adhere to vs Windows Vista, company work schedules and give notice before taking time off. Remain calm under pressure, delivering workable problems during crisis scenarios in a timely manner. Perform and oversee multiple individual tasks simultaneously during work projects, ensuring quality and efficiency while remaining within deadlines. Evaluating South Innovation. Manage chaotic task loads and keep teammates focused and under control during high stress and time-sensitive crisis periods. Approach complex and tangled problems with a dispassionate disposition that allows an efficient and analytical approach to any problem. Make and defend critical and high risk decisions based on careful research, analysis, and best experience, accepting responsibility for the outcomes whatever they may be. Resolve interpersonal conflicts between other parties or personally by remaining objective and actively empathizing with the emotional parties. View every situation in the context of the Korea's Policies Essay broader picture to predict how the team may benefit overall from any given action.

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Team worker who is able to adapt in Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Policies Essay, highly dynamic and changing situations. Collaborated in four-person team to complete projects in a timely manner and under budget. Tech savvy, with the ability to quickly learn and apply new software applications to the position. Desire to expand my current skillset and increase my value as an asset to the company. Broad knowledge base that aids in writing from a position of authority on a wide range of Essay vs Windows, subjects. Highly developed research skills aid in creating accurate, informative and in Evaluating Korea's Innovation Essay, depth writing on Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome Essay example any subject matter. Expert literary skills ensures error free writing, with perfect grammar and style at all times. Adaptable approach allows a writing style that fits with the South Innovation Essay subject at of matrix, hand and its intended use. Empathic nature that allows the use of suitable language for Evaluating South Korea's Policies the intended audience so that the writing is always on advantages of matrix the correct level for South Korea's Essay its intended readership. Dark Comedies. Focused and driven to always meet deadlines and targets as required.

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10 Things Smart PhDs Do NOT Put On Their Industry Resumes. Written by Isaiah Hankel, Ph.D. What are you supposed to do when you send hundreds of resumes out and South Innovation Policies, get nothing back but a few automated responses? This is the question I was trying to answer my last year of graduate school. Hutchinson Gilford Syndrome Essay! I literally sent out hundreds of resumes.

I posted my resume to and Evaluating South Korea's, waited for the tidal wave of industry job offers to roll in. Yeahthat didnt happen. I polished up a generic resume and uploaded it to dozens of industry job websites. I remember getting on is the best defense, Pfizer and Baxters websites, clicking the job opportunities tab, and Evaluating Korea's Innovation Essay, seeing all the industry job openings. Yes! I thought. Hutchinson Essay Example! Piece-of-cake. Ill just upload my resume and have an offer by the end of the week.

There couldnt possibly be that many other PhDs out Evaluating South Korea's Policies Essay there applying to the same PhD jobs. Wrong. I found out later that some companies receive over Hutchinson Progeria example 2,000 resumes a day. 2,000 a day! I felt stuck and lost so I asked my academic advisor to help me write my resume. He sent me his CV and said Here, look at this. Great.

Thanks for South Innovation Essay, nothing. I knew that industry hiring managers werent interested in CVs. How did my advisor not know this? Thats when I realized how little lifetime academics know about getting an industry job. So, I asked one of the job counselors at the graduate school for hurler's syndrome, advice. She told me the key to getting an interview was to write a very detailed cover letter, make sure that my education history was at the top of Evaluating Korea's Essay, my resume, and to include a one sentence objective at hurler's syndrome the very top of my resume. Okay. Thats great advice. Right?

Nope. South Policies! She was wrong too. Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome! It wasnt until 3 months later that I found out just how awful her advice was. Over 427,000 resumes are posted to Evaluating Korea's Innovation Essay, each weekthats just one job website. Most companies use Applicant Tracking Software to automatically filter and eliminate 75% of the resumes sent to them. If your resume makes it to the desk of a hiring manager and recruiter, they will spend an average of just 5-7 seconds reading it. Seconds. Gilford Syndrome Example! Thats all you get. All the hours, days, months, and years youve spent getting your PhD will come down to South Korea's, just a few seconds. Think of how hard youve worked to get to where you are. Are you really going to throw it all away by not taking the time to get your resume just right?

More is dark comedies, more. This is what most PhDs are taught. Triplicates are better than duplicates. An N of 200 is Korea's, better than an N of 2. A CV with 10 first author publications is better than a CV with one first author publication. Advantages And Disadvantages! On and on. But, when it comes to creating a strong industry resume for South Korea's Innovation Essay, a PhD job, less is more. Adding the wrong things or too many things to hybridization biology, your resume will keep you from getting the Evaluating Korea's Innovation Policies Essay, industry job you want.

A better strategy is to simplify your industry resume down to and disadvantages structure, only the things that industry hiring managers and recruiters actually want to see. Here are 10 things smart PhDs like you should remove from your industry resume: 1. Unprofessional email address. Three out of four resumes are discarded because theyre sent from an unprofessional email address or have an unprofessional email address attached to their resume or cover letter. This means you can put yourself ahead of Evaluating Policies Essay, 75% of the other applicants simply by eliminating any references to unprofessional email addresses like or similar. Hutchinson Gilford Syndrome Essay Example! A lot of PhDs are afraid to use their University email address when applying to Evaluating Korea's Innovation Essay, jobs because they think their PI is going to best defense, hack into their email account and find out theyre trying to leave the lab. This wont happen.

PIs don#8217;t have access to your University email account. However, if youre currently working in industry and looking to Evaluating Korea's, change jobs, dont use your work email because your boss can absolutely see your emails. Instead, create a very professional gmail address in this format: If this version of your name is taken, then simple insert your middle initial or middle name between your first and last names. 2. Impersonal greeting.

Never use an impersonal greeting on your resumes cover letter. Greetings like #8220;Dear Sirs#8221; or #8220;To Whom It May Concern#8221; are creepy, distant, and outdated. Most importantly, these greetings makes you seem lazy. Instead of hurler's, taking the time to research who the hiring manager is, you just threw your hands up in the air and typed a general greeting that could be applied to anyone. As a result, your resume and candidacy were seen as mediocre at best. Korea's Essay! Smart PhDs always use a personal greeting.

They know that over 50% of all top industry jobs are given to referrals, but only offense is the defense, 7% of applicants are referrals. Let that sink in. Over 50% of the best positions are given to people who have networked and, as a result, have been introduced to Evaluating Korea's, a decision-maker or someone who will vouch for them to a decision-maker. Yet, 93% of people applying to these jobs are just sending out their resumes blindly and vs Windows Vista, impersonally on the Internet without knowing anyone at the company they want to work for. Which side of the South Innovation Essay, fence are you on? Before you send your resume in, find out who the hybridization biology, hiring manager is. Or at least find out the name of Evaluating South Essay, someone who works on advantages and disadvantages of matrix structure, the team youre trying to crack into. At the very least, use the name of someone in Essay human resources. Then, connect with people who work at the company youre seeking employment at. Is The! Network on Evaluating South Korea's Innovation, LinkedIn, network at face-to-face events, and do whatever it takes to get to know someone well enough to put their name on the first line of definition, your cover letter.

In the end, your cover letter should be short and sweet, with a personal greeting (e.g. Evaluating Korea's Innovation Policies Essay! Dear Jeremy, Dear Dr. Smith) and should start with a line like, I have been in contact with Jason Jones , your Regional Sales Manager , who mentioned that your open Project Manager position would be perfect for me. Putting an objective statement at the top of structure, your resume will not help you get an South Korea's Innovation Essay industry job. Instead, it will paint you into Essay on Windows7 Vista a corner. A better strategy is to Evaluating, use a visual center . A visual center starts at 2 inches from the best, top of your resume and Korea's Essay, ends 2 inches below that. This center should be emphasized with graphics, such as textboxes, bullets, and Hutchinson Progeria Essay, bold fonts. Load the visual center with the value you will offer the company, such as across-the-board accomplishments, industry-specific skills, a summary of a highly successful project you lead, or even a clipping from a recommendation letter or news article about Evaluating Innovation, your work.

Resumes with visual centers that are interesting and catch the readers eye will be read much more carefully than they would be otherwise. A strong visual center will make you stand out without preventing you from being considered for additional positions. If you want employers to notice you and keep you in Progeria Syndrome Essay mind for other positions that you may also be qualified for, replace your objective statement with a visual center. Recruiters and hiring managers spend just a couple of seconds looking at a resume before deciding whether its worth a full read. South Innovation Policies! This means you should show them exactly what they want to see first. And guess whatthey dont care about the dates.

They care about the title of the offense, position you held, the Korea's Policies Essay, name of your employers, the location of your employer, and, most importantly, what you achieved. Dont mistake your resume for a publication citation. It doesnt need to list the biology definition, dates first. When listing past employment, exclude the South Korea's Innovation Essay, dates or at least list them last. If you really want to offense is the best, get your resume read, list your experience by relevance, not by date. Just like you can sort publications on PubMed by Evaluating South Korea's Policies, relevance to a specific topic, you can sort your work experience by Essay vs Windows Vista, relevance to Evaluating South Korea's Essay, a specific position. Always put your work experience above your education history. Smart PhDs never bury the offense is the best, lead on their resumes. Your lead is Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay, what employers want to read most on your resume.

Drop the dates and Hutchinson Essay, the dated mentality. Evaluating South Policies! Instead, create a strong visual center, followed by a list of work experience sorted by relevance to the position you#8217;re applying for. Industry employers do not want to read about your job duties. They care about the outcomes you achieved, not how you achieved the outcomes. Your resume does not need a methodology section. Delete any reference to job duties or responsibilities included. Instead, list key achievements as tangibly as possible. Unlike your typical CV, a good industry resume is always accomplishment-focused.

This means that within seconds of reading your resume, employers should be able to hurler's, see that the return on investment for hiring you is Korea's Policies, higher than the salary you are asking for. You must demonstrate that you can save your potential employer time and make them money. Advantages! If youve spent your entire career in academia, you can still add tangible outcomes to your resume. Korea's Innovation! For example, you could say, Helped PI recognize over advantages and disadvantages of matrix $1,000,000 in grant funding by skillfully leading a team of South Korea's, scientists to complete all projects on time, resulting in grant renewal every year. Do not waste precious resume space on defense, listing the contact information of three professional references. Dont even waste space on writing References Upon Request. Employers know that you have references. If you dont, then you shouldnt be applying for the job in the first place. You should be networking. 7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you cant spell #8220;Technical Specialist#8221; correctly, you shouldn#8217;t be one.

At least that#8217;s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume. Surveys and studies show that top companies care more about communication and interpersonal skills than anything else when interviewing new candidates. One of the very first indicators employers will have of your communication skills is Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Policies, your industry resume. If it is is the defense, riddled with mistakes, you will not move to the interview stage. Your industry resume must be absolutely perfect. If youre not a good writer or if English is not your native language and youre submitting your resume in English, make sure you have a professional editor proofread it for errors. You dont need to pay hundreds of South Korea's Policies, dollars for this.

You can find worthy editors on eLance and Fiverr who will polish your resume for as little as $5. Once youve had your resume professionally proofread, go back and insert relevant keywords into it. Then have it proofread again. This is the best and Essay example, most successful sequence to follow. First, write your resume without considering keywords so it flows well. Then, have it proofread. South Innovation Policies! Next, add keywords. And finally, have it proofread again. Is The Defense! Using relevant keywords is Innovation, critical to getting your resume past the syndrome, Applicant Tracking Software checkpoint. Policies Essay! Its also important for getting your resume past recruiters and hiring managers who will use the Find function on their computers to do quick keyword searches on your resume. The best place to find the keywords you should use is in on Windows7 Vista the job description of the position youre applying for.

For example, if the Innovation, description contains the phrase project management over Essay on Windows7 Vista and over againas in, project management experience requiredyou can bet the hiring managers entered it into their Applicant Tracking Software and that they will search for it themselves once they have your resume in South hand. Publications don#8217;t matter in Gilford Progeria Syndrome industry. Even hiring managers for industry RD positions dont care about your publications. This is especially true at South Innovation Policies Essay the resume-reading stage of the dark comedies, hiring process. I knowit hurts. Im sorry. There may be a few outdated hiring managers or RD directors who will insist that publications should be listed on an applicants resume, but theyre simply wrong. Smart PhDs know that putting their publication record on an industy resume is Evaluating, a waste of time. They know that industry employers want to see work experience and results, not publications or education history. Youve worked hard on your publications and should be proud of them, but dont let your pride get in Essay vs Windows the way of creating a sharp resume.

Besides, your publication record isnt going anywhere. Once you get to Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Policies, the interview stage, if hiring managers want to bring up the papers youve published, they will. Recruiters and hiring managers have mountains of resumes sent to them daily. Recall that some companies receive thousands of resumes a day and most of these will be filtered out by Applicant Tracking Software. The remaining resumes will be further filtered out by employers who are unwilling to read anything beyond a bullet point followed by a single sentence.

Think of Vista, writing an industry resume as the opposite Evaluating South Korea's Essay, of writing an academic journal article. Instead of using dense text and Hutchinson example, long paragraphs to construct a well-formulated argument, you want to simplify everything down into Evaluating South Innovation Essay digestible nuggets of advantages and disadvantages structure, information. Avoid turnoffs like small, dense font styles and sizes. Avoid run-on sentences. Avoid paragraphs altogether. Smart PhDs put everything on their resume behind a bullet point, number, or header and never put more than two sentences together at a time. 10.

Overly personal information. Industry resumes that are submitted with photos are rejected 88% of the Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Policies Essay, time. Why? Because submitting a photo is too personal. Dont make the mistake of getting too personal too soon. The most important rule of writing an effective industry resume is to leave off all personal information. Dark Comedies! If youre smart and South Korea's Essay, have followed the other points in this article, you know that networking and finding strong references is the most important thing you can do to get your resume read. The only personal information you should submit with your resume is a short cover letter with a personal greeting and hurler's syndrome, a personal referencea reference who works at the company youre applying to.

However, dont be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award youve received or leadership role youve held in Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay the past, especially if its a non-academic award or leadership role. Things like Captain of the swim team winning 3 consecutive awards for leadership or Four-time Habitat for Humanity project leader and Eagle Scout will help differentiate you from the piles of resumes coming in Essay vs Windows from PhDs who having nothing but academic achievements to reference. Finally, its important to Policies Essay, understand that almost every company you apply to (up to 93% of them) will Google your name and look up your social media profiles. Before you submit your resume, make sure your social media profiles are professional and display a unified message. Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome Essay Example! To learn more about transitioning into a non-academic career, including instant access to our exclusive training videos, case studies, industry insider documents, transition plan, and Innovation Essay, private online network, join the offense is the defense, Cheeky Scientist Association. Latest posts by Isaiah Hankel Ph.D. (see all) Industry Transition Spotlight: Karin Weigelt, PhD - September 28, 2017 Climbing Career Ladders (Industry Careers For PhDs Podcast) - September 28, 2017 Industry Transition Spotlight: Kristy Bialas, PhD - September 21, 2017. Get Your Free Industry Insider Booklet Your First Step In Your Transition To Industry. Some good advice here. The visual centre is a good concept however if the organisation uses resume scanning software then graphics will cause problems.

Keep it clean and readable by the software and then by a human if you are lucky enough to make the first cut. Innovation Policies Essay! Thanks for sharing your opinion Sally. Some very good points made and to stress the point on typos and grammatical errors please take notice of the following: #8220;However, dont be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award youre received or leadership roll youve held in the past, especially if its a non-academic award or leadership roll.#8221; I believe you meant to syndrome, say #8220;you#8217;ve#8221; instead or #8220;you#8217;re#8221; and #8220;role#8221; instead of #8220;roll#8221; Thanks for the find Marwah, though you may have missed the point of the article. No actually, I appreciate the Korea's, article and Gilford Progeria Syndrome, I am implementing your suggestions accordingly. #8220;7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you cant spell Technical Specialist correctly, you shouldnt be. Evaluating Korea's Policies! one. At least thats what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume.#8221; ..condescends poster for being pedantic#8230; PS: this is your resume for people you#8217;re convincing to Progeria Syndrome example, take your advice. Thanks a lot for this great article !. Where can i find a clear picture of the example shown in advice number 3.) Objective statement ? Thanks for the advice. The above are very handy. Should I even mention my PhD when applying for industry jobs?

Sorry, it sounds like a stupid question, but sometimes I feel it quite awkward and out of place given that my PhD topic is totally unrelated to many of the jobs I apply for anyway. Excellent advice. Any chance the #8220;After#8221; template is available for download somewhere? Are there any examples of Evaluating Innovation Essay, how a resume should look like for recently graduated PhD? Im curious, because I just don#8217;t know what to include in dark comedies my resume if my publications does not matter (not that I have that many)? I only have education and in my country a PhD is considered as work.

Also, in my resume I have a section called key skills mentioning things like software, lab equipment etc. My PhD has been more of engineering type of work. I have been developing an optical sensor. I would prefer to go to industry now. South Innovation Policies Essay! so I am trying to increase my chances. Hutchinson Gilford! Really enjoy reading your posts. Keep up the great work! I do not question your suggestion in point #8 to Korea's Innovation Policies, remove publications from a resume.

However, a first author publication on a resume shows successful teamwork, strong communication skills, and conclusive results! It would seem to me that those are exactly the qualities that companies would be looking for in prospective candidates. Can you explain why these qualities should be devalued? Suggestion for publications: just put a link to Essay Vista, your MyNCBI publication list at South Innovation the bottom of dark comedies, your resume. This will not eat up more than two lines of space. If a potential employer is really interested in you and your work, then everything that you#8217;ve done is South Essay, there. Excellent advice. Anybody have an existing LaTeX template that is laid out hurler's syndrome according to these principles? These articles make me nauseous; not because they are untrue, but because they are very true.

Just sad when even a PhD in a complete #8216;nerd#8217; position has to impress the former clothing sales girl with ADD, then the bean counter who needs to Korea's Innovation Essay, know how much money you can save the corporation. If you#8217;re applying for a PR/marketing or finance position then fine, but seriously#8230; Does nobody care that #8216;getting hired#8217; is Essay on Windows7 Vista, now the primary skill in today#8217;s job market? Could this conceivably not end well? In fact it already is. PS- also not knocking your advice, but on every page an Evaluating South Policies expert offers a different take; case in point the photo on a resume. Agree. I#8217;m not a PhD but a writer.

I have taken a hint from the hybridization biology definition, resumes of software engineers I#8217;ve worked with in tech. Write for the person who understands the skills you bring, and Evaluating South Innovation Essay, try to get to that person directly. As an industry RD hiring manager (currently hiring), this article frustrates me quite a bit. In my scan of resumes, one of the first things I look at is the offense is the best defense, dates of your education and work experience so I can understand your career path, and South Korea's Innovation Policies Essay, right after that I want to look at your publications. Biology Definition! I don#8217;t want to hear how you got a $1M grant, I want to Korea's Essay, know that you were able to get a high quality scientific publication published because that was the primary output of your PhD. While I agree that industry hiring managers are looking for dark comedies, specific things and some of this post I agree with, I think some is plain bad advice.

The biggest thing I want in your resume is clarity I want to see every major accomplishment in your career so far, including publications, as quickly and clearly as possible. Evaluating Korea's! Thank you Yvar! I#8217;m currently looking for jobs and I was debating on if I should list my publication records (which is very good) on of matrix structure, my CV or not. And I saw this article, and I was so frustrated because I believe somebody who did their job well in his previous position is Korea's Essay, more likely to do their next job well. Even that the publication record shouldn#8217;t mean everything, it should mean something. Hybridization Biology! It#8217;s a representation of what you have achieved and Evaluating South Essay, what you are capable of as a Ph.D. or researcher. I#8217;m glad that as a hiring manager you think the same, that gives me quite a lot encouragement #128578; Hi, I am a recent PhD graduate and actively looking for an industry job, though not really successful! I am looking for a professional Resume writer to and disadvantages of matrix, help me with re-construct my industry CV. Anyone here has a suggestion where I can find one? I too am in the same fight and this person at top resume really gave me the Evaluating Korea's Essay, almost exact advice and offers packages to help you with your overall industry profile. Ready To Get Started?

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essay paper pcitures Young children drawing: the significance of the context. College of Ripon and York. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Leeds, 13-15 September 2001. The role of drawing in children's learning is frequently misunderstood. Evaluating South Korea's? Even within foundation stage classrooms, where the opportunity to draw is often freely available, there is usually an adult focus upon Essay on Windows7, 'mark making leading to writing' rather than communication and creativity. Yet drawing is one of the many languages which children use to 'talk' about their world, both to themselves and to others (Dyson, 1993, Gallas, 1994, Kress, 1997, Pahl, 1999, Lindqvist, 2001). Evaluating Korea's Essay? Through drawing children can re-present action, emotion, ideas or experiences (Malchiodi, 1998 Matthews, 1994, 1999).

This paper uses data, collected as part of a longitudinal research project about young children and drawing across settings, to illustrate the importance of the context, physical, social and hurler's syndrome, cultural, in which drawing takes place. The hypotheses will be explored that the context in which a child draws: has an impact upon Evaluating Essay, both the frequency with which the child draws and biology, the number of drawings produced; has an impact upon Korea's, what he/she perceives to be appropriate to draw; is populated by significant others whose belief systems, both generally and in dark comedies relation to drawing, impact upon the belief systems of the child. Implications for Innovation Essay early childhood education will be drawn. The role of dark comedies, drawing in children's development. Until relatively recently the study of South, children's drawings has reflected a 'top down' approach which takes the pursuit of vs Windows, realistic representation as its goal and a stage theory which has been generalised from the work of Luquet (1927), Piaget (Inhelder Piaget, 1958), and Kellogg (1970) as its model of development (Matthews, 1992:26, 1999:84). This approach, reflected in the National Curriculum programme of study for Art (DES, 1991), has cast the young child in an outdated deficit role which does not reflect the view held by early years educators of children as 'able learners, powerful thinkers, feeling human beings' (Nutbrown, 1996, xv). Also damaging to some extent, for the understanding of the role of drawing in young children's learning, has been the exchange of the word 'drawing' for 'mark making' in Evaluating South Innovation educare settings (Athey, 1990, Nutbrown, 1994).

The term, in emphasising the importance of children's earliest marks for writing development, can give the message that pictorial representation is inferior to the more important role that the offense defense, reading and writing of symbols has been given within the National Curriculum and within society in general. This is a narrow view of literacy, which once again does little to reflect the young child's holistic abilities. Bronfenbrenner's (1979) seminal ecological model of human development gives insights into how young children are situated as learners by the societies in which they are nurtured and Essay, educated. His model is supported by studies of young children in hurler's syndrome home/ pre-school and Evaluating Korea's Policies, school settings (Tizard and Hughes, 1984; Trevarthen, 1995; Schaffer, 1992) which have shown children to be. '. skilful in negotiating a diverse repertoire of relationships, actively contributing to the process of their own development and Essay example, recognising that their status and Evaluating Korea's Innovation Essay, power as social actors varies between contexts and cultures.' (Woodhead, Faulkner Littleton, 1998:1) These studies have concentrated upon the relationships between children and their 'significant others'. Influenced by Vygotsky (1962, 1967), the offense is the defense, key foci have been language and to a lesser extent play.

Little is known, however, about the impact upon a child's use of drawing of firstly the different settings of home and pre-school or school, and secondly the roles taken by 'significant' others in 'formal' and 'informal' learning contexts, particularly over any length of time. The influence of South Policies Essay, context on young children's drawing development. This paper takes a sociocultural approach to the study of young children's drawings. It recognises that: the child is a co-constructor of meaning and an active player in his or her world. culture acts as mediator between the child and his/ her environment. the role of adults and dark comedies, more able peers/ siblings is significant in 'scaffolding' learning.

the role of the peer group is South Innovation Essay, significant in a young child's learning. language, play, objects, artefacts, and the meanings attributed to them, are mediating tools within and across cultures in children's learning. (Bruner, 1996; Vygotsky, 1962, 1967; Rogoff, 1990; Wertsch, 1985) Drawing is offense best defense, seen to have originated from children's physical action (Matthews, 1994; 1999) and play (Vygotsky, 1995). Matthews (1999) explores young children's intentional actions in making drawings of their own body movements and the sounds and movements of objects around them. He calls these 'action representations'. In common with Athey (1990) he describes development as 'an interaction between what is unfolding in the child and what is Evaluating Korea's Innovation, available within the hybridization, environment' (Matthews, 1994).

Athey concentrates on Korea's Essay, drawing as a reflection of children's inner schematic representations, the vs Windows, developing organisational or conceptual systems by Evaluating South Korea's Policies Essay, which they make sense of diverse aspects of life. Matthews, however, sees children's drawings 'located within a family of hybridization definition, expressive and symbolic actions used fluently by children between 3 and 4 years of age' (1999:49). He draws attention to the interrelationship of a range of conceptual interests and emotional concerns, which are reflected within children's 'artistic' representations. Referencing the work of Trevarthen (1980, 1995) he suggests that 'the basis for the expression of emotion and the representation of objects and events form within an interpersonal arena between caregiver and infant' (1999:17). It is within this interpersonal relationship that the child acquires 'skills in viewing, handling and visually tracking objects, plus the Evaluating Innovation Essay, expressive and representational possibilities these might have. ' (1999:18). For Vygotsky there is a close relationship between play and art and 'the entire process through which children develop cultural awareness'. 'Vygotsky (1995) argues that children's creativity in its original form is syncretistic creativity, which means that the hurler's, individual arts have yet to Korea's Innovation Essay be separated and specialised.

Children do not differentiate between poetry and prose, narration and drama. Children draw pictures and tell a story at on Windows7, the same time; they act a role and Korea's Essay, create their lines as they go along. Children rarely spend a long time completing each creation, but produce something in an instant, focusing all their emotions on what they are doing at that moment in time.' (Lindqvist, 2001:8) Play is seen by Lindqvist to dark comedies create meaning. She argues that it is a 'dynamic meeting between the child's inner life (emotions and Evaluating Korea's Policies Essay, thoughts) and its external world' and as such should not be interpreted as a 'realistic presentation of a certain action' but as reflecting reality 'on a deeper level'. Both play and syndrome, art, in enabling the Evaluating Innovation Policies, child to create an imaginary or fictitious situation, are seen to enable the advantages structure, child to move towards 'disembedded from action' thinking, towards abstractions from the here and now (Lindqvist, 2001).

Building upon South Korea's Policies Essay, the work of Wells (1986) and Bruner (1996) the term 'meaning making' is advantages of matrix structure, used extensively when considering the child as a learner from a sociocultural perspective. Dyson (1993) sees a symbol, be it a word, picture or dance, existing because of a 'human intention to infuse some tangible form - a sound, a mark, a movement - with meaning and, thereby, to comment on Evaluating South Korea's Policies, or take action in the social world'. Symbol making is, for syndrome Dyson, 'the essence of Evaluating South Innovation Policies Essay, being human' and drawing, as a symbolic system, is one of the ways humans liberate themselves 'from the here and now'. Geertz (1983) argues that people who share a culture share similar ways of infusing meaning into sounds (language), movement (dance), and lines (drawings), among other media. Children, by using symbols, join with others who share the same 'imaginative universe' or 'worlds of possibility'. Hutchinson Gilford Syndrome? Dyson illuminates the Innovation Policies, way drawing is helped by the critical role of talk and gesture to become 'a mediator, a way of giving a graphic voice to an intention' (Dyson, 1993:24). She draws attention to Vygotsky's description of drawing as a kind of 'graphic speech' (Dyson, 1982). Drawing as narrative in hybridization young children's development. If speech is Evaluating South Policies Essay, seen to be internalised as thought (Vygotsky, 1978) can we assume that 'graphic speech' has its own internal visual narrative? Gallas (1994:xv) takes the view that children's personal narratives, formed in an attempt to order and explain the world from all aspects of and disadvantages of matrix structure, their experience, 'are often part of the Evaluating South Innovation Essay, silent language that embodies thinking'.

She takes 'an expanded view' of syndrome, children's narratives, not confining them to the spoken or written word, but including the stories they tell from early childhood 'in dramatic play, in their drawings and paintings, in movement and spontaneous song.' In putting forward her view of the Evaluating South Korea's Innovation, young child as a powerful meaning maker, Gallas draws attention to adults within school settings not enabling young children to make use of hybridization biology, their 'enormous number of innate tools for Evaluating Korea's acquiring knowledge' (xv) or their different modes of representation which might be visually, verbally or kinaesthetically based. '. Children do not naturally limit the Hutchinson Syndrome Essay example, forms that their expressions take. Because adult communication relies so heavily on spoken and Evaluating Korea's Innovation, written language, however, schools necessarily reflect that orientation and hurler's, channel children's narratives into Korea's Policies Essay a very narrow realm of expressions, in effect limiting rather than broadening the child's expressive capabilities.' (Gallas, 1994:xv) Because of advantages and disadvantages, years spent with adults less flexible in thinking and communication she feels that most children 'lose their natural gifts for narrative expression.' (xvi). There is a lack of recognition by most adults of the Innovation, power of offense is the defense, drawing in serving a narrative function for children by externalising their experiences, thoughts and South Policies, feelings through visual images. Malchiodi (1998) gives drawing a dual role as a narrative form, enabling children to express their individual stories through a developmentally appropriate form of advantages, communication and South Korea's Innovation Essay, providing a focus for talking about their drawings. Given the emphasis on reading and writing within the statutory curriculum, the hybridization definition, innovative work of Kress (1997) on young children's meaning making has importantly drawn attention to the need for Evaluating Korea's Innovation a broader view of literacy, which includes both the dark comedies, reading and South Korea's Policies Essay, making of visual signs. He argues that children are bombarded with a variety of stimuli both static (pictures, signs, posters) and moving (T.V., video, computer imagery). They are learning to decode the meaning of these images, alongside the more experienced users of these semiotics, within the communities in which they are reared. Hurler's Syndrome? Kress's thesis is that 'children act multi-modally, both in the things they use, the objects they make, and in the engagement of their bodies; there is no separation of Evaluating Innovation Policies, body and mind' (ibid.: 97).

He draws on detailed observations of his own young children engaged in multi-model representations using: found materials to make 'models' household furniture and advantages and disadvantages, objects mingled with toys to make 'worlds' in which to act out involved narratives in Evaluating South Innovation play. mark-making media such as felt tips and paint to 'draw' elaborate versions of their understanding of the hurler's syndrome, world around them. He calls these 'the energetic, interested, intentional action of children in their effects on their world' (114). He argues that: 'It is Korea's Innovation Policies Essay, essential that . children are encouraged . in their fundamental disposition towards multi-modal forms of text and meaning making. . Advantages And Disadvantages Of Matrix Structure? Above all there will need to be particular emphasis on developing their awareness about the Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay, dynamic interaction between the various modes, and hurler's syndrome, their awareness that all modes are constantly changing in their interaction with other modes; and through the sign maker's use.' (154) Pahl (1999) uses Kress's thesis to Evaluating Korea's Innovation Policies study children's meaning making in nursery education and notes that the objects children made in Hutchinson Progeria Syndrome Essay the nursery settings often have a 'fluid quality'. Children create layers of narrative as they represent and re-represent versions of stories in their play. A shopping basket made from a cereal packet and strips of card for role-play in South Korea's Innovation Policies the nursery might be transformed into a carrycot for a doll when the model was taken home. Essay On Windows7? She argued that children had more opportunities to utilise fluidity in their meaning making at South Korea's Essay, home where objects could be freely transformed from syndrome one function to another without the watchful gaze of an adult. She sees these 'lines of enquiry' offering scope for children to South Korea's explore the gap between 'me' and 'not me' using the models they make as 'transactional objects'. The models children carry from nursery to home offer them opportunities to dark comedies explore the inner workings of South Korea's, their minds through the outer material representations of their thinking shaped in particular ways by the environments in advantages of matrix structure which they try to record their understanding of the world. Drawing is seen by Kress and Pahl to Evaluating South Innovation be one of the many languages which children use to 'talk' about their world in informal settings, both to of matrix themselves and to others.

Through drawing children can re-present action, emotion, ideas or experiences and tell complex stories (Malchiodi, 1998, Matthews, 1994, 1999). Egan has drawn attention to the story form as a cultural universal which 'reflects a basic and South Innovation Policies Essay, powerful form in which we make sense of the world and experience.'(1989:2) Given the emphasis on a traditional view of literacy and of matrix structure, narrative within the statutory English curriculum, it is not surprising that oral storying and story writing have received far more attention within research than storying through drawing. Exploring the young child's use of drawing from a socio-cultural perspective allows the impact upon the young child's drawing behaviours of the views and beliefs of older and Evaluating Korea's Innovation, more significant others across both home and pre-school settings to be highlighted. It also emphasises how the biology definition, young child, operating at profound levels both cognitively and emotionally, uses narrative across modes of representation which include drawing. Short introduction to Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay project. This paper draws on data collected as part of a three year, longitudinal research project 'Young Children Drawing at Home, Pre-school and School: the dark comedies, influence of the socio-cultural context'. South Policies? Evidence was collected for one month, at the beginning of the school year to compile case studies of seven children's use of drawing across home, pre-school and school settings. Syndrome? It was a longitudinal study that took place over a three-year period. Two key research instruments were used for data collection: Booklets of each child's drawings collected by the significant adults in each setting. Semi-structured interviews with significant adults and with the Evaluating Innovation Essay, children.

In addition contextual information was gathered via photographs/ digital images taken in the home and pre-school/ school contexts and, during the first phase of the project, observations of the hybridization, children in their settings. The function of the detailed contextual data was to capture the 'situated' nature of the drawing episodes and outcomes. The evidence was collected from September 1998 until November 2001 during a period of Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay, continuing change in the UK for all involved in both pre- and primary schooling. Government strategies introduced during this period included, for example, statutory baseline assessment, the Literacy Hour and on Windows7 vs Windows Vista, the daily numeracy lesson. The following detailed exemplar, drawn from the study, concentrates upon South Essay, the experiences of one child and shows how he begins to Hutchinson Gilford Syndrome use drawings as a narrative form to 'talk' to himself and to Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay others and by doing so constructs new meanings. His drawings reflect versions of dark comedies, meaning making from the Evaluating South Essay, socio-cultural context in which he constructs his narratives and particularly reflect the dark comedies, influence of TV and video culture. South Korea's Innovation Essay? There is evidence that the cultural assumptions about dark comedies drawing in the child's home and pre-school/ school contexts affect what he draws, how he draws and how often he draws. Yet the Evaluating Essay, child demonstrates a unique drawing style and Gilford Progeria, an exploration through line of intensely personal responses to experiences. In doing so he participates in the making of his culture (Kress, 1997) and shows himself to be an Evaluating South Korea's Innovation, able and powerful storyteller. Phase 1: Luke aged three, drawing at home. At just turned three Luke was the youngest child in and disadvantages the sample.

He lived in an inner city council house during phase one of the project and moved to private housing prior to phase two. Evaluating South? He had one younger brother. Luke attended a Family Centre three days a week. The drawings Luke completed at home revealed a fertile imagination and a preoccupation with 'scary' things. His drawing 'A crocodile with sharp teeth and scary legs' (Figure 1) reflects a fascination with crocodiles. Biology? This preoccupation also emerged in the narratives he wove into his solitary play episodes at South Innovation, home. His mother described him frantically 'rowing' a baby bath with coat hangers across the living room floor with cushions strategically positioned as stepping stones trying to of matrix avoid an imaginary crocodile. With great speed the Evaluating Korea's Essay, same coat hangers were transformed from dark comedies fishing rods to oars as Luke's imaginative play script changed. Evaluating South Innovation Policies Essay? The element of scariness was a regular part of dark comedies, mum's interactions with the boys, part of what she called 'our silly time' when they sang and danced together. 'We've a song about crocodiles from Pontins when I was a kid - Never Smile at a Crocodile' . The second drawing from this period reflected Luke's interest in imagery from the television screen.

His mother explained his habitual response to an advertisement for fruit pastilles which featured a strawberry eating a little boy (Figure 2) 'When he watches you can see him backing away from the telly.' The television and South Korea's Policies, videos were a big part of Luke's mother's day and offense is the best defense, she enjoyed watching children's programmes with the children, often referring to characters from them in conversation and building them into play with the Innovation Essay, children. Luke used a 'megasketcher' to draw with as he didn't have access to paper and Hutchinson Progeria Essay, pens all the time. He spent a lot of time recording and erasing continuous rotations, drawing quickly and with great energy. Paper, pens and scissors were reserved for when his younger brother was asleep and were used at Evaluating South Innovation Essay, the kitchen table. Luke was fascinated by scissors and Hutchinson Essay, systematically cut paper into strips, turned each strip at Evaluating South Policies, a right angle and cut it into a smaller strip until he was left with tiny pieces of paper. Sometimes he made a mark on the paper as a prop for his cutting action. His mother commented ' He's forever making squiggles with the pen, then cutting them out and then making shapes with the cuttings. He'll cut out something not trying to make the shape, then he'll see it fall down and he'll say 'Oh look, I've made a triangle.' He'll pretend he made it properly.' Luke's mother drew with or for him and described how when she tried to draw the teletubbies for him he insisted on the detail being a correct representation: 'I did La La and he said 'La La's head doesn't go like that.' You have got get the right colour, the right shade.' Phases 1 and 2: Luke aged three and best defense, four, drawing at the Family Centre.

During both phase one and South Korea's Innovation Policies Essay, phase two of the project there were strong messages given by staff at the Family Centre, to dark comedies both Luke and Evaluating South Korea's Policies Essay, his mother, about the importance of Essay vs Windows, drawing people. The key workers within the Family Centre were aware of the need for a broad range of activities, for child choice and of the need for Innovation Policies Essay young children to be involved in advantages and disadvantages structure exploration and self-expression. Their conversations generally extended individual children's interests. However the messages given by 'Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Evaluating South Korea's, Entering Compulsory Education' (SCAA, 1996), gave further emphasis to syndrome a tendency within the Family Centre for key workers to channel children towards emergent and adult recognisable mark making. The nursery manager felt there was pressure from parents for key workers to Policies be able to explain how drawing led to formal learning i.e. writing. The practice within the setting of including drawing within the term 'mark making' allowed drawing a valid place within the curriculum, but seemed to be devaluing drawing as an activity in its own right. It was being interpreted as a stage which children moved away from, as they became literate. The Family Centre manager commented 'When they (key workers) hear mark making, it doesn't matter how many times you go through it, they still think writing. That's there at the back of the mind all the time. That's not to say that if a child did a row of Hutchinson Progeria example, circles they wouldn't be impressed by Innovation Policies Essay, that, but only because it's starting to look like letters.'

One of the ways in which the Family Centre gave messages about the purpose of drawing was by its inclusion within the child's developmental record, as part of a progression from horizontal and vertical marks through figure drawing and onto early writing. Essay On Windows7? This check list of competencies, shared with parents at progress meetings, seemed to dominate the key workers drawing agenda, influencing their approach and discussions with children about the possible content of their drawings. Evaluating Policies? Luke's mother, during the first phase of the project, was considered by the Family Centre to be pushing Luke to write before he was ready. They told her that they felt he was missing out drawing figures, a stage considered important by the staff and accepted as coming before writing. The drawings collected whilst Luke was at the Family Centre were mostly completed during the afternoon session. The routine at the Family Centre was for Essay on Windows7 vs Windows Vista the morning to Evaluating South Policies Essay be spent in 'free flow', with free choice of activities and rooms being allocated to a particular type of activity e.g. large construction. For the afternoon sessions the children were allocated to a base under the supervision of their key worker. This was a more pressured time for the key workers when they were more likely to 'set up' a directed art activity which was often linked to hurler's a half-termly theme. The afternoons were seen by Evaluating Korea's Innovation Policies Essay, one key worker as being 'when you get time to do your display work, you know, the dark comedies, pictures you want the children to do.' It was also a time when they would update their developmental records and for Luke this meant a concentration on figure drawing. Both 'Mam' (Figure 3, phase one) and 'My Mummy' (Figure 4, phase two) were adult initiated drawings and reflected the setting and Evaluating Korea's, key worker's expectations of what a child of Luke's age should be drawing. 'Mam' was drawn following the definition, key worker's modelling of a similar figure, and during the completion of 'My Mummy' Luke was shown where to put the eyes and nose, but did decide to put the hair on himself.

Luke's key worker commented 'We haven't the time to Korea's Policies Essay give them one-to-one experience and then perhaps there's something in the profile - is able to hybridization draw a face - and you think I haven't seen him do that, so you sit with him and say. shall we see what we can do?' She gave suggestions to the children that would support their achievement of drawing competencies as set out in the developmental record saying - 'oh look you could do a circle for the face, two eyes, a nose and a mouth see if you can do that'. Luke's key worker admitted difficulty in interacting with a child who was drawing and 'fell back' on suggesting that the child drew a face or drew his/ her mother. 'I do it, yes, because I'm stumped to know how I can help them.' Luke had a different key worker during phase two of the project who also used her understanding of stages in drawing development to underpin her decisions about intervening when children were drawing. 'Normally with drawings it is Evaluating Korea's, just scribbles on Essay on Windows7 vs Windows, the paper. It moves onto circular movements and dots and then they will start drawing pictures and saying, 'that is mummy'. . We might not be able to recognise it but they will start saying what it is and then you will start seeing pictures of a head with arms and legs, and Evaluating South Korea's Essay, then they will start putting in the eyes and things.' She acknowledged that some children had difficulty in drawing people but that she encouraged them to have a go when she judged they were ready. 'I normally ask, start encouraging them to do that (draw mummy) when they say they have done a picture of their mummy or daddy. It might not look like that, but that is when I'll draw one and say 'can you do that', when they are ready to do it.' At three years old Luke was very reliant on the presence of his key worker as he was a tentative, nervous participant in Family Centre activities and sought the one-to-one conversations he had with his mother in the home context.

His preferred activities were cutting paper, dough and watching videos. Among his peers at advantages of matrix structure, the Family Centre he was unusual in his ability to remain captivated by video and television imagery. 'He absolutely loves television. He is the South Policies Essay, one child who will sit there and Vista, be actually enthralled by Essay, it. He talks about Gilford Progeria Syndrome example what he watches on the television and video in South detail - Jurassic park and an animal video.' His key worker at the Family Centre commented on his ability to enter into long monologues about home events with adults. 'His speech is very very good, very forward for his age. He can be very talkative and uses a lot of language that is dark comedies, older for Evaluating Korea's Innovation him, a lot of adult words.' Perhaps influenced by children in the setting, he gained the attention of hurler's, his key worker by involving her in his 'tea party' role play. She recorded his comments made whilst at play 'Would you like a piece of my chocolate cake. You can only Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Policies Essay have a little piece because I'm only chopping it into little bits.' The reoccurring play script of the tea party was also a means by hybridization, which Luke could use clay or dough to satisfy his preoccupation with cutting into smaller and smaller strips. At the Family Centre Luke's key workers noted that he rarely chose to draw. South Korea's Policies Essay? 'Our house' (Figure 5, phase one) was completed without adult presence and although the drawing is named, its content can only be debated.

It may reflect the action and business of the and disadvantages of matrix structure, home context, but it could also be the case that it was named following completion, in response to Evaluating South Innovation Essay an adult enquiry. It had much in common with the images drawn with the dark comedies, Megasketcher in the home context. Evaluating Korea's Policies? Luke's representation of 'Dr. Jekyll when he turned into a nasty monster' (Figure 6, phase one) was completed in Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Essay response to an adult's request for him to draw. Evaluating Korea's Innovation Essay? It reflects both Luke's continued use of hybridization, drawing to explore and represent his fears and the influence upon him of video or television images. His choice of topic followed discussion with the Korea's, key worker about what the content of the drawing would be.

Phase 2: Luke aged four, drawing at dark comedies, home. At home Luke's mother continued to Innovation Policies limit Luke's access to paper and Luke still preferred to link drawing with cutting. Because his younger brother no longer slept during the day drawing was now limited to when mum could sit with the on Windows7 Vista, children and supervise. She commented 'They sometimes see it (on plastic shelving) and say 'can we draw' or 'can we paint' and I'll say 'not now' or 'maybe later'. Paint at nursery ' out of sight, out of mind.' In response to Evaluating South Policies Family Centre suggestions, Luke's mother encouraged him to advantages of matrix draw people but felt she wasn't getting anywhere. 'He won't draw people. Very very rarely draws people.' 'Just colours in Evaluating South Korea's Policies Essay a shape, he'll do a circle and colour it in, then a triangle and colour it in.' Mum felt Luke got really frustrated because he couldn't make his drawings like the images he visualised. 'He'll draw a car, then he gets really frustrated because it isn't how he sees a car, and scribbles it out.' Still trying to support Luke in developing his drawing ability she asked him to syndrome copy pictures. 'When you see a picture, and you say to him 'Can you draw a picture of Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay, a whatever', he'll try and draw it. Because it doesn't look exactly like a pig, he'll say it's rubbish, and if it is the mega sketch, the zipper goes down and syndrome, he won't even have it on.' Luke's mother gave examples of Evaluating, Luke's critical remarks about both her and his younger brother's drawings. 'That doesn't look nowt like a house. That doesn't look nowt like a cat, where's its tail?' The drawings collected during phase two by Luke's mother reflect her attempts to hybridization biology support his drawing and Evaluating Korea's Innovation Policies, have probably mostly been instigated by her. 'Pumpkin' (Figure 7) is a shared effort between Luke and is the best defense, his mother as is his attempt to draw around one of the leaves collected on Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Policies Essay, the way home from the Family Centre (Figure 8). The drawing of his brother, given to him as a birthday card (Figure 9) is the only evidence of Luke drawing freely on paper, but was still probably completed at his mother's request.

Phase 2: Luke aged four, meaning making through role-play. In contrast to Luke's frustration in relation to drawing, Luke's mother and key worker told of vs Windows Vista, his increasing use of Innovation, role play to act out both real life experiences and re-enact video scripts. His mother gave examples of both his fascination for is the defense tape measures - 'as soon as he sees it (a tape measure) it's gone, its disappeared, its clipped onto his trousers and he's a workman'- and his preoccupation with the role of the doctor. The latter followed a recent, quite traumatic, visit with his asthmatic brother to hospital. Luke also assumed the South Innovation Policies, role of key worker, both at home and at the Family Centre, turning his book around when reading it to show to hybridization biology definition others. At the South Innovation Policies, Family Centre his favourite book was 'Funny Bones' which fitted into his love/ hate relationship with frightening images.

His mother commented 'He likes being scared, not too scared obviously, but he loves making people jump. He loves being jumped upon as long as he knows it is hurler's syndrome, going to happen.' At home Luke's mother built up Luke's sense of South Korea's Innovation, drama and atmosphere 'the night before Halloween there was a film 'Hocus Pocus' with witches, and structure, it is a bit scary. But what we did was we turned all the Evaluating Korea's Policies Essay, lights off, and of matrix structure, put the South Policies Essay, pumpkin on top of the TV and lit it. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Matrix? ' The influence of time spent watching videos in the home context was very marked. His mother said 'When its on. he just sits and watches it but afterwards he will do like pretending that he is in that film, or that character. Nine times out of ten he's always the baddy.' His mother discussed how he used familiar objects to support a role. 'He had the radio cassette and the microphone on his lap, a little karaoke thing, and that's what he does, his character Woody, in film, because they are all moving house, and he is in charge and he's telling them to get a moving buddy, a partner, so they won't get lost, and Luke is Evaluating Korea's Essay, sat there copying it word for word. Even though it weren't on that day, he were like 'get them moving, everybody get one.' When watching a video Luke found the toys he had that were associated with that particular video. His mother said shopping had to include a visit to his favourite shop, the Disney Shop. The practitioners in the family centre also acknowledged that the biggest influence on Luke's play seemed to be videos, watched repeatedly in the home context. 'He will be playing something else but he will always go back to on Windows7 vs Windows Vista Jurassic Park.' At the Family Centre Luke used construction to support his play and often 'set up' the play scenario and then invited others to join him. As the oldest child in the nursery, and with the departure of the older children to school, Luke had obviously grown in confidence and was now a leader, particularly in Innovation role-play.

He had strong ideas about how the structure, 'story' should be re-enacted. His key worker commented 'Some children will come over and stay for a little bit, but then if they don't do what he wants them to do, he says they are messing it up.' Luke complained to his mother about them not wanting to play 'Jurassic Park' 'You just can't get them to do what you want. they want to go and play Mums and Dads.' On one occasion, when asked by Evaluating Korea's Innovation Policies, his key worker what they were playing, Luke replied 'We are being chased by monsters, dinosaurs and ghosts'. This was a recurring play theme, which in the Family Centre involved escaping from frightening situations and it was followed through in syndrome the home context when other children were invited to play in the garden. One of his favourite games, introduced by Korea's Policies, Luke to neighbourhood friends, was 'stampede'. This again had been watched on video and was explained by his mother 'It is a load of animals chasing them.' 'The film starts off as a board game, but real things happen, like spiders come out and lions, oh it's really good and vs Windows Vista, then there's a big, huge stampede. His mother commented that broadening his circle of friendships was causing Luke to ask questions. She gave the following examples of his search for meaning and understanding 'Where do you go if you die? What if you are good, what if you are bad? He thinks that you have to be old and have 'twisted neck' before you die.' 'When Hannah said her brother was in the graveyard 'What's he doing playing in there then?' 'He died' 'Children don't die' and they are arguing about it.' Phase 2: Luke aged four, moving towards formal writing.

Although Luke had not regularly and voluntarily drawn people, as a four year old at Evaluating Korea's Policies, the Family Centre he spent a short period of time each day as part of a small group of children preparing for Progeria Syndrome statutory schooling the following September. All the key workers took turns in leading these sessions, which involved the children in working with numbers in addition to the stories and singing they had when they were younger. The children were expected during these short sessions to Evaluating Innovation Policies Essay 'fit in' with what the adults were doing and 'sit down and respond when spoken to'. The key worker commented that there would, during the coming year, be more concentration on preparing Luke to best enter school and that this would include writing his name. Taking advice from the Family Centre staff, Luke's mother provided materials to support Luke in learning to write. Evaluating South Korea's Policies Essay? 'We've got this learning to write thing and its like mazes when you've got to Essay on Windows7 vs Windows go a certain way, and he's fantastic with them. He loves doing them, going through the Evaluating South Korea's Innovation, gaps and hybridization biology definition, doing squiggles.' Writing numbers was, however, not always seen so positively by Luke. '. Policies? He recognises a load of numbers and letters, but as for writing them down. I think from dark comedies my view of Policies, him, because it doesn't actually look how it's drawn, he can get really angry. Luke's mother was proud of the fact that Luke recognised and could write his name, but she admitted that 'he gets really anxious and Essay on Windows7 vs Windows Vista, upset that he can't do it right.' Phase 3: Luke aged five, drawing at home. It was very obvious from the beginning of phase three of the project that Luke was now drawing and writing a lot. Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Policies Essay? Cupboards had recently been built in dark comedies the dining room at home, which stored the children's toys, games and paper.

Luke's mother felt this had influenced their choice of activity. South Korea's Innovation? 'With everything being put away I don't know if its out of sight out of offense is the, mind.' There was an emphasis in the home on working at the table, either drawing or writing. The scissors and the Mega-sketcher were no longer readily available and Korea's Innovation Policies, although the boys were able to dark comedies get their own paper from the shelf, pens were kept in the mother's bedside cabinet and she therefore again limited drawing. Although mum had said Luke wasn't cutting any more and chose to write and draw, Luke said he was not allowed to cut at home any more. Evaluating Korea's Essay? It would seem that Luke's mother felt his preoccupation with scissors was not helping him to master the use of a pencil. Luke was now happy to draw. Hybridization Definition? Mum thought this was because he was happy with the way drawings turned out. 'I think he can draw something now and South Korea's Essay, recognise it. Like he's done, and we say oh look that's really good and we'd know what it is before he tells us.' There was a huge change in Luke's ability to Essay represent images in South Essay a way that he found satisfying and which allowed him to use them to dark comedies communicate with others.

The main difference would seem to have been his increased physical maturity, which was supported by the regular practice he was getting in using a pencil. The drawing ' Sea snails' (Figure 10) demonstrates Luke's ability to interpret a topic of interest in a satisfying way because of Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay, his developing drawing skills. It includes not only the spiral and zig-zag shapes but also the numerical symbol '4' which Luke had recently learnt to 'do properly'. At age five, Luke seemed to have made a huge leap in his physical development. He was much more physically daring, as long as he was in control, and had a range of new accomplishments enjoying climbing trees and jumping down stairs.

His mother had represented the city at gymnastics when younger and was keen that the children were involved in physical activity. Luke therefore belonged to a gymnastics club and went swimming once a week. Other new skills included using bubbly gum to dark comedies blow bubbles, whistling, clicking his fingers and tying his shoelaces. Luke had transferred from the South Korea's Essay, Family Centre to a Catholic primary school. Offense Best? Towards the end of his time at the Family Centre staff thought that at times he was over Evaluating Policies confident and dark comedies, dominated the younger children and his mother certainly thought he had changed. 'He's harder. He's not as sensitive and Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Policies, he's more rough'. 'He can get upset and wound up, but physically he's got a lot stronger and he can take it and he gets really mad with him (Dad) when they're wrestling and stuff and he'll really go for him.' Luke still liked to advantages and disadvantages structure draw individual pictures. These now obviously represented internal and meaningful visual images for him and he seemed to be attracted to drawing as a way of Evaluating Korea's Policies Essay, capturing stages of a story. 'Lots of little pictures' (Figure 11) was completed towards the end of his time at the Family Centre. 'Luke had a fantastic story to tell with it' . When Luke reviewed this drawing a year later he said immediately 'That's a story' but at that point was unable to retell it and simply commented on Essay on Windows7 Vista, separate images. Evaluating? A wonderful 'Holiday Diary' (Figure 12), completed by Luke's mother with his help at the beginning of the reception year, records the Essay on Windows7 Vista, salient features of Korea's Innovation Policies, his holiday experiences and shows how, probably unknowingly, his mother is helping him to bring together drawing and story. 'Arranged cut outs' (Figure 13) is a collaboration between Luke and his mother but with Luke in control. Drawing and cutting out allows Luke to control the final effect on the page because they can all be named, renamed, or discarded at any stage in the process, prior to his mother sticking them down. Luke's developing interest in writing is shown in Figure 14, which would seem to be a list of names.

His mother said 'Since Luke started school, he's been practising his writing wherever and whenever he gets the chance. He can read all his letters on the alphabet chart and doesn't copy when doing things like this.' Although his mother said it was his choice to draw and write in the home context there did seem to be a regular time set aside each evening for it. Importantly, there seemed to be little pressure put upon offense, Luke as to the content of his drawings and without being asked he included at the bottom of the Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay, page a drawing of himself. During phase three Luke had a relaxed and confident approach to biology definition drawing and Evaluating Policies Essay, it was his inability to make letters perfectly, which frustrated him. His mother commented 'He gets wound up if you ask him to write a card out, he gets really wound up. He got really upset last week because it was my birthday and his wasn't right.' Phase 3: Luke aged five, drawing at school. Having transferred to the reception class of a Roman Catholic primary school.

Luke was taught by defense, a confident and experienced early years teacher who was concerned to introduce formal education gradually, seeking to provide a balance of child and Evaluating Policies, adult initiated activity. As in the Family Centre, the class teacher's expectations regarding drawing were linked to realism and figure drawing 'A lot still just have the circle with the arms and legs coming out of the Hutchinson Gilford Essay, head but I would expect to see a recognisable face' . The children were allowed to draw whatever they wanted if a drawing table was set up, but the teacher commented that the children often replicated the standard images which adults drew for them and cited as an example a recent preponderance of Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Policies, house drawing. The passing of an idea from child to child was confirmed by of matrix structure, Luke's representation of a house, drawn for the first time during his initial weeks at Innovation Essay, school. Although Luke's teacher felt the girls generally seemed to be more interested in drawing than the boys, she noted that Luke was often to be found at the drawing table. The third and dark comedies, final phase of the project gives evidence of Luke's choice of drawing as a developing form of representation and meaning making. He may have been attracted to drawing in this setting, whether at Evaluating South Innovation Policies, the drawing table or in the office, for a range of reasons. Most importantly, for Luke's growing confidence in his own ability, in this setting drawing was an activity without teacher direction, where he was free to express and and disadvantages, explore his own ideas and where he knew they would be valued.

He had always been able to concentrate and become quietly immersed for long periods of time in activities that were meaningful to him and he was now motivated to Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay draw because of a real sense of achievement in relation to dark comedies his drawings. South? When showing them to definition the researcher he said enthusiastically 'You'll love this' in relation to his 'Machine for making bread' (Figure 15) . Innovation Essay? This drawing had been similarly represented the preceding evening at home and named as 'Bread making machine' (Fig 16) by Luke. An explanation for syndrome the preoccupation with this theme was perhaps connections he was trying to work through. South Korea's Innovation Essay? The story of the 'Little Red Hen' had been 'acted out' at school, he had past experience of his Nan's bread making machine and he had a growing friendship with a boy who drew machines. Perhaps these factors led Luke to try to make sense of the way a machine can deliver a loaf of bread in this way. In this drawing and in Hutchinson Progeria Essay 'Aeroplane and Machine' (Figure 17) there is a continuity of line reminiscent of his earlier drawings, but this interest in movement and connections had now developed to incorporate shapes which required more complex hand/ eye co-ordination. He was now far more physically confident in his ability to draw images that were acceptable representations both to him and to others and because he felt his drawings were now capable of South Innovation Essay, conveying a message, he was beginning to be able to talk about them.

The class teacher tried to support her understanding of the hurler's, need for talk about drawing by planning for Evaluating South Innovation Policies Essay a work experience girl to sit with the children at the drawing table. She gave her the following guidance 'Don't do it for them. You're there to talk to advantages and disadvantages of matrix structure them basically; you're not there to South Innovation Policies draw. Let them get on with the drawing. But I would say if they've drawn a person and Gilford Progeria, they've forgotten something obvious, then you could say to them, they've got no hair, or what's happened to their arms?' The class teacher commented that the Evaluating South, young girl coloured in alongside the children. 'She's quite arty and she likes just sitting doodling.' Having an dark comedies, older girl modelling drawing behaviour at the table would be attractive to Luke because firstly it gave drawing status but secondly it fulfilled his need to talk to an older child or an adult. His teacher commented 'He likes to talk. so if he can give you a running commentary and he thinks he's got a receptive audience then I think he likes to be there.' Suddenly Luke seemed to be using drawing to explore his broader range of interests. Interestingly there did seem to be a growing division between play and Korea's, work and there was no evidence of the influence of cartoons, which had replaced his fascination with video images and stories, in his drawings.

It was at playtime, surrounded by the same age or older boys that Luke took part in very animated discussion about video and cartoon characters. 'But know what, have you seen that bit where Scooby Doo falls down that hole and that panda went like that, pointing out on the wall and then a zombie came out. That was the first zombie. Oh have you seen the T-Rex movie? Oh you should, it goes, its good. Right this T-Rex eated only one dinosaur. It bit it, then it ate it. It was one of the nice ones. Playtime was when chasing and pretend fighting games flourished and his love/hate relationship with scary images was retained.

This was illustrated in Luke's following discussion with a school friend. But you know what? One day, one night, my Dad told me this story and do youknow what he said? This little boy went on holiday with his Uncle Nick and doyou know what? One day the little boy looked out of the on Windows7 vs Windows, window at the field and they were playing football and he went to tell his Granddad and he said those are ghosts. And then the next night he stayed up really late and looked out of the window again and they were playing football again and guess what they were playing with? A head! Somebody's head! In the classroom Luke spent a lot of time in South Innovation Policies the office area, mark making and copying words rather than the role play and hurler's syndrome, 'dressing up' area 'If he's in the office you could lose him for Korea's Policies Essay virtually the whole day.' 'Dinosaur' (Figure 18) was completed in the office, and offense, Luke spent a long time discussing his drawing with another boy. He then brought the finished drawing to his teacher 'He showed me the picture saying at first that the circles were spots but then correcting himself saying 'No I mean they're scales' . South Innovation Policies? Perhaps Luke will turn to cartoon drawing when once again he cannot represent his understanding of reality to his and society's satisfaction.

Figure 19 is is the best, a first attempt to tabulate a pattern of drawing development, not confined to stage theories. It derives from Dyson's illumination of the way drawing is South Korea's Innovation Essay, helped by Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome Essay, the critical role of talk and gesture to become 'a mediator, a way of giving graphic voice to an intention. This adaptation (Figure 19) places emphasis on drawing as an iterative process during which a child may display more than one of the listed features simultaneously, depending on the media, the task and Evaluating, the context. Exploration of available medium. has no intention to symbolize; manipulates the: sounds of offense best defense, language; movement of own body; graphic marks of drawing and painting implements; structural possibilities of blocks and other constructive media; explores the distinctive physical and Evaluating Innovation Essay, visual properties which each medium offers; responds to the material, the material responds to the child . Use of gestures, marks and words to symbolize - to represent - significant actions in their world. begins to hurler's use these symbolic tools to invest meaning in drawn marks (Vygotsky, 1978); derives symbolic meaning from the gestures , not the marks (Matthews, 1994); uses the marks as a critically important prop for Evaluating Korea's Policies Essay dramatic play (Wolf Perry, 1989) Attempt to read the meaning of what they have made.

Attempt to communicate its potential meaning to other people. notices, after drawing, similarities between salient physical features of the world and his/her own graphic constructions; invests his/ her marks with meaning through talk with others; is prompted to talk about his/her drawings, read his/her marks and discover hidden meanings through the interest shown by other people (Golumb, 1974, 1988); names, reinterprets and renames his/her drawings in order to best respond to the interest of others (Malchiodi, 1998 ). may respond as a 'patterner', classifying his/her world through form, colour and size or. may respond as a 'dramatist, showing more interest in actions and Evaluating Korea's Innovation Essay, adventures, dramatic stories and tales' (Gardner, 1980) and inventing stories about his/her drawings; With experience drawing accompanied with talk about evolving intentions. reinterprets their original intentions, making them more suited to their products, if their intentions prove too ambitious (Golumb, 1974, Brittain, 1979); eventually uses talk to represent meanings, to interact with others about those meanings, but also to hurler's regulate drawing itself; uses consciously a range of genres and stylistic conventions in his/her drawings. Autonomous, personal drawings. uses drawing to re-represent important objects, events and relationships. partakes in general rites of drawing alongside peers (home/ wet playtimes) uses drawing to fulfil the South Korea's, educational agenda in school settings. is supported by Hutchinson Essay example, talk in planning a particular drawing, monitoring his or her shaping of lines and Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay, curves, evaluating progress. Figure 19: A sociocultural pattern of drawing development adapted from Dyson (1993:24) The role of drawing in advantages children's learning is frequently misunderstood.

Even within foundation stage classrooms, where the opportunity to draw is South Korea's Policies Essay, often freely available, there is usually an adult focus upon 'mark making leading to Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome Essay writing' rather than communication and creativity. This paper draws attention to the need for practitioners to. reaffirm or reconsider the place and value of drawing within the Evaluating South Innovation Essay, curriculum, particularly the relationship between drawing as communication and drawing as art. There is a need for practitioners not only to 'tune into' and thus give value to offense is the best defense children's drawings as re-presentations of South Korea's Policies Essay, their interests and pre-occupations, but also to offense best use re-presentations as starting points for provision which will motivate a child's or children's thinking and support learning. Athey, C. (1990) Extending Thought in Young Children: A Parent-Teacher Partnership London: Paul Chapman.

Brittain, W.L. (1979) Creativity, Art, and the Young Child. New York: Macmillan. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979) The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge,MA.: Harvard University Press. Bruner, J. (1996) The Culture of Education Cambridge, Mass,: Harvard University Press. DES (1991) Art for Ages 5 to 14 London: HMSO. Dyson, H.A. (1982) 'The emergence of visible language: Interrelationships between drawing and early writing.

Visible Language, 6, 360-381. Dyson, H.A. (1993) 'From Prop to Evaluating South Korea's Essay Mediator: The Changing Role of Written Language in Children's Symbolic Repertoires' in Hutchinson Essay Spodek,B. and Saracho,O.N. Yearbook in Early Childhood Education:Language and Literacy in Early Childhood Education Volume 4,pp21-41 New York: Teachers College Press. Egan, K. (1989) Teaching as Story Telling: An alternative approach to teaching and curriculum in the elementary school Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Gallas, K. (1994) The Languages of Learning: How children talk, write, dance, draw, and sing their understanding of the world New York: Teachers College Press. Gardner, H (1980) Artful Scribbles: The significance of South Policies, children's drawings New York: Basic Books. Geertz, C. (1983) Local Knowledge New York: Basic Books. Golumb (1974) Young Children's Sculpture and Drawing: A Study in Representational Development , Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Golumb (1988) 'Symbolic inventions and transformations in child art. In K.Egan D. And Disadvantages Structure? Nadaner (eds.) Imagination and Innovation Essay, Education (pp.

222-236) New York: Teachers College Press. Inhelder, B. and Piaget, J. (1958) The Growth of Logical Thinking from is the best defense Childhood to Adolescence London: Routledge. Kellogg, R. (1970) Analysing Children's Art (Palo Alto, Cal.:Mayfield) Kress, G. (1997) Before Writing: Rethinking the Paths to Literacy London: Routledge. Lindqvist, G. (2001) 'When Small Children Play: how adults dramatise and Evaluating South Korea's Innovation Essay, children create meaning' Early Years Vol 21, No.1. Advantages Of Matrix Structure? pp 7-14. Luquet, G. (1927) Le Dessin Enfantin. Paris: Delachaux et Niesle. Malchiodi, C. (1998) Understanding Children's Drawings London: Jessica Kingsley. Matthews, J. (1992) 'The genesis of Evaluating South Policies, aesthetic sensibility' in Thistlewood, D. (ed.) Drawing, Research and Development , NSEAD and Essay on Windows7 vs Windows, Longman, pp. Evaluating Korea's Essay? 26-39. Matthews, J. (1994) Helping Children to Draw and Paint in Early Childhood London: Hodder Stoughton.

Matthews, J. (1999) The Art of Childhood and Adolescence: The Construction of Meaning. London: Falmer Press. Nutbrown, C. (1994) Threads of Thinking: Young children learning and the role of early education London: Paul Chapman. Nutbrown, C. (1996) Respectful Educators - Capable Learners: Children's rights and early education London:PCP. Pahl, K. (1999) Transformations: Meaning Making in Nursery Education Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books. Rogoff, B. (1990) Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive Development in a Social Context.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. SCAA (1996) Desirable Outcomes for Children's Learning on Essay on Windows7 Vista, Entering Compulsory Education. Evaluating South Policies? London:SCAA. Tizard, B. and Hughes, M. (1984) Young Children Learning: Talking and Essay vs Windows Vista, Listening at South Innovation Essay, Home and at School. London: Fontana. Trevarthen, C. (1980) 'The foundations of intersubjectivity: The development of interpersonal and cooperative understanding in infants', in Olson, D. (ed.) The Social Foundations of offense is the, Language and Thought: Essays in Honour of Evaluating South Korea's Innovation, J.S.Bruner, New York: W.W.

Norton, pp. 316-42. Trevarthen, C. (1995) 'The child's need to learn a culture' Children and Society 9(1). Schaffer, H.R. (1992) 'Joint involvement episodes as contexts for cognitive development in H. McGurk (Ed.) Childhood and Social Development: Contemporary Perspective. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum. Vygotsky L.S. (1962) Thought and Language Cambridge. Mass: The MIT Press. Vygotsky L.S. (1967) 'Play and its role in the mental development of the defense, child' Soviet Psychology 5(3), 6-18. Vygotsky L.S. (1978) Mind in Society. Cambridge MA:Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1995) Fantasi och kreativitet i barndomen (Imagination and Creativity in Childhood) Gothenburg: Daidalos. Wells, G. (1986) The Meaning Makers London: Hodder and Stoughton. Wertsch, J.V. (1985) Culture, Communication and Cognition: Vygotskian Perspectives Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wolf, D. and Evaluating Innovation Essay, Perry, M.D. (1989) 'From endpoints to biology repertoires: Some new conclusions about drawing development. In Gardner, H. and South Korea's Policies, Perkins, D. (eds.) Art, mind and structure, education: Research from Project Zero (pp. 17-34) Urbana and Chicago: University of Evaluating South Policies, Illinois Press. Woodhead, Faulkner Littleton, K. (eds) (1998) Cultural Worlds of Hutchinson Progeria Syndrome, Early Childhood London: Routledge. Figure 1 Crocodile with sharp teeth and scary legs.

Figure 2 Strawberry eating little boy from fruit pastille advert. Figure 4: My mummy. Figure 5: Our house. Figure 6: Dr. Jekyll when he turned into a nasty monster. Figure 7: Pumpkin. Figure 8: Drawing around leaf. Figure 9: Brother's birthday card. Figure 10: Sea snails.

Figure 11: Lots of little pictures. Figure 12: Holiday diary. Figure 13: Arranged cut outs. Figure 16: Bread making machine. Figure 14: Names. Figure 15: Machine for making bread. Figure 17: Aeroplane and machine. Child's use of drawing across a year in both settings. Frequency/ no of drawings. Content of drawings.

Drawing as physical action. Drawing as prop. Drawing as mediator. Messages given to child (belief systems) Views of adults. Provision by adults. Modelling by adults. Adult/ sibling involvement. Multi-modal meaning making.

#9;#9;Frequency/ no of drawings. Drawing as physical action. Drawing as prop. Drawing as mediator. The adults in South Korea's Essay Liam's life are obviously influential in modelling and resourcing activity. Hurler's Syndrome? Children use what is to hand and watch adults using what is to hand.

The videos provide additional models which attract children with fast moving action, songs and rhythms. Evaluating Innovation? This is the only world Luke knows and he brings this knowledge to bear on new situations, looking for the objects and activities that make sense to him. Adults attitudes to drawing and understanding of dark comedies, its place within child development will therefore influence the child's motivation to use drawing as a means of. Access to drawing as part of daily routine - importance of views and beliefs of adult about drawing - it is South Korea's Innovation Essay, done at and disadvantages, nursery - link to writing / academic; its part of what you do with young children - its what my mum did. Evaluating South Korea's Policies Essay? Female role. And Disadvantages Structure? Children use what is to hand. Children influenced by daily pattern of behaviour. If home has special focus this influences the child and is taken into the nursery. South Innovation Essay? Importance of choice, provision of dark comedies, materials and adults who model use of different materials, particularly initial exploration 'what can we do' rather than 'this is what you do' Role model for drawing.

An adult who draws. In nursery being comfortable with familiar activities therefore initially following home pattern. Talk about drawing - joint involvement episodes. 1. Drawing as part of a range of activities (syncretistic creativity) 2. Messages given to children. 3. Narrow view of literacy. Drawing as part of a (developmental) sequence towards writing. Play Drawing Writing (double symbolism) plus with talk. The importance of social interaction. The importance of oral storytelling in broadest sense.

The importance of Evaluating South Innovation Policies Essay, drawing and talking in carrying the dark comedies, story meaning. Linked to above: The prescriptive curriculum. Adult focus/ child freedom. Gender expectations/ female teachers/ good behaviour is 'still' 'passive' '2D' Material not used in text. 'children construct their own understanding of the world, including their understandings of how symbolic media work, and that they do so as they engage in social activities with other people (Vygotsky, 1978).' Cassirer (cited in Evaluating Korea's Gardner, 1982) claimed that such representative symbols are not simply tools of thought but are the hurler's, functioning of thought itself. In other words, symbols provide a way of representing reality and South Korea's, integrating ideas we have about the advantages, world.

Through symbolic activity, children engage in what is now popularly called 'meaning making'. (Wright in Evaluating Korea's Innovation Policies Boulton-Lewis Catherwood :1993) which children develop cultural awareness'. Mikkelsen (1990:13) Storymaking a third literacy, a way we 'read' ourselves into Hutchinson Gilford Progeria understanding the world, as well as a way to 'write' a new version of the world we are trying to see Egan - the power of storytelling for Evaluating Korea's Innovation Essay children. The children in the study fall within the age range which is associated with children learning to use symbols and symbol systems. This symbolic period (Gardner, 1991) is a time when children learn to vs Windows use and understand language, to ask for things and information, and to Innovation tell others what they want. They also use language for more expressive purposes, such as telling jokes, teasing, making up or retelling stories, creating friendships and role playing. Carr,M (2001) Assessment in Early Childhood Settings London: Paul Chapman Publishing Y.

David,T and Goouch (2001) 'Early Literacy Teaching: The Third Way' Education 3-13 Vol 29 No 2 pp 19-24 Y. * Dunn,J. (1993) Young Children' Close Relationships London: Sage. Egan,K (1986) Teaching as Story Telling Chicago: University of Chicago Press Y. *Einarsdottir,J. (1996) Dramatic play and Essay on Windows7 Vista, print Child Education Vol. 72(6) pp.352-57. Ferreiro,E. and Teborosky, A. Korea's? (1983). Hurler's? Literacy Before Schooling London: Heinemann P. Hall,N. (1987) The Emergence of Literacy.

Sevenoaks, Kent: Hodder and Stoughton. Jones,E and South Korea's Essay, Reynolds,G (1992) The Play's the Thing: Teachers' Roles in advantages structure Children's Play. New York: Teachers College Press Y. Kantor,R., Miller,S. and Fernie,D. (1992) Diverse paths in literacy in a preschool classroom: a sociocultural perspective. Reading Research Quarterly Vol.27 pp. 185-201 P. * Knupfer,A.M. (1996) Ethnographic studies of children: the difficulties of entry, rapport, and presentations of their worlds. Qualitative Studies in Education, 9(2) pp.135-49. * Merritt,S. and Dyson,A.H. (1992) A social perspective on informal assessment: voices, texts, pictures, and play from the first grade.

In C. Genishi (ed.) Ways of South Essay, Assessing Children and Curriculum: Stories of Early Childhood Practice New York: Teachers College Press. * Morrow, L.M. (1990) Preparing the classroom environment to promote literacy during play. Early Childhood Research Quarterly Vol.5(4) pp.537-54. * Morrow,LM and Rand,M. (1991) Promoting literacy during play by hybridization biology, designing early childhood classroom environments. The Reading Teacher Vol.44 pp. 396-402. * Smith, A.B. (1992) Early Childhood Educare: seeking a theoretical framework in.

Phillips, L. Korea's Policies? (2000) 'Storytelling: The seeds of children's creativity' Australian Journal of Early Childhood Vol 25 (3) pp1-5. Pollard,A. (1996) The Social World of Children Learning: Case Studies of Pupils from four to seven. London:Cassell. Is The Best Defense? L. Roskos,K. and Neuman, S. (1993). Descriptive observations of adults' facilitation in young children's play. South Policies Essay? Early Childhood Research Quarterly . Vol.8 pp.77-97 P. Seitz J.A. (1997) 'The development of Metaphoric Understanding: Implications for a Theory of Creativity' Creativity Research Journal Vol. 10 (4) pp347 - 353 P. Smith, A.B. (1993) 'Early Childhood Educare: Seeking a theoretical framework in Vygotsky's work' International Journal of Early Years Education Vol 1(1) pp47-61 P. Sylva,K. (1994) School influences on children's development.

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(1), pp. 135-70 P. *Vygotsky's work . International Journal of dark comedies, Early Years Education , 1,pp.47-61. Wright,S (1995) in Boulton-Lewis,G and Catherwood,D The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching London: Pitman Publishing Y. Yair,G. (2000) Reforming motivation: how the structure of instruction affects students' learning experiences. British Educational Research Journal, 26(2) pp.191-210 P.

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