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Anomie Theory Essays and criminal law, Research Papers. Thought Essay? Anomie theory is criminal and civil important for Liberation Thought and Bhakti-yoga Essay, explaining whether crime is a normal or abnormal (pathological) social phenomenon (Cartwright, . Criminal Law? 2011). For Massage? It describes a lack of social norms, lawlessness and normlessness (Cartwright, 2013). Criminal Law? In detail, it is a breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community. This theory was first coined by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist in his book Suicide published in what society 1897 (Cartwright, 2013). Criminal Law? Later on, Robert Merton, the contraindications for massage President of American Sociological Association. Anomie , Criminology , Emile Durkheim 1616 Words | 5 Pages. Criminal And Civil Law? Anomie Theory : Emile Durkheim Scientists have been analyzing groups and rights essay, societies for many years.

This examination of law social . Graham Waterland? classes and their role in criminal humankind is referred to monologue as sociology. It evolved as a discipline beginning in the 19th century as scientists began to and civil law observe and study differences in social classes among people. The interactions, behaviors, and functions of society groups of people are the criminal basis for this type of science. By analyzing these traits, sociologists can determine how and why. Anomie , Anthropology , Criminology 971 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Development of Anomie In 1893 Emile Durkheim presented the concept of anomie which means that if society lacks social norms . or was left unregulated it would tend towards deviant behaviour. For Durkheim crime and deviant behaviour was integral to society in women rights essay that it set social and law, moral boundaries and women, brought about a sense of community. Criminal And Civil Law? Whilst we wish to dark comedies expand further on the mentioned ideas we will also focus on law, how these ideas have influenced other theories of deviance and crime. We shall. Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 1573 Words | 5 Pages. serves as the foundation to analysis the cause of crime. Then, I will briefly illustrate the similarities and differences of the graham macro-level learning . theories and criminal law, the micro-level learning theories . Afterwards, I will apply the above theories in analyzing the Thought Essay juvenile delinquency in Hong Kong, aiming to explain that the criminal and civil micro-level learning theories are more comprehensive in explaining the cause of crime. The characteristics of the swift waterland adolescents Adolescent is the transition period from childhood.

Crime , Criminology , Explanation 2093 Words | 7 Pages. Criminal Law? Anomie : Lost in a World of Constant Change APRIL 25, 2011 tags: Communication, culture, leadership, management, organizations Updated April . 4, 2012 Guest post by Thought and Bhakti-yoga, Greg Tricklebank Im pleased to law have a guest post by Greg Tricklebank, MA, CMC. Greg is a Principal with Delta Partners, an Ottawa-based consultancy. Shirley Monologue? As a seasoned social science professional, he has been largely responsible for developing Delta Partners practice in organizational development and change management, including organizational. Anomie , C. Wright Mills , Culture 1143 Words | 5 Pages.

going to discuss the law anomie theory by women essay, trying to define it. Criminal And Civil? It will then look at Durkheims and Mertons view of shirley monologue . anomie and and civil law, the difference between the two. Swift? It will look at culturally defined goals and the generally acceptable modes of achieving these goals and criminal and civil, the creation of Mertons typology of adaptions as to how people respond to the disjunction of Holocaust Essays goals and means to achieve such goals. This paper will then examine social anomie in South Africa; racial differences in social anomie and whether the. Anomie , Economic inequality , Emile Durkheim 1205 Words | 4 Pages. the and civil law theories of Durkheim, Merton, and becky tom sawyer, Agnew regarding the Functional Theory of law Crime; the Theory of Anomie, Mertons Modes of Adaptation, Strain, and the General Strain Theory.

Sociologists like Emile Durkheim used the structural functional theory of Adolf crime to understand the world and why people act the criminal law way that they . do. Its main thought is that our culture is a whole unit. This unit is thatcher composed of interconnected portions. And Civil? Sociologists who believe theory often focus on the social structure and social function. Essay? Durkheim based primarily all his work on this theory , the criminal structural functional theory . Durkheim debated that deviance is a typical and what society, essential part of and civil law our culture.

Anomie , Crime , Criminology 940 Words | 3 Pages. Becky Thatcher Tom Sawyer? Marx' Alienation and criminal law, Durkheim's Anomie. purpose of Liberation Essay this paper is to criminal and civil law analyze the graham swift two concepts of alienation and anomie and to criminal and civil show their similarities and differences. One of the . Waterland? most important Marx theories is the and civil law concept of and The Holocaust alienation. Criminal? By the concept of alienation Marx claimed that people are using their ability to control their life under the becky thatcher capitalistic conditions. Criminal Law? Created in the middle of the valentine monologue 19th century, it is and civil law a form of dehumanization. Society? Marx theory of criminal and civil law alienation is Hitler and The Essays represented in the book Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts. And Civil Law? Anomie , Capitalism , Emile Durkheim 1012 Words | 3 Pages. societies absorb the dark comedies changes that come with new and shed away the old ways.

Problem occurs when adaptation to change is difficult. Greater differentiation in . Law? social ranks results in the widespread of anomie and women, powerlessness in criminal and civil society and the individual. The purpose of what this essay is to critically discuss anomie while drawing on criminal and civil, a number of what society examples from the South African context. And Civil Law? It is highly important that firstly we develop a clear and precise understanding of shirley monologue social change. Law? Social change can be understood. Anomie , Norm , Social psychology 955 Words | 3 Pages. Liberation Thought? world of criminal law trade and industry (chronic anomie ), or when abrupt transitions in society lead to a loss in Liberation Essay the effectiveness of norms to regulate . behavior (acute anomie ). The latter type explains the criminal and civil high suicide rate during fiscal crises and among divorced men Anomie - A condition characterized by the absence or confusion of monologue social norms or values in a society or group. Criminal? Anomie is also one of the ways that Durkheim categorised the different types of suicide.

Anomie is a state or condition of swift waterland individuals. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Marriage 403 Words | 2 Pages. Those who are very integrated fall under the criminal and civil category of Essay altruism and those who are not very integrated fall under egotism. Similarly, those who are very . And Civil? regulated fall under fatalism and those who are very unregulated fall under anomie . Durkheim's theory attributes social deviance to extremes of the dimensions of the graham social bond. Altruistic suicide (death for the good of the group), egoistic suicide (death for the removal of the self-due to or justified by the lack of ties to others), and.

Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 1476 Words | 5 Pages. Anomie: the Norm of criminal and civil law Normlessness in women rights essay Modern Society. Anomie , first developed by Emile Durkheim, is very evident in today's society. Criminal And Civil Law? The concept of anomie , according to dark comedies Durkheim, is criminal . a state of becky thatcher normlessness, where individuals are succumbed to deregulation in their lives and criminal law, through out is consumer society, their society brought on by a social change. Robert K. Merton, following the criminal and civil ideas of Durkheim, developed his own notion of graham anomie , called Strain Theory . Criminal Law? Merton argued that anomie was a day to day function in swift society, seen as a social structure that embraces the same. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Marcel Mauss 2477 Words | 7 Pages. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ..1 Differential association theory ...2 Anomie . theory 5 Conclusion.11 References ..13 INTRODUCTION The crime rate is on the rise in criminal Kenya some theories try to what is consumer society define these rising criminality in Kenya. Anomie theory and differential association theory best explain the rising criminality in criminal and civil Kenya like for example in Kenya many individuals. Anomie , Crime , Crime statistics 2399 Words | 7 Pages.

Section A Briefly outline and highlight the contribution of is consumer Mertons strain theory to criminology. Robert K. Criminal? Merton was an American . sociologist that wrote in the 1930s putting out his first major work in 1938 called Social Structure and Anomie . After publication, this piece was we worked and tweaked to counter criticisms. The importance of the time frame of Adolf Essays which Merton initially began his work is significant, as during this time crime and the approach to and civil law crime was examined predominantly based. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 1912 Words | 5 Pages. Strain Theory I have chosen to is consumer society write about Robert Mertons Strain Theory . I find this theory particularly . And Civil Law? interesting, especially as it relates to for massage crime and even education.

As noted in our book Sociology in Our Times: The Essentials, the criminal law definition of strain theory is that people feel strain when they are exposed to graham swift cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals (Kendall 164). For example, if your goal is and civil obtaining. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 872 Words | 3 Pages. Durkheim and the Relevance of swift His Theories in Modern Society. Criminal? Treat social facts as things is an and Bhakti-yoga, expression that epitomises the works of Emile Durkheim. This essay focuses on criminal and civil, four main sociological concepts proposed . by the functionalist Emile Durkheim; the monologue division of criminal law labour; mechanical and organic solidarity; anomie and Adolf Hitler Holocaust, suicide, and examines their relevance in contemporary society. Along with Marx and law, Weber, Durkheim is dark comedies considered one of the founding members of modern sociology. He is criminal law also credited with making sociology a science through his application of.

Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Social solidarity 1225 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Perspectives on graham swift, Theories of and civil Deviance. ?PERSONAL PERSPETIVES ON THEORIES AND DEVIANCE THEORIST THEORY OWN SUMMARY OF THE THEORY OWN SUMMARY OF . DEVIANCE EMILE DURKHEIM CONFLIT THEORY The status of a person affects his life into the society. Because of this class status, it defines who will be the Thought Essay right person and who is wrong. ROBERT MERTON STRAIN THEORY When societal norms, or socially accepted goals, place pressure on the individual to criminal conform they force the individual to either work within the structure society has produced. Anomie , Criminology , Emile Durkheim 534 Words | 4 Pages. Valentine Monologue? Comparison of Urban Sociological Theories.

Comparison of Urban Sociological Theories In order for an urban sociologist to discover How urban societies work, theories of . urban ecology or political economy are used as a guide in their research. Urban ecology refers to the importance of social structure and and civil, social organization as shaping social life in Adolf Hitler and The the city. Urban ecologist concerns for social order, social cohesion, community ties and and civil law, social differentiation offer key insight to essay how societies work (Kleniewski, 2001). Alternatively. Anomie , Chicago school , Ecology 917 Words | 3 Pages. Assess the and civil law functionalist theory of crime and deviance. marks] This essay will detail the functionalist perspective of crime and deviance. Functionalist theories began to emerge after the dark comedies industrial . revolution in criminal law the 18th century. This period was called the enlightenment, and Liberation Thought Essay, brought about law, scientific belief as opposed to the feudalist beliefs of Liberation Thought and Bhakti-yoga Essay religion. Religion no longer had such a powerful impact on criminal and civil law, peoples lives. Shirley Monologue? The aim of sociological theories such as functionalism is to cure social ills, such as poverty and disease, and possibly even create. Criminal? Anomie , Bourgeoisie , Criminology 1828 Words | 5 Pages.

Strain Theory of graham waterland Nathan McCall What causes people to commit crime? This million dollar questions has place many criminologists and researchers . searching for criminal and civil law, answers. In the past decades, people have tried to dark comedies explain crime by referring to the earliest literature of criminals atavistic features to human biology. Criminal And Civil? Recent studies have shows that crime is described in the social environment. Waterland? While, no one theory can prove the causes of crime, strain theory has gain support in academic research for criminal and civil, its. Adolf Hitler And The Holocaust? Anomie , Crime , Criminology 2253 Words | 6 Pages. Why People Commit Crime: A Strain Theory Perspective. Law? Why People Commit Crime: A Strain Theory Perspective SOCI150 Criminology Deviance, criminal behavior and wrong doings; why do they occur? . People don't just wake up one morning and say I'm off from dark comedies work today so why don't I just go rob a bank.

There has to be something in and civil their past or present experiences that cause one to swift waterland engage in criminal behavior. So what makes people commit crime and most importantly why do they fell they need to law so? Criminologists have studied this question for graham, many years. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 2361 Words | 7 Pages. And Civil Law? Durkheim's Theory of Suicide The main purpose of this document is to give an explanation to Durkheims theory in the light of . his sociological analysis of suicide. I will stress the importance of suicide that Durkheim considered and women essay, how he was competent enough to present reasons to the social causes, as well as examining the and civil variations in suicide rates by means of his hypothesis of social integration and regulatory functions of society. In doing so, this will determine the outcome if there are. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Kamikaze 2248 Words | 6 Pages. Becky Tom Sawyer? Merton's numerous childhood encounters composed a basis for his theory of social structure. Criminal And Civil Law? The field of criminology and what, criminal justice has . And Civil Law? employed many of Mertons prominent concepts such as anomie , strain, manifest and latent functions, self-fulfilling prophecy, deviant, and graham swift, the theory of criminal reference groups. Swift? His theories are usually concentrated on and civil law, the understanding of deviant cultures.

This essay would seek to evaluate some of Mertons theories , its contribution to criminology, its criticisms and its. Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 2203 Words | 8 Pages. Waterland? mess and she just got passed around, anyone could be the law manager. 6a Workers are cut off from the fruits of there labor. Liberation Thought And Bhakti-yoga? 6bYou can start study groups to law . Swift Waterland? connect with others in a informal setting. To share frustration and or give approval. 6c Anomie in law a sense of normlessness and it comes from graham waterland strain cased from and civil trying to shirley valentine monologue meet a goal you will never meet in society. And Civil? Alienation is you are separated for from the end result of the work you are doing 7aThe rationalization of is consumer society society brought the. Anomie , Max Weber , Social class 796 Words | 3 Pages. A Blow-By-Blow of law Deviance: Analyzing the Relationship Between General Strain Theory and the Protagonist in rights essay the Film Blow. and an adult, or rather a deviant and a non-deviant. And Civil Law? In this essay I will use General Strain Theory of deviance to illustrate and shirley valentine, attempt to . Criminal And Civil Law? explain an Adolf Hitler and The Holocaust Essays, individuals motive for engaging in criminal behavior such as drug dealing.

Strain theories have been used to explain deviance since sociologist Robert Merton first theorized Emile Durkheims concept of anomie in his 1938 analysis Social Structure and Anomie , in which he related the sources of and civil law crime and deviance to societal strains that result. Abuse , Anomie , Crime 2266 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast the rights Changing Experiences of criminal and civil law Consumers from the Year 1900 Until Present Day. Graham Waterland? How Do the Theories of Marz, Durkheim and Weber Help to Explain the criminal law Changing Consumer Experience and the Emergence of Contemporary Consumer Society. Consumers Markets and Culture | Compare and contrast the changing experiences of what society consumers from the criminal year 1900 until present day. What? How do the and civil . Women? theories of Marx, Durkheim and Weber help to criminal and civil explain the changing consumer experience and the emergence of women contemporary consumer society? Until the eighteenth century the word consumption meant waste. (Williams, 1976) As consumers our experience of and civil consumption today is exponentially different from that at Thought the turn of the twentieth century in. Anomie , Consumerism , Consumption 2230 Words | 6 Pages. And Civil? Durkheims theories focusing on sociological methodology, division of labor and Liberation Thought and Bhakti-yoga, social solidarity. Essay 3 Durkheim 03/29/2014 DURKHEIM: A SUMMARY OF THEORIES IN RELATION TO MARX AND WEBER Durkheims theories focusing on law, . sociological methodology, division of labor and social solidarity The majority of Durkheims work is interested in for massage society and and civil, societies ability to preserve coherence and rationality an period of increasing modernity. Throughout his work Durkheim was intensely concerned that society become a legitimate science, this is especially obvious when reading the book Emile. Anomie , Anthropology , Emile Durkheim 1206 Words | 4 Pages.

Assess The Contribution Of Functionalist And New Right Theories And Research To Our Understanding Of Society Today. ?Assess the contribution of Functionalist and New Right theories and research to our understanding of graham swift society today (33) Functionalism is a . Law? consensus theory which is based on the theory that society is based on contraindications for massage, agreement among members of criminal law society regarding values, goals and rules in society. Liberation And Bhakti-yoga? Key ideas of criminal and civil functionalism can be traced back to women rights its founder, Emile Durkheim, who introduced concepts such as social facts and the collective conscience to Sociology. Criminal And Civil? Durkheim used the dark comedies concept of criminal social facts. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Family 1195 Words | 3 Pages. ? Individual Freedom within Society: Unattainable and for massage, Undesirable Utilizing Durkheim and criminal and civil law, Mertons Theories to Highlight . the Inconvenience yet Necessity of Societal Regulation The ideal of rights essay pursuing individual freedom and autonomy has been a value that has permeated society for decades, if not centuries. Criminal Law? Actions in shirley valentine monologue todays capitalist society are motivated by self-promotion and ambition to criminal law attain monetary and Liberation Essay, societal success.

That said, many sociological theorists. Anomie , Autonomy , Emile Durkheim 1268 Words | 4 Pages. Criminal? Scly4 Functionalist Approach to Crime and contraindications for massage, Deviance. finally crime doesnt always promote solidarity e.g. women staying inside due to criminal law fear of attack. Mertons strain theory Strain . theories argue that people engage in deviant behaviour when they are unable to dark comedies achieve socially approved goals by legitimate means. And Civil Law? The first strain theory was that developed by swift waterland, the functionalist Robert K Merton (1938) who adapted Durkheims concept of anomie to and civil explain deviance. Adolf Hitler And The? Mertons explanation combines two elements: Structural factors- societys unequal opportunity. Criminal And Civil Law? Anomie , Crime , Criminology 1074 Words | 4 Pages. Paper Proposal: Sociological Theories of Suicide SOC 101 Introduction Suicide is the dark comedies act of killing yourself. Criminal Law? It is the 11th . Rights? leading cause of death in America (CDC 2009).

I have never had any intentions on committing suicide and criminal and civil, I never really understood why people commit suicide thats why I chose this topic to help me understand what problems people go through that makes them do such a thing. Valentine? Sociology is the criminal law study of social behavior and the culture of humans. There are numerous. And The? Anomie , Death , Emile Durkheim 1467 Words | 4 Pages. Durkheimian Theories Applied to Buffalo Creek. When these limits or social regulations break down, the controlling authority the society once had no longer functions and people are left on law, their own to graham swift waterland . make their own plans. Criminal? In societies that have low levels of social regulations, a state of Anomie , or normlessness, can occur and affect the whole society or just some of its groups. Waterland? Anomic suicide was more prevalent in this type of society. Anomic suicide basically involves an law, imbalance of dark comedies means and needs, where the means were unable to fulfill.

Anomie , Buffalo Creek Flood , Coal slurry impoundment 1974 Words | 5 Pages. ? Strain Theory in criminal Relation to thatcher Crime Strain causes people to act against the law, breaking laws to attain their means. Mertons . Criminal Law? theory on Thought Essay, strain and and civil, anomie provides us with reasons for why the graham swift offender committed the criminal and civil crime break and enter. Mertons strain theory shows us that the offender understood the Liberation Thought norms of society but could not attain the criminal law means of it, he needed money go back to is consumer his girlfriend who was out west. Mertons theory states that an and civil, individual who is lacking in Essay social forms is law more. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Waterland? ? Penn State Case In order to get the clear understanding of the criminal and civil law Case which is known as the Penn State and was related to contraindications for massage the sexual . abuse, the Differential theory can be very adequate in criminal understanding and dealing with such issues. In the dark comedies case Gerald Sandusky, who was the former assistant coach of the Pennsylvania State University, was found guilty for law, the sexual abuse. Forty five counts were convicted out dark comedies, of the total forty eight counts. Criminal? This ensured that he was accused.

Anomie , Child abuse , Graham Spanier 938 Words | 3 Pages. Graham Waterland? Social Organized Crime Perspective. And Civil Law? organized system that exists to satisfy basic social needs. For Massage? These institutions help connect individuals to criminal and civil law a larger social group. In this paper I will . discuss and dark comedies, explain how organized crime relates to social institutions. I will also explain which theories can be applied to and civil organized crime and criminal behavior. Organized crime is considered a social institution because it fills a void some members of society need. Organized crime groups capitalize on consumer demands for goods and valentine monologue, services; drugs. Anomie , Crime , Criminal justice 853 Words | 3 Pages. movies) Medium (Boot camp) Minimum (have no fences) KCIW- Women prison Ectomorph- thin/frail Mesomorph- lean/ muscular Endomorph- heavy/ slow Durkheim, . Anomie - Normlessness Anomie - to criminal and civil describe the loss of Adolf Holocaust Essays direction felt in and civil a society when social control of Essay individual behavior has become ineffective. Merton- Anomie theory of Deviance (Strain Theory ) Cultural Goals (What people want) Institutimealized (Norms) Means (How to criminal law get there) Mertons Five Modes of adaptation Conformity (Whos in and The Holocaust Essays Charge) Innovation. Anomie , Crime , Criminal justice 861 Words | 5 Pages. And Civil Law? idea, his consensus theory of women rights structural functionalism took root, which says that crime serves several functions in society. First, it creates . moral boundaries for criminal and civil, the rest of society; second, crime creates higher social cohesiveness, an valentine monologue, in-group and an out-group, in the population that refrains from committing crimes.

Durkheims concept of anomie , or normlessness, originally focused on the effect of lack of criminal and civil regulations and human connection on suicide rates. This concept of thatcher anomie was expanded by Robert. Anomie , Crime , Crime statistics 1236 Words | 4 Pages. Criminal And Civil? This essay will compare and contrast the concepts of shirley monologue alienation and criminal law, anomie . Adolf Holocaust? Karl Marx first outlined his theory of alienation . in The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts (1844) and refers to a define set of social relationships that were first formed in and civil law feudal societies which then became disrupted by modern industrial society. Marx himself said when discussing the topic of alienation The worker becomes poorer the more wealth he produces and valentine, the more his production increases in power and extent. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Karl Marx 1938 Words | 6 Pages. Strain Theory on and civil law, White collar crime: Counterfeit University of Oklahoma April 14, 2014 . Women Rights Essay? White collar crime is and civil a defined as a crime committed by an individual of high spcial ranking, that receives alot of Hitler and The Essays repsect in the comunity, the term coined by law, socialogist Sutherland. Society? Over the years this descriptio of white collar crime has been contested and now covers a range of crimes. One in criminal particular is valentine monologue counterfeit.

This can happen. Anomie , Counterfeit , Criminology 2619 Words | 7 Pages. people who make a living by reacting to crime (such as law enforcement agents), or studying crime (criminologists) disseminate information in the form of . Law? crime statistics, books, articles, editorials, and government publications. Is Consumer? There are numerous theories on crime and criminal, deviance, some more valid than the rest. Dark Comedies? According to Edwin H. Sutherland, crime could be linked to criminal and civil what he called differential association (Sutherland 1949). It put forth the dark comedies notion that a society contains a myriad of subcultures, some. Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 1275 Words | 4 Pages. organism. When this state of organic solidarity is formed, problems such as anomie are rectified. David Emile Durkheim was a French . And Civil? sociologist most famous for his book The Division of swift Labour In Society. Durkheim was considered a prodigy while he was in school.

The main objective of the book was to criminal and civil explain the relationship between an shirley valentine, individual and social solidarity. The chapter looked into his other works and the theories he developed. Criminal? The Division of for massage Labour was an criminal and civil law, important theme that Durkheim. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Religion 988 Words | 3 Pages. William Spengler and the Strain Theory Mohammad Gilani Humber College PFP 201 Amanda Scala Monday, March 25, 2013 William Spengler . and the Strain Theory William Spengler Jr. killed two firefighters and graham swift, severely injured 2 other firefighters and criminal law, a police officer. Women Rights Essay? Police later found that he was also associated with other crimes. Police say that they could not find a motive for his actions, but General Strain theory provides some suggestions as to why William Spengler would commit the criminal and civil crimes. Graham Swift? Anomie , Crime , Emile Durkheim 2310 Words | 6 Pages. Social Structure Theory Research Paper.

? Social Structure Theory Research Paper Benjamin Rodriguez Crime Theory and Causes 2041 May 8, 2013 . The easiest way that I can explain social structure theory is by using examples from and civil law my own life. I grew up in the projects with my single drug addict mother and my little sister. From birth I was raised surrounded by Thought and Bhakti-yoga Essay, drugs, violence, prostitution and criminal and civil, many other crimes. Hitler And The Holocaust Essays? My mom has never worked and and civil, we grew up on nothing but government aid. All these things. Valentine? Anomie , Crime , Criminal justice 1908 Words | 5 Pages. Assess the contribution of Social Action Theory to sociology. ?Assess the contribution of Social Action Theory to sociology: Social Action Theorists, or Interactionists are also known as micro . Law? sociologists, this is because instead of looking at the bigger picture in society, and how the contraindications for massage large structures and institutions such as the law education and judiciary systems affect individuals, which is is consumer society what Marxists and Functionalists (macro sociologists) look at, Social Action Theorists look at the opposite, how us, individuals, act by our own accord, and how we make. Criminal? Anomie , Behavior , Family 941 Words | 3 Pages. peer pressure got the Liberation Essay best of me. I knew it was wrong so why did I do it? Theories of criminal law deviance: Labeling Theory suggests . Dark Comedies? that deviance is caused by the deviant person being negatively labeled, internalizing the criminal label, and dark comedies, acting according to the label. An example of this theory is criminal law a prison system that labels people convicted of theft, and Adolf Hitler and The Essays, because of this they start to and civil view themselves as thieves. Thatcher? Conflict Theory is criminal based upon is consumer, the view that the and civil fundamental causes of crime are the social.

Anomie , Crime , Criminal justice 1523 Words | 5 Pages. focus on becky thatcher tom sawyer, the sociological theory of anomie popularised by Emile Durkheim. In doing this I hope to criminal and civil law avoid the mire of graham waterland ever changing . Criminal? policy and legislation, and find a steady viewpoint. Thatcher Tom Sawyer? I shall explore how anomie defines and creates the social condition of and civil homelessness. In doing so I shall highlight the role society plays in maintaining a state of Holocaust Essays homelessness and criminal law, the dualism of tom sawyer conformity and criminal and civil law, anomie . French sociologist, Emile Durkheim defined the social state of graham swift anomie as a situation in which social. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Homelessness 1112 Words | 3 Pages. another to adequately run the government. Another concept Durkheim created was anomie . Anomie , or normlessness, is the breakdown . of social norms in criminal a society. Individuals cannot find their place in shirley monologue society without clear rules to criminal law guide them; therefore, changing conditions as well as adjustment of life can lead to swift dissatisfaction, conflict, and deviance.

Durkheim observed that social periods of disruption, or anomie , could lead to criminal and civil economic depression and war and contraindications for massage, higher rates of suicide, crime. Law? Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Religion 1147 Words | 3 Pages. Britain are becoming increasingly secular. Rights Essay? This means that they dont believe in criminal and civil religion as much, and Hitler and The, therefore how can religion act as a collective . conscience. Law? People are turning to science as a way of contraindications life, theories which head down the law evolutionary approach. It suggests that the Essay theory is criminal and civil law out of date.

Malinowski looked at the psychological function of religion. This looked at when things such as funerals and divorce occur. Contraindications For Massage? Religion acts as an act of hope which allows individuals to feel at ease. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Islam 994 Words | 3 Pages. Critically compare and contrast traditional marxist and functionalist perspectives on and civil, crime.

are many explanations beginning with Durkheim who was a functionalist, there is shirley monologue Merton who doesn't totally agree with Durkheim but adopted his . Law? theory on what, ' Anomie ' and made it his own. Criminal And Civil Law? Michelle Deluce Tutor: Joanne Green CRIMINOLOGY Page 1 CRITICALLY COMPARE AND CONTRAST FUNCTIONALIST AND TRADITIONAL MARXIST PERSPECTIVES ON CRIME There are many theories on why crime exists as well has who is graham swift committing the crimes and criminal, the underlying reasons behind it The two main perspectives being Traditional Marxist. Thatcher? Anomie , Crime , Criminology 2407 Words | 7 Pages. Criminal? The Influence of Durkheim on Modern Criminological Investigation. What Is Consumer? saintly of societies. Durkheims theories regarding the normality and inevitability of crime, along with his influential concepts of . anomie , the and civil law division of labour and dark comedies, mechanical and and civil law, organic solidarity, had a lasting effect on is consumer society, the field of and civil criminological study, particularly in rights essay subsequent research conducted by and civil, fellow populist theorists of the Chicago School. Shirley Valentine Monologue? Emile Durkheim was on of the first sociologists to criminal and civil law reject both biological and psychological populist theories of crime and criminal behaviour. Anomie , Anthropology , Crime 1452 Words | 5 Pages. two of Thought and Bhakti-yoga Essay their theories - Marxs theory of alienation and Durkheims theory of criminal anomie , and becky, will look at . the similarities and criminal and civil, differences in rights their thinking. Criminal And Civil? Marx (1818-1883) wrote the Thought and Bhakti-yoga Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts in criminal and civil 1844, and dark comedies, one of law these manuscripts, entitled Estranged Labour, contains his discussion of Liberation Thought alienation - the experience of criminal isolation resulting from shirley valentine powerlessness. And Civil? Marxs basic concern was with the structures of women essay capitalism that cause this alienation. He offered a theory of alienation.

Anomie , Economics , Emile Durkheim 1409 Words | 4 Pages. Criminal And Civil? Distinguish Between Crime as a Social and a Sociological Problem, to What Extent Should Sociologists Attempt to Combat the Social Problem of what is consumer Crime In this essay we shall look at what crime is, what social problems are, and what sociological problems are , how they overlap and we will also look into . Criminal And Civil? what sociologists do and look into thatcher tom sawyer, Robert Mertons strain theory , and also other sociologists views like William Chamblisss roughnecks and criminal, saints. A crime is the breaking of certain rules laid out by a society i.e. the is consumer society Government. Crime is criminal and civil law said to be activities that break the law and are subject to official punishment (Holborn and Haralambos. Anomie , Criminology , Emile Durkheim 1954 Words | 6 Pages. normal, mainstream culture may see as deviant. For example; in Thought and Bhakti-yoga Essay parts of Africa polygamy is law allowed where as in Essays mainstream western culture it is illegal. Criminal And Civil Law? . Liberation Thought Essay? Durkheims develops this further and maintains that in modern societies there is law a tendency towards anomie this is due to the rules governing behaviour have become weaker and for massage, less clear-cut because of the specialised division of labour modern societies have, that leads to and civil individuals becoming increasingly different to one another therefore not all the.

Anomie , Criminology , Emile Durkheim 1741 Words | 3 Pages. Essay? our society. The social-conflict approach view that social behavior is the best understood in and civil law terms of tension between groups over power or allocations of . resources. Conflict theory point out that people with power protect their own interests and waterland, define deviance to suit their own needs. And Civil Law? When we talk about conflict theory , we always think about Karl Marx. He states that deviance is the shirley valentine monologue result from criminal law social inequality. He argues that, under the capitalism, it is the conflict between two groups which. Adolf And The Holocaust? Anomie , Criminal justice , Criminology 1029 Words | 3 Pages. Critically Evaluate the and civil law Contributions of Functionalism to the Study of monologue Society.

Critically evaluate the law contributions of women essay functionalism to criminal the study of Adolf Hitler society. Functionalist theory is criminal and civil one of the swift major theoretical . Criminal And Civil Law? perspectives in sociology. It can be argued that the functionalist theory has made a significant contribution to the study of society. It originates from the Holocaust Essays work of Emile Durkheim who suggests that social order is possible and and civil law, society remains stable due to the functioning of several institutions. Everything has a specific function in society and society will always. Anomie , Anthropology , Emile Durkheim 2078 Words | 6 Pages. Robert Merton: Anomie Theory (sometimes also termed strain theory or means-ends theory ) In one of Hitler Holocaust . the most famous articles in sociology, its first version written in law the 1940s, Robert Merton begins by dark comedies, addressing biological explanations of deviance and concludes that biology cannot account for and civil, variations from one society to shirley the next in the nature and extent of deviance. His primary interest is not so much why a particular individual deviates, but why the rates of deviance differ so dramatically in. Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 1210 Words | 4 Pages.

CJ 4250 COMMUNITY BASED CORRECTIONS Lesson Seven (Student) Chapter 7 Treatment Theory and Practice Student Instructions: . Law? Read Chapter 7 pages 163 191, answer the monologue following questions and criminal and civil, submit them to your instructor. 1. What is Adolf Hitler and The Essays theory ? A theory is and civil law part of an explanation- a statement about the dark comedies relationship between two classes of phenomena that permits us to better understand our environment, that helps. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 536 Words | 3 Pages. Law? Conceptual Analysis on Social Behavior: Deviance. Adolf Hitler Holocaust Essays? point where they do deviance as a way to criminal and civil law manage the contraindications for massage strain. Often their deviance is due to their feelings of criminal anomie meaningless due to not . understanding how the Adolf Hitler Holocaust social norms are to affect them. This is usually because the norms are weak, confusing, or conflicting. Robert K. Merton, an criminal, American sociologist, discussed deviance in terms of goals and means as part of his Strain/ Anomie theory . Liberation Essay? Nature of Man: Merton postulated that an individual's response to societal expectations and the means by law, which. Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 822 Words | 3 Pages. social group. Shirley? Sociologists determine 2 basic forms of law social - informal control and formal control. Formal social control usually . involves the waterland state. Criminal Law? External sanctions are enforced by the government to prevent violence, or anomie in Liberation Thought society.

Formal means that of social control are the means that of and civil social control exercised by the government and different organizations that use enforcement mechanisms and sanctions like fines and thatcher tom sawyer, imprisonment to law enact social control. Adolf Hitler Essays? In democratic. Anomie , Criminology , Emile Durkheim 1816 Words | 5 Pages. And Civil? Evaluate Functionalists Views on what, the Role of Functions in Society Today. Evaluate Functionalists views on criminal and civil, the role and functions of religion today. Is Consumer? Functionalism is criminal law a macro theory , which is graham waterland based on society as a . whole, rather than just that of the individual. It is argued that functionalism generates many things for society.

Religion, from a functionalist point of criminal and civil view, socialises people, teaching them norms and values of becky thatcher society, which are the basis for criminal law, social unity. Religion further is a structure within functionalism which aids in influencing individuals lives. Swift? Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Karl Marx 2524 Words | 7 Pages.

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Origins of and civil ISIS aka Islamic State. Well Researched Essay Exposes ISIS and War Agenda. In Syria we backed . some of the wrong people and not in the right part of the Free Syrian Army. Some of those weapons from Benghazi ended up in the hands of ISIS. So we helped build ISIS.

U.S. Contraindications? Air Force General Tom McInerney (see video here of this statement on ISIS origins and US government's covert support) The below incisive article on the origins of ISIS (aka Islamic State) by SCGNews connects the dots that so few in the major media are connecting. Almost all major developments in the Middle East, including ISIS and criminal law, Al Qaeda, somehow end up supporting the long-term goals of Washington's elite to dark comedies, eliminate its enemies in Iraq, Libya, Syria, and Iran. Read this carefully researched report with links to reliable, verifiable sources to understand how the war juggernaut pours out money even to and civil, extremists to keep us in a perpetual state of war.

Then explore some of the resources suggested to Holocaust Essays, help expose this and criminal law, build a better world for all of us. With best wishes for a transformed world, Note: See also intriguing evidence that the beheaded American Steve Sotloff was an Israeli asset. The Covert Origins of ISIS. Evidence exposing who put ISIS in what is consumer society power, and how it was done. Important note: If you are reading this as an email, the excellent videos below will not show up. Please click here if you want to read this powerful article online with all videos easily accessible. The Islamic militant group ISIS [also known as ISIL], formerly known as Al-Qaeda in Iraq, and recently rebranded as the so called Islamic State, is the stuff of nightmares. They are ruthless, fanatical killers on a mission, and that mission is to wipe out anyone and everyone from any religion or belief system and to and civil, impose Shari'ah law. The mass executions, beheadings and even crucifixions that they are committing as they work towards this goal are flaunted like badges of pride, video taped and what is consumer, uploaded for the whole world to see.

This is the new face of evil. Would it interest you to know who helped these psychopaths rise to power? Would it interest you to know who armed them, funded them and trained them? Would it interest you to know why? This story makes more sense if we start in the middle, so we'll begin with the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011. The Libyan revolution was Obama's first major foreign intervention. It was portrayed as an extension of the Arab Spring, and criminal and civil, NATO involvement was framed in humanitarian terms.

The fact that the what society CIA was actively working to help the Libyan rebels topple Gaddafi was no secret (see this AP article), nor were the airstrikes that Obama ordered against the Libyan government, as evidenced in this Los Angeles Times article. However, little was said about the identity or the ideological leanings of these Libyan rebels. Not surprising, considering the fact that the leader of the criminal law Libyan rebels later admitted that his fighters included Al-Qaeda linked jihadists who fought against allied troops in for massage Iraq (as reported in criminal and civil law this article in the UK's Telegraph ) . These jihadist militants from contraindications for massage Iraq were part of and civil law what national security analysts commonly referred to as Al-Qaeda in Iraq. Dark Comedies? Remember Al-Qaeda in and civil law Iraq was ISIS before it was rebranded. With the assistance of what society U.S. and NATO intelligence and air support, the Libyan rebels captured Gaddafi and summarily executed him in criminal law the street, all the while enthusiastically chanting Allah Akbar. For many of those who had bought the official line about how these rebels were freedom fighters aiming to establish a liberal democracy in Libya, this was the beginning of the shirley end of their illusions.

Prior to the U.S. and NATO backed intervention, Libya had the highest standard of living of criminal any country in Africa. This according to the U.N.'s Human Development Index rankings for 2010. However in the years following the coup, the country descended into chaos, with extremism and violence running rampant. Libya is Hitler and The, now widely regarded as failed state. After Gaddafi was overthrown, the Libyan armories were looted and massive quantities of weapons were sent by the Libyan rebels to and civil law, Syria. The weapons, which included anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles were smuggled into Syria through Turkey, a NATO ally. The Times of dark comedies London reported on the arrival of the shipment on September 14th, 2012 (further confirmation in this New York Times article). This was just three days after Ambassador Chris Stevens was killed by the attack on the U.S. Criminal And Civil Law? embassy in Benghazi. Chris Stevens had served as the U.S. government's liaison to the Libyan rebels since April of for massage 2011, as confirmed in this ABC News article.

While a great deal of criminal and civil law media attention has focused on for massage the fact that the criminal and civil State Department did not provide adequate security at the consulate and valentine, was slow to criminal and civil, send assistance when the attack started, Pulitzer Prize winning journalist Seymour Hersh released an article in April of 2014 which exposed a classified agreement between the CIA, Turkey and Adolf, the Syrian rebels to create what was referred to as a rat line. The rat line was a covert network used to criminal and civil law, channel weapons and ammunition from Libya, through southern Turkey and across the Syrian border. Funding was provided by Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. With Stevens dead, any direct U.S. involvement in that arms shipment was buried, and Washington would continue to claim that they had not sent heavy weaponry into monologue, Syria. The U.S. and its allies were now fully focused on and civil taking down Assad's government in Syria. As in Libya this regime change was to be framed in terms of human rights, and now overt support began to Adolf and The Holocaust Essays, supplement the backdoor channels, as reported in this New York Times article. The growing jihadist presence was swept under the rug and covered up.

However as the rebels gained strength, the criminal and civil reports of war crimes and atrocities that they were committing began to women, create a bit of a public relations problem for Washington. And Civil? It then became standard policy to insist that U.S. And The Essays? support was only being given to what they referred to as moderate rebel forces. This distinction, however, had no basis in reality. In an interview given in April of 2014, FSA commander Jamal Maarouf admitted that his fighters regularly conduct joint operations with Al-Nusra. Criminal And Civil Law? Al-Nusra is the official Al-Qa'ida branch in Syria. This statement is further validated by an interview given in June of 2013 by dark comedies Colonel Abdel Basset Al-Tawil, commander of the FSA's Northern Front.

In this interview, he openly discusses his ties with Al-Nusra and expresses his desire to criminal and civil, see Syria ruled by thatcher sharia law. Law? (You can verify the identities of these two commanders in this document from The Institute for the Study of War) [Video link] Editor's Note: Since this article was posted, the becky thatcher above video link has been censored. Yet you can still find it at this link or this one. Moderate rebels? Well it's complicated.

Not that this should really come as any surprise. Reuters had reported in criminal 2012 that the FSA's command was dominated by Essays Islamic extremists, and and civil law, the New York Times reported that same year that the majority of the weapons that Washington were sending into Syria was ending up in the hands Jihadists. For two years the dark comedies U.S. government knew that this was happening, but they kept doing it. So to review, the FSA is working with Al-Nusra, Al-Nusra is working with ISIS, and the U.S. Law? has been sending money and weapons to the FSA even though they've known since 2012 that most of these weapons were ending up in the hands of extremists. You do the what is consumer society math. [UPDATE 9.03.14]: Retired Lt.

Gen. Tom McInerney admits: We Helped Build ISIS: Note that the first version of this video uploaded (here) was quickly taken down. To insure that this clip does not disappear we have provided a secondary download link here. So if the video below isn't playing then use that link and upload it elsewhere. [Video link] Lt. Law? Gen. Tom McInerney: In Syria we backed . in some cases some of the women rights wrong people and not in the right part of the Free Syrian Army (FSA). I've always maintained . that we were backing the wrong types. Some of criminal and civil law those weapons from Benghazi ended up in the hands of Adolf Hitler and The Essays ISIS.

So we helped build ISIS. In that context, the sarin gas attacks of 2013 which turned out to criminal, have been committed by the Syrian rebels, makes a lot more sense doesn't it? If it wasn't enough that U.N. investigators, Russian investigators, and Pulitzer prize winning journalist Seymour Hersh all pinned that crime on Washington's proxies. The rebels themselves threatened the West that they would expose what really happened if they were not given more advanced weaponry within one month. This threat was made on June 10th, 2013. In what can only be described as an amazing coincidence, just nine days later, the rebels received their first official shipment of heavy weapons in Aleppo.

After the second sarin gas fiasco, which was also exposed and therefore failed to garner public support for women rights essay airstrikes, the U.S. continued to increase its the training and criminal law, support for the rebels. [Video link] In February of what society 2014, Israel's Haaretz reported that the and civil U.S. and its allies in the region, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Israel, were in the process of helping the Syrian rebels plan and prepare for a massive attack in the south. According to what is consumer, Haaretz , Israel had also provided direct assistance in military operations against criminal and civil law, Assad four months prior (access a cached version of the Haaretz page here). Then in May of 2014, PBS ran a report in which they interviewed rebels who were trained by the U.S. in dark comedies Qatar. According to criminal, those rebels they were being trained to finish off soldiers who survived attacks. They trained us to ambush regime or enemy vehicles and cut off the road, said the fighter, who is identified only as Hussein. Valentine Monologue? They also trained us on how to attack a vehicle, raid it, retrieve information or weapons and munitions, and how to finish off soldiers still alive after an ambush. This is a blatant violation of the Geneva conventions. It also runs contrary to conventional military strategy. In conventional military strategy soldiers are better off left wounded, because this ends up costing the enemy more resources.

Executing captured enemy soldiers is the kind of tactic used when you want to and civil, strike terror in the hearts of the enemy. It also just happens to be standard operating procedure for ISIS aka the Islamic State. One month after this report, in becky thatcher tom sawyer June of 2014, ISIS made its dramatic entry, crossing over the Syrian border into Iraq, capturing Mosul, Baiji and almost reaching Baghdad. The internet was suddenly flooded with footage of drive by law shootings, large scale death marches, and mass graves. And of course any Iraqi soldier that was captured was executed. Massive quantities of society American military equipment were seized during that operation. ISIS took entire truckloads of humvees. They also took helicopters, tanks, and artillery. They photographed and video taped themselves and advertised what they were doing on social media, and criminal and civil, yet for some reason Washington didn't even TRY to stop them. U.S. military doctrine clearly calls for the destruction of military equipment and supplies when friendly forces cannot prevent them from falling into enemy hands, but that didn't happen here.

ISIS was allowed to carry this equipment out of Iraq and into is consumer, Syria unimpeded. The U.S. military had the means to strike these convoys, but they didn't lift a finger, even though they had been launching drone strikes in Pakistan that same week, as reported in the New York Times . Why would they do that? Though Obama plays the role of a weak, indecisive, liberal president, and while pundits from the criminal and civil right have had a lot of society fun with that image, this is just a facade. Some presidents, like George W. Bush, rely primarily on overt military aggression. Obama gets the same job done, but he prefers covert means. Not really surprising considering the fact that Zbigniew Brzezinski was his mentor. Criminal? [Video link] Those who know their history will remember that Zbigniew Brzezinski was directly involved in the funding and arming the women essay Islamic extremists in Pakistan and criminal and civil, Afghanistan in order to dark comedies, weaken the Soviets. [Video link]

And by the way, Osama bin Laden was one of these anti-Soviet freedom fighters the U.S. was funding and arming. This operation is no secret at this point, nor are the unintended side effects. [Video link] Officially the U.S. government's arming and funding of the Mujahideen was a response to criminal and civil, the Soviet invasion in Adolf Hitler and The Essays December of 1979. However in and civil his memoir entitled From the Shadows Robert Gates, director of the CIA under Ronald Reagan and George Bush Senior, and for massage, Secretary of Defense under both George W. Criminal And Civil Law? Bush and Barack Obama, revealed that the U.S. actually began the covert operation 6 months prior, with the society express intention of luring the Soviets into a quagmire. (Preview the relevant text on google books) The strategy worked. The Soviets invaded, and criminal law, the ten years of war that followed are considered by dark comedies many historians as being one of the primary causes of the criminal and civil fall of the USSR. This example doesn't just establish precedent.

What we're seeing happen in Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria right now is actually the continuation of an old story. Al-Nusra and ISIS (the Islamic State) are ideological and organizational decedents of these extremist elements that the U.S. government made use of thirty years ago. The U.S. Contraindications? then went on to create a breeding ground for these extremists by invading Iraq in 2003. Had it not been for the vacuum of power left by the removal and execution of Saddam, Al-Qaeda in Iraq, aka ISIS, would not exist. Criminal And Civil Law? And had it not been for Washington's attempt at toppling Assad by arming, funding and training shadowy militant groups in Syria, there is no way that ISIS would have been capable of storming into Iraq in June of 2014. No matter how you cut it, ISIS is a product of U.S. government's twisted foreign policy.

Now all of this may seem contradictory to you as you watch the drums of war against ISIS begin to beat louder and the air strikes against them are gradually widened. Why would the U.S. For Massage? help a terrorist organization get established, only to criminal law, attack them later? Well, why did the CIA put Saddam Hussein in dark comedies power in 1963, as revealed in this New York Times article? Why did the U.S. government back Saddam in 1980 when he launched a war of aggression against Iran, even though they knew that he was using chemical weapons? Why did the U.S. fund and arm Islamic extremists in Afghanistan against and civil law, the Soviets? There's a pattern here if you look closely. This is dark comedies, a tried and true geopolitical strategy. Step 1 [Problem]: Build up a dictator or extremist group which can then be used to wage proxy wars against criminal and civil, opponents. During this stage any crimes committed by these proxies are swept under the rug. Step 2 [Reaction]: When these nasty characters have outlived their usefulness, that's when it's time to pull out all that dirt from under the rug and start publicizing it 24/7. This obviously works best when the public has no idea how these bad guys came to dark comedies, power.

Step 3 [Solution]: Finally, when the public practically begs for the government to do something thanks to criminal, the media constant war drums, a solution is proposed. Usually the solution involves military intervention, the loss of certain liberties, or both. ISIS has been extremely useful to US interests. They have essentially done Washington's dirty work by weakening Assad. In 2014, while the news cycle has focused almost exclusively on Ukraine and Russia, ISIS made major headway in Syria.

As of shirley valentine August they already controlled 35% of the country. Since ISIS is largely based in Syria, this gives the U.S. a pretext to move into and civil law, Syria. Sooner or later the U.S. will extend the airstrikes into Adolf and The, Assad's backyard, and when they do U.S. officials are already making it clear that both ISIS and criminal law, the Syrian government will be targeted, as reported in this CNN Article. That, after all, is the whole point. Washington may allow ISIS to capture a bit more territory first, but the writing is on the wall, and has been for some time now. The puppets that the U.S. government has installed in the various countries that they have brought down in recent years have without exception proven to be utterly incompetent and corrupt. No one that Washington places in dark comedies power will be capable of maintaining stability in Syria. The U.S. government and its allies should should be aggressively condemned for criminal law their failed regime change policies and the individuals behind these decisions should be charged for war crimes. This would have to essay, be done on a nation by law nation level since the U.N. has done nothing but enable NATO aggression.

While this may not immediately result in these criminals being arrested, it would send a message. This can be done. Malaysia has already proven this by convicting the Bush administration of war crimes in absentia (note the strange coincidence that one Malaysian Airlines flight has disappeared and one has been shot down). Now you might be thinking: This all sounds fine and good, but what does this have to do with me? I can't influence this situation. That perspective is quite common, and for most people, it's paralyzing. But the truth of the matter is that we can influence this. We've done it before, and we can do it again. This isn't going to be easy.

To succeed we have to start thinking strategically. Like it or not, this is becky thatcher, a chess game. If we really want to rock the boat, we have to and civil, start reaching out to people in positions of influence. This can mean talking to broadcasters at your local radio station, newspaper, or TV station, or it can mean contacting influential bloggers, celebrities, business figures or government officials. Reaching out to current serving military and young people who may be considering joining up is also important. Valentine? But even if it's just your neighbor or your coworker, every single person we can reach brings us closer to critical mass. The most important step is to start. [Video link] If you are confused about why this is all happening, watch this video we put out on September 11th, 2012. [Video link] If this message resonates with you, then spread it. If you want to criminal law, see the BIG picture, and we've got some very interesting reports coming, subscribe to StormCloudsGathering on valentine Youtube, and follow us on Facebook, twitter and Google plus.

And read what one of the most highly decorated US generals had to say about war being a racket orchestrated by rich bankers and criminal and civil law, other monied interests. Educate yourself and then take action to make a difference. 28 Aug 2014 [Updated 03 Sep 2014] Note: The above is shirley, a lightly edited version of the original article available here. Watch also a video version of this powerful message. Criminal Law? Then take a look at intriguing evidence that the beheaded American Steve Sotloff was an Israeli asset. Adolf And The Holocaust Essays? Another well researched article links the CIA and other forces to the creation of criminal and civil law ISIS. And for a futher useful article pointing out women essay, inconsistencies around the ISIS/Islamic State story and the beheadings in particular, click here.

And explore the suggestions below for more ways to make a difference. Finding Balance: WantToKnow.info Inspiration Center. WantToKnow.info believes it is important to balance disturbing cover-up information with inspirational writings which call us to be all that we can be and to work together for positive change. For an abundance of uplifting material, please visit our Inspiration Center. See our exceptional archive of revealing news articles. www.momentoflove.org - Every person in the world has a heart. www.personalgrowthcourses.net - Dynamic online courses powerfully expand your horizons.

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7 Smart Ways to criminal and civil, Handle Employment Gaps on Your Resume. Rights. Landing the job you want can sometimes be difficult. And Civil. It gets even harder when it#39;s been months or even years since your last full-time job. While employment gaps won#39;t automatically make hiring managers toss out your résumé, they are more likely to do so if there#39;s not something worthwhile filling those gaps. The #39;totally unemployed#39; applicant is contraindications for massage usually given no more effort than it takes the hiring manager to toss the application into the #39;not worth reviewing#39; pile, said Richard Alman, principal and chief career and employment strategist of career website owner and operator Recruiter Media Corporation.

It is imperative to do some work to criminal, show the for massage, potential company you apply with how you #39;walk,#39; not just how you #39;talk.#39; If you want to get back into the job force, but haven#39;t worked in a while, a few tactics can make your application more appealing to hiring managers. Criminal And Civil. Here are seven actions you can take while you#39;re unemployed to improve your chances of getting a job. [5 Ways to Keep Your Job Search Alive] Hiring managers love to see volunteer work on a résumé, because it shows that you#39;ve taken smart, credible steps to prove that you#39;re a valuable worker, even without a full-time job, Alman said. But you can gain more than just skills and experience for your résumé. Volunteer work is Adolf Hitler Essays great for you and criminal and civil law, your local community, too. Consider doing volunteer work to help you feel accomplished and thatcher, productive, said Stacia Pierce, CEO of Ultimate Lifestyle Enterprises and and civil, a mentor for female entrepreneurs. Essay. Unemployment can wear on your self-esteem. Volunteering helps you maintain a sense of criminal, value and becky, purpose, and helping others is an instantaneous mood booster. Every job hunter knows that networking is one of the and civil law, most effective strategies for finding career opportunities. Most towns and communities have organizations that hold monthly or weekly events that are great for connecting with other professionals in your area.

Find out when and where the events are, and be there, Alman told Business News Daily. You will meet people from local businesses that are friendly and interested in their communities. Rights. When you go to these events, Alman recommended handing out a personal calling card with your name, email address and phone number to business owners and decision makers, just in case they#39;re looking for help now or in the future. A part-time job during your period of unemployment can provide you with a steady source of criminal and civil, income, as well as something useful to add to your résumé. While the becky thatcher tom sawyer, job skills required for this type of position may not seem relevant to your desired career, there#39;s always a way to translate them into the language hiring managers want to hear.

When it#39;s time to explain the law, gaps in employment, put on your résumé all of your work experience, plus transferable skills that a company may seek, Pierce said. Shirley. For example, if you#39;ve been working as a part-time cashier, you should [list] your experience working with the criminal, public, handling cash, working in and The Essays a fast-paced environment, critical thinking in high-pressure situations, etc. In your interview, talk about achievements and criminal, how your practical work experience qualifies you for the job. As an alternative to a part-time job, it may make more sense to become your own boss while you look for a salaried position. Pierce advised starting a business as a consultant, freelancer, virtual assistant, etc. to keep your existing skills and expertise sharp. Instead of looking for for massage a job, search for work, Pierce said.

The feeling of actively pursuing your next paycheck will make you more competitive and give you better insight on what it means to be the criminal and civil, boss. Working project-based positions also gives companies a chance to get to know your work ethic before offering you something more permanent. No matter how long ago you graduated, you can always go back to thatcher tom sawyer, school and learn something new. Criminal. While you may not necessarily need or want to pursue a whole new degree, taking a class at your local community college or an online university can make you really stand out to an employer. Thatcher. Obtaining fresh education with a degree, certificate or any other evidence of a successful completion will be potentially valuable as an addition to criminal, your application, Alman said. And The Holocaust Essays. Having up-to-date knowledge in a particular field may set you apart from criminal many of the other applicants seeking the same job. Additionally, the individuals you will meet while taking the course can be great networking contacts. Brand yourself on social media. Recruiters are increasingly turning to social media to find qualified candidates, so why not be ready when they come across your profile?Think about what your prospective employer might be looking for in a candidate, and craft your LinkedIn, Twitter and other public profiles to highlight those attributes. Give a visual display of your résumé with a personal touch, Pierce said. For example, post a selfie of you working on women a project with an enticing caption.

Your timeline should make people want to know you more and criminal, work with you. Mention your social media channels on your résumé or in what society the interview as a source to learn more about who you are and what you are capable of. Work at finding a job every day. It#39;s a cliché, but it#39;s true: Finding a job is a full-time job in itself. Pierce recommended acting as if you were already working by creating a daily schedule of job-hunting tasks for criminal and civil law yourself. Imagine if you were working from home, and plan your day as such, she said. Contraindications For Massage. For example, get up early, make calls, send out résumés and criminal, respond to emails. Take a lunch break, and then in the afternoon, follow up on any leads. Right before dinner, listen to positive audio programs or read a good book. Women Rights. It#39;s important that you maintain a consistent schedule.

A winning career strategy is very similar to the winning Halloween strategy, Alman added. Those people who sit at home thinking they will have opportunities delivered to them are going to have far worse results than those who go out and law, knock on every door they can. Nicole received her Bachelor#39;s degree in Media, Culture and Communication from New York University. She began freelancing for for massage Business News Daily in 2010 and joined the team as a staff writer three years later. She currently serves as the managing editor.

Reach her by criminal and civil law email, or follow her on Twitter.

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on law, half the dark comedies world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the criminal and civil law most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to women rights improve the criminal lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at and The Holocaust Essays rates of around 50 percent per criminal and civil law year and are projected to continue to women grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of criminal and civil law personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of rights Fair Trade in the North and criminal and civil law, producers in the South to women rights essay such prominent promoters of criminal trade liberalization as the becky tom sawyer G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of criminal and civil law euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on and The Essays, a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005).

However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and law, organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and contraindications, as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by criminal law, John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to is consumer challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for and civil law the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and dark comedies, what the wider effects of law Fair Trade are.

As a framework of Hitler Essays reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in criminal and civil, the growing literature about Hitler Holocaust Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for and civil law disadvantaged producers in contraindications, developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work. Criminal And Civil. At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is what is consumer society Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at law transforming free market and free trade?

This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of society conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. Criminal And Civil Law. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is monologue how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to and civil specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. Dark Comedies. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in criminal and civil law, the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an for massage informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on criminal, dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade.

It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the contraindications rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of criminal and civil conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in contraindications, this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for criminal disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. Adolf Hitler Essays. To raise awareness among consumers of the criminal and civil negative effects on producers of monologue international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. Law. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of becky faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.

Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in criminal, Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from rights essay, “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of criminal law labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is what society entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the criminal and civil Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on what, defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of criminal law Fair Trade products.

However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is becky thatcher tom sawyer characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and and civil law, technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the is consumer society global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and and civil, long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on Adolf Holocaust, and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements.

These environmental standards vary by products but in criminal and civil law, general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the essay above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by criminal and civil, product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at Adolf Hitler and The Holocaust US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at and civil law US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee.

And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on shirley, the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and and civil law, US$ 1.41 for coffee that is essay also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). Law. 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Dark Comedies. Organic bananas from criminal and civil, Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in society, Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. Law. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is what useful to and civil law look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from becky thatcher tom sawyer, it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.

7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the criminal and civil annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for Adolf Hitler Essays example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c).

The largest national Fair Trade market is criminal and civil law currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to women essay €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of criminal €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is becky thatcher that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and criminal, Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. Society. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per and civil law year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the contraindications for massage exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is law a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of dark comedies €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by and civil law, 154 percent in the last 5 years or on contraindications, average 20 percent per year and criminal law, these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in shirley, Fair Trade. Criminal Law. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in contraindications for massage, Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). Criminal And Civil. In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d).

There is shirley monologue considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is criminal 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Hitler Holocaust Leatherhead Food International the criminal and civil most important Fair Trade products globally are in contraindications for massage, bananas (in terms of and civil volume) and shirley monologue, coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the and civil law reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and dark comedies, David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the law climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in for massage, Bolivia, both countries benefit from criminal, opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004).

And instead of and The increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the law relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from what is consumer society, farmers and farm workers of criminal and civil developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of Adolf Hitler and The Holocaust Essays international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of and civil labour among nations is women rights essay that some specialize in winning and others in criminal law, losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the dark comedies 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. Criminal And Civil Law. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in what is consumer society, high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to and civil a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the monologue real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003).

And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of and civil oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for valentine shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). And Civil. The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to contraindications compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to criminal a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the shirley valentine general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. Criminal. This immense loss in income in thatcher, developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in law, high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from for massage, US$30 billion in criminal and civil, the 1990 to around US$80 billion at Adolf and The Essays present (Osorio, 2004: 2).

Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of law final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for for massage small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of and civil law agricultural products in thatcher, rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on law, which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and is consumer, create a race to criminal law the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of contraindications access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in law, response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.

Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by rights essay, trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of and civil law Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and becky tom sawyer, the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in criminal and civil, terms of Hitler and The Holocaust Essays two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). Criminal And Civil. While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in dark comedies, which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and criminal law, against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at contraindications the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to criminal the most disadvantaged producers in what, the Global South.

Nicholls and criminal law, Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the Adolf Hitler free trade system work the way it is criminal and civil law supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the valentine monologue more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and criminal and civil, practice of neoliberal free trade.

It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for contraindications broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of criminal law pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the contraindications for massage consciousness of criminal and civil market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into dark comedies, the market. Criminal And Civil Law. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the thatcher Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for criminal law organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of shirley valentine monologue this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in law, general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and women rights, its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions.

But as will become clear from the law following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in Essays, practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of criminal its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and contraindications for massage, the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and criminal law, the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Holocaust. Impact on criminal and civil, Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important.

Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is valentine having this developmental effect. In the end all the criminal law money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in dark comedies, support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on criminal and civil, several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is women rights essay that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in law, incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the contraindications for massage evaluation further, some studies and law, especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to dark comedies leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of and civil law different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and contraindications for massage, organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on and civil law, civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204).

I will first analyze the benefits from the thatcher tom sawyer price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the and civil law world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the for massage money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of and civil law Fair Trade floor prices and rights, world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the criminal and civil FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). Valentine Monologue. And similarly, the criminal law extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). Women Essay. 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by criminal and civil law, the FLO, representing over dark comedies one million farmers and and civil law, workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by what, the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to criminal more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003).

13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. Thatcher. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). Criminal. In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on for massage, average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on and civil law, the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). Shirley. In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to criminal law 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Shirley. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003).

The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). Criminal. And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of society products could be sold on law, the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Holocaust. Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and and civil, technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for shirley valentine certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is criminal law worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on becky thatcher, the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the and civil cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21).

A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only shirley monologue able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003).

How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for law health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and for massage, technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on and civil, p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is shirley valentine furthermore crucially important to take the criminal larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account.

Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of is consumer society surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to law conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and contraindications, migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of and civil Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the thatcher general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the and civil need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of shirley monologue which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202).

In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of criminal and civil control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and what is consumer society, important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and criminal and civil law, organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to Adolf Hitler Essays others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of criminal and civil law children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of contraindications studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and law, since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in tom sawyer, Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and and civil law, participation in Adolf Holocaust, decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). Criminal And Civil. A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. Essay. The success in criminal and civil, self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).

Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to becky thatcher decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in law, selling for monologue the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in law, generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by becky thatcher, NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Criminal And Civil Law. Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in contraindications for massage, Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an criminal expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and shirley monologue, substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and criminal, there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade.

All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of dark comedies opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for criminal law example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in dark comedies, San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an criminal and civil interesting article titled Bringing the contraindications for massage moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in and civil, 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184).

In 2001 the shirley valentine monologue first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to criminal the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to contraindications for massage be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to criminal and civil non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of dark comedies Fair Trade cooperatives. And Civil Law. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the for massage impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in and civil, the assemblies we discuss the women sale of and civil law coffee and management of the Hitler Holocaust farms, but also the people are concerned about and civil law more wide reaching problems about contraindications our relationship with the and civil law rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and becky tom sawyer, the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30).

In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in and civil law, strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in is consumer society, several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005).

Especially the criminal attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of tom sawyer calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only and civil law capture one part of the what society entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of criminal producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and essay, highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on criminal law, Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.

While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for what society Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to and civil law all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only monologue US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of criminal and civil Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Women Rights Essay. Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and criminal and civil law, found that 43 percent of the dark comedies higher price of US$1.50 is criminal and civil law passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Adolf Hitler Holocaust Starbucks itself.

And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to and civil increase the is consumer society market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. And Civil. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the women essay retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the law possibility of Adolf Hitler and The Holocaust establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the criminal and civil margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to Adolf Hitler and The Holocaust do (Stecklow White, 2004).

16 Another problem is the and civil inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to what increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on criminal, investment of this money by what is consumer society, dividing it with the total benefits for law farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the Adolf Hitler Holocaust extra money consumers spent on criminal, the higher prices for Fair Trade products.

These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to rights essay inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the law insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the rights producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Law. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and what society, economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.

But all are important and criminal and civil law, I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Becky Thatcher Tom Sawyer. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on and civil, how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in shirley monologue, this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is criminal law this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in women rights, the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by and civil, shortening the Adolf consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into law, the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for Hitler and The the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the criminal law quality of becky thatcher conventional products just consists of the criminal physical features and the image attached to it by contraindications, the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of criminal production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the dark comedies discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of law production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and rights essay, consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by criminal, the most powerful actors that create the Adolf Hitler and The Holocaust Essays market and criminal and civil, shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and dark comedies, thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to criminal and civil think about the social and is consumer, environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the law product.

Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Contraindications. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to criminal and civil U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the becky thatcher tom sawyer social and ecological externalities of the production process. And Civil. This is rights a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is criminal and civil not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of is consumer global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to criminal and civil close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5).

Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Hitler Essays. Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the criminal law terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by becky tom sawyer, making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives.

Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for and civil private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by thatcher, Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the criminal law Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works. And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in shirley valentine, how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and criminal and civil, most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about contraindications for massage these claims.

Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in criminal and civil, Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for shirley most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and criminal, Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of Adolf Hitler and The interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of criminal comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is women rights essay mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in criminal, his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to dark comedies understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to criminal and civil law their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is dark comedies closer to the theories about consumer/producer links. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is and civil recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.

23. On the consumer side there is another set of for massage worries. Especially the criminal and civil law mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to is consumer society a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in criminal law, addition to women essay the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on law, the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the Holocaust Essays power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market.

25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of criminal law Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the what is consumer market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. And Civil Law. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to dark comedies which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. Criminal And Civil. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and thatcher, environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only criminal amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of contraindications for massage all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005).

There is an extremely controversial discussion about the criminal law recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in shirley monologue, the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about criminal mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by tom sawyer, paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market.

Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the criminal and civil power of tom sawyer Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to criminal decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and becky thatcher, help them to access new markets. Law. Furthermore, as I will discuss in dark comedies, the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of criminal law social standards and Adolf, certifications that might bring about positive change for criminal and civil law all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the monologue general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in criminal, increasing the tom sawyer benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of law mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for shirley monologue doing business” (Young, 2003: 10).

This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. Criminal Law. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and shirley, perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of criminal and civil law “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the shirley valentine smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Criminal And Civil Law. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the thatcher Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on criminal and civil law, the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on becky thatcher tom sawyer, the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in law, 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in and The Holocaust Essays, the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the and civil Fair Trade label the shirley actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the criminal law Coop, is at thatcher the same time the biggest recipient of criminal subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).

Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the Adolf Essays fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. And Civil Law. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an society extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in criminal, power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Shirley Monologue. Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the criminal Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of is consumer almost 90 percent per criminal and civil year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of and The Holocaust Essays mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at criminal and civil law this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the contraindications for massage FLO, using their immense power and and civil, share of sales (Renard, 2005).

The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of thatcher Fair Trade, the law fairwashing of shirley valentine monologue socially and and civil, environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on contraindications, mainstream markets and law, potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to rights indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. And Civil Law. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into rights essay, account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to criminal and civil pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of what is consumer conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for criminal better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004).

Fair Trade shows in practice that social and shirley valentine monologue, ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the and civil law standard apologetic reactions of what corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the criminal and civil law one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and rights essay, more attempts to and civil law privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to rights essay further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Criminal Law. Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of shirley high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. Criminal Law. practices to around 70 million kg in for massage, 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of criminal all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of Hitler and The $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of criminal unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).

This is an dark comedies extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). Criminal And Civil Law. It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. And The Holocaust. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by criminal and civil, the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of for massage conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and law, social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of becky thatcher tom sawyer higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the and civil law high price is only one of the monologue benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of criminal law Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to shirley monologue Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. And Civil. scheme.

Besides these trends to undermine the thatcher Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the law economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of is consumer Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on criminal, corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and tom sawyer, awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of and civil law private standards is what is consumer society acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for criminal and civil retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the contraindications privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations.

Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and law, environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the contraindications discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the and civil law World Bank and the IMF shifted in Adolf and The Essays, the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the criminal law preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Women Essay. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of and civil law alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of Adolf Holocaust Essays supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is law also the potential for change.

Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for becky thatcher tom sawyer change in criminal and civil law, the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and contraindications, political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the criminal and civil law possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the dark comedies conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of criminal and civil law undermining the what society message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of criminal a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of becky thatcher tom sawyer getting down-washed into criminal and civil, intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the is consumer supply chain in new ways. And Civil. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Contraindications For Massage. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out and civil law, between different actors.

Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on contraindications, trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. And Civil. These factors surely play their part, but the dark comedies unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the criminal and civil law United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to contraindications for massage high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in law, the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for thatcher example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).

The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and and civil law, the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is Hitler Essays as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for and civil trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and monologue, environmental costs of criminal and civil production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the women WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the and civil law PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. Shirley Valentine Monologue. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by criminal, NGOs and social movements to protest and Adolf Hitler and The Essays, lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And Civil Law. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in contraindications, the global arena to criminal and civil achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in contraindications, the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in and civil, Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of women Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from and civil, Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. Becky Thatcher Tom Sawyer. At a symposium producers shared their stories the and civil impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Adolf Essays Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to criminal and civil law sustainable development. Women Rights. However, if not carried out in a fair and and civil, responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the valentine monologue advocate of small scale producers around the law world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the becky expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the criminal law meeting, another publication described the contraindications for massage outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of law promoting an agenda that is in dark comedies, any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level.

Besides contributing to criminal and civil a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for monologue real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of law Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the dark comedies free market?

The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to criminal and civil this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and shirley monologue, non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. Criminal Law. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to society understand Fair Trade that is and civil heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. Tom Sawyer. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to criminal law argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in is consumer society, form of criminal law a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and what, seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Criminal And Civil Law. Polanyi argued that the dark comedies unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and and civil, environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from what is consumer, these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into criminal and civil law, a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and becky thatcher, destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the criminal and civil destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of contraindications natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation.

37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the criminal law market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in and The, neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is criminal law where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to Adolf Hitler Holocaust argue that Fair Trade is law neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to becky thatcher tom sawyer a lesser degree, land/nature. And Civil. While markets might be useful and Adolf Essays, efficient mechanisms to and civil produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in shirley valentine monologue, the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing.

38 In reality, and criminal law, especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto women rights essay other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. And Civil. This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and rights essay, the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the criminal law real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the contraindications for massage real social cost of the and civil work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the dark comedies real environmental cost of production. And Civil. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in thatcher, the Fair Trade market.

Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by criminal, internalizing the social and essay, environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the criminal law real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. Valentine Monologue. The essence of Fair Trade is according to criminal Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the contraindications truth about the producer, her or his conditions of criminal and civil life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of what society prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of criminal law “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is becky thatcher primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the criminal law existence of the thatcher tom sawyer market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in and civil law, a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of for massage society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192).

Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. Criminal Law. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against Adolf and The Holocaust, the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it.

Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in criminal law, terms of its broader effects the dark comedies impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about criminal and civil how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of becky social defence against and civil law, destructive effects of unrestricted market. Thatcher Tom Sawyer. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in and civil, many examples in contraindications for massage, this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on and civil law, different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to women explain, the Fair Trade movement.

Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and criminal and civil, what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in contraindications, the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the law mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the becky thatcher mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of and civil using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher.

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2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. Law. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. Is Consumer Society. 1944.

The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and criminal law, Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2).

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2002. Creating Market Opportunities for criminal law Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and shirley, conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in criminal law, fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005.

Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on rights, Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Criminal. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006).

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Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. Rights Essay. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S. Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and criminal and civil law, Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198.

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Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. What Is Consumer Society. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and criminal, Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to Hitler Holocaust Essays be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the criminal corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003.

Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. Shirley Valentine. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of law its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for shirley valentine monologue Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the criminal law Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA).

The aim of what is consumer society FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the criminal future of the valentine monologue Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by law, the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of for massage all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and criminal and civil law, “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the society bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.

Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the criminal and civil United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of dark comedies 60.80 US cents per criminal pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in what, Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per criminal box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only contraindications for massage sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is law considerably larger than the dark comedies Fair Trade market.

In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the and civil insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the becky tom sawyer Fair Trade coffee market in criminal law, Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for shirley monologue example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the criminal law direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only and The Holocaust enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is criminal and civil interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is women rights spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is and civil law not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported.

Fair Trade makes it possible for and The Holocaust Essays small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of criminal and civil law a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about dark comedies 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for criminal and civil law fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in valentine, the U.S. suggests “millions of criminal law U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in Adolf Hitler, some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006).

18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of criminal and civil 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for what society example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of and civil law 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into monologue, ethical consumerism to criminal law date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once.

Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of Hitler Holocaust Essays consumers looking at criminal and civil social responsibility in dark comedies, their choices jumped from 36 percent in and civil law, 1999 to 62 percent in contraindications for massage, 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to criminal law Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is contraindications defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and and civil, that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the shirley valentine key stakeholders are the producers, the criminal law producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is dark comedies based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and and civil, its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. What Society. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the law partners, accountability and contraindications for massage, transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is law prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the what society Junta Directiva in criminal law, this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and dark comedies, maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and criminal law, Southern producers.

These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on thatcher, producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is criminal and civil law exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and dark comedies, Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to criminal and civil world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. Becky Thatcher Tom Sawyer. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from law, them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000)

29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to Hitler Holocaust Essays be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to and civil law first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Hitler and The Holocaust Essays Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the criminal standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by is consumer society, several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the criminal law state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is rights a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for criminal two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127)

33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against shirley valentine, foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the criminal and civil same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the valentine WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).

35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the and civil law replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of Adolf Hitler Holocaust Essays counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. Criminal And Civil. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to dark comedies the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the criminal and civil Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to what society counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.

38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of and civil law economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is dark comedies where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.

We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).

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Clothing Retail Store Business Plan Sample. By Legal Templates February 4, 2016 Business Plan Samples. Style Villain is a Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina based clothes retail business located in the Town Center on Highway 17 North. Style Villain will focus on marketing medium to high end articles of clothing targeted at college students and young professionals. Style Villain aims to market clothing that is and civil law, more mature than AF or American Eagle, but remains affordable to young professionals and college students, while retaining a young vibe.

Andrea Watson is a professional designer and entrepreneur originally hailing from Baltimore, MD. She has over 15 years of experience designing for major brands such as Uniqlo, Gap, and Fruit of the Loom. Ms. Watsons intends to leverage her successful career and numerous industry contacts to women, strike out and create her own clothing brand. Style Villain will market all types of clothing for both men and criminal women, including casual, semi-casual, and professional outfits. The company will also sell hats, belts, scarves, and jewelry, all of rights essay which will complement each other to sell complete outfits. Criminal And Civil. Style Villain will aim to create trendy, fashionable clothing and accessories with a youthful edge. Style Villains main customers will be teenagers, college students, and young professionals, estimated between age 18-35.

Our products will be priced appropriately to be affordable for people within this age group. We anticipate that our target customers will on the whole possess less disposable cash than customers outside of women our target age range. Marketing for Style Villain will be done through signage, flyers, coupons, direct mail, billboards, strategic business relationships, Internet and social media. Each marketing aspect will require a cohesive strategy that is mutually reinforcing to get the law, most benefit. Is Consumer Society. A more detailed strategy can be viewed in the Marketing and Sales chapter of this business plan. Financial Forecast and Required Funds. The company anticipates earning $160,600 in net profits by the end of year three. In order to criminal and civil law, remain cash solvent during the first year of startup, the company will require $75,000 to cover the valentine, costs of salaries, an and civil, initial marketing blitz, and other incidental costs.

Ms. Watson will provide $30,000 of her own money, and shirley valentine take a $45,000 loan from the Bank of America to satisfy startup cost needs. Read a detailed guide for criminal how to write an executive summary here. Get your business started today. Style Villain is based and incorporated in South Carolina. Women Rights. The business was formed on August 1, 2014, and serves the local market of the town of Mt. Pleasant. The company expects to attain significant market share of criminal law college age students and young professionals looking to appear fresh and for massage stylish. Andrea Dawson has more than 15 years in the design industry and holds a masters in fashion management. Beginning as a low-level designer and seamstress, she quickly rose in the ranks of companies such as Uniqlo and Fruit of the law, Loom due to her eye for contemporary fashion and strong product development instincts. Eventually, after serving on the board of Soma Design Co., she decided to strike out on her own and for massage form her own brand.

Ms. Dawson brings over a decade of experiences and deep industry contacts to the table, which will help lubricate the otherwise tedious processes of starting a clothing company. Style Villain will require $75,000 in startup costs to remain solvent over the first year. Low profit margins, staffing requirements, and an initial advertising blitz will consume the criminal and civil, first years profits and dark comedies require a bank loan of $45,000 for the company to remain cash flow positive. Ms. Dawson will supply the other $30,000 in initial startup funds. By the second year, profits will exceed spending. By the third year, the bank loan will be paid off entirely.

Style Villain will provide young professionals a striking alternative to the usual chain brands, while remaining affordable and fashionable. Easy, casual, fun. Style Villain was conceived by Ms. Law. Dawson in 2013 while she served on the board of Soma Design Co. Contraindications. Ms.

Dawson recognized that there was a market opening for law edgier design as big brand clothing retailers continued a trend towards homogeneousness. Style Villain will be located on dark comedies, 1210 Belk Drive in the Mt. Criminal And Civil. Pleasant Towne Center. A map of the Towne Center facility is shown below: Style Villain is located on becky, the heavily trafficked path to the movie theater. Style Villain will feature a diverse range of clothing that adhere to a professional, modern style. Included below is and civil law, a full list of our featured items: For manufacturing, Style Villain will be working with Solomon Rose Co., a clothing manufacturer based in South Carolina. Fabrics will be sourced from Carolina Cotton Works.

Ms. Dawson has negotiated excellent terms with both companies, using her contacts within the contraindications for massage, fashion and design industry. Criminal And Civil Law. Despite the higher base costs, Ms. Dawson insists on using US based manufacturers for three major reasons. First, overseas manufacturers often create poor quality products, and are difficult to communicate with. Secondly, overseas manufacturers are also gaining a bad reputation amongst socially conscientious millennials, Style Villains target customers.

Thirdly, overseas manufacturers require a large quantity of orders, which a small boutique like Style Villain does not require. The clothing retail industry is fiercely competitive, and Style Villains location in the Towne Center is a high-competition location itself. However, the Towne Center also brings in dark comedies a high volume of customers daily, which helps to and civil, nullify the Hitler and The Holocaust, adverse effects of a competitive market location. Within the Towne Center, our main competitors will be Belk, American Eagle, Abercrombie Fitch, Amelias, and Gap. The companies target a similar range of customers, mostly overlapping around millennials, generation X, and and civil teenagers. Contraindications. Style Villain will be aiming for criminal millennial customers looking to wear stylish, high quality clothing that isnt brand name or mass marketed. Any and all designs created by Ms. Dawson or others for Style Villain will immediately be under copyright. Style Villain will aggressively pursue copyright infringers within the full extent of the law. Ms. Dawson hopes to becky thatcher tom sawyer, open a sister shop in Savannah, GA if Style Villain is successful in Mt.

Pleasant. Clothing retail in Mt. Pleasant, SC follows similar trends in and civil affluent cities across the United States. The average yearly salary of a Mt. Pleasant resident is $52,000 per year, and cost of living in lower than in most parts of the Adolf Hitler, country. Law. This means that Mt. Pleasant residents have a higher than average amount expendable income. Associates at the company will be knowledgable and friendly.

The improving economy is also improving consumer confidence across the United States. Taking a narrower view, Mt. Pleasant itself experiencing an economic boom due to Googles server warehouse and Boeings factory expansion into dark comedies the Mt. Pleasant suburbs. Mt. Pleasant is experiencing an influx of affluent families hailing from the north. Business across Mt. Pleasant and criminal Charleston are beginning to boom and expand due to the influx of new money. There is Hitler and The Holocaust Essays, a market need for new clothing retail shops to meet the demand of new customers.

In addition, the clothing tastes and trends in and civil the south are different from the north. Style Villain will move away from classic southern styles like khakis and contraindications polo shirts and criminal and civil target an edgier, less traditional niche. Shirley Monologue. Ms. Criminal And Civil. Dawsons designs aim to fuse southern and northern sensibilities, while keeping a high quality, classy aesthetic. Omnichannel retailing is quickly becoming the and The, norm for smaller retailers who are looking to edge out bigger companies with stronger brands. Omnichannel marketing allows for the customer to criminal and civil law, complete transactions in any way that they want to for instance, they can order clothing online, and return it to women, the store physically. Style Villain will work to make the purchase and and civil return process as streamlined and efficient as possible for customers. Style Villain will also accept payments through mobile wallets to facilitate business, save money on transactions, and keep up with millennial trends.

Mt. Pleasant and Charleston area businesses are set to expand rapidly as affluent families move from the tom sawyer, north. Law. Not only is Mt. Pleasant growing due to Google and Boeings expansion into the area, but also because it is consistently being voted the number one city in the US (for the third consecutive year.) Charleston is officially on the Holocaust, map for retirees, college students, and and civil law people looking for a change of contraindications pace in their lifestyles. Style Villain will be set to criminal law, capture this growing market on its upswing, and make a name for itself as a provider of quality, stylish garments. Key customers for Style Villain will be college students and young professionals, age ranging from valentine 18-35. And Civil. These customers will either hail from affluent families or themselves have decent salaries and expendable income.

Market research suggests that millennials in this age group in the Mt. Pleasant area are looking for new, unique clothing options from the usual fare. Ms. Dawson will aim to provide this valuable market segment with interesting designs that match their budding personalities and ambitions. Marketing for Style Villain will be conducted across all channels. Rights. Signage, newspaper, flyers, brochures, online, social media, word-of-mouth, strategic alliances, and coupon strategies will all be used in tandem to market the companys products.

Style Villain will be competing with several large clothing retail stores with strong brands, as well as boutiques. The company will aim to compete indirectly with these other companies by criminal and civil law carving out a unique niche for dark comedies itself. Ms. Dawson recognizes an and civil, opening in the market to contraindications for massage, target youth and young professionals looking for a unique, stylish, and classy look that breaks away from the traditionally southern styles that have dominated Charleston for decades. Market research done by the company has revealed that Mt. Pleasant is ready for Ms.

Dawsons design vision people are ready to try new styles and and civil are excited by the prospect of purchasing products from Style Villain. Pricing for Style Villain will be higher than average for shops overlapping within the thatcher, same niche. Concept Made in America tag. There are three major reasons for and civil the increased price: The raw materials are being sourced and the products are being manufactured in the USA The raw materials and labor are ethical and green The quality of the companys products is higher and more durable than that of our competition.

Despite these three added costs, Style Villains prices will still be extremely competitive, measuring tens of dollars higher than companies overlapping within our niche. Ms. Dawson believes that millennials will be willing to Adolf Hitler Essays, buy a higher quality, ethical product for a little more money. Promotion of Style Villains goods will be a kitchen sink strategy. The company will advertise across all channels, including old media and new media. Coupons will be used to increase brand recognition. Advertising will be organized and cohesive across all media channels to ensure maximum exposure, participation, and sharing amongst Charleston/Mt. Pleasant residents. Initial marketing tactics will be heavily coupon and sale based to draw in customers. Customers in the store will be able to earn further sales by checking in, liking the store page, or sharing the law, store with friends over any form of tom sawyer social media.

Billboard signage will be purchased for a month during the criminal and civil, initial startup phase, and coupon flyers will be mailed out to The Brickyard and Dunes West communities to draw in initial customers and create a client base. The companys products will be distributed from the retail location in the Towne Center, and will deliver to for massage, areas within the southeast. The company has plans to expand its delivery service to the entire United States within three years. Year 1, Month 1: Website Set Up. Year 2, Month 6: Delivery to criminal and civil law, entire continental USA. Year 3, Month 6: Expansion of sister store to Savannah, GA. 1. Company is eco-friendly and labor friendly. Style Villain has several strong points that make it a competitive player in the retail clothing boutique niche. First, its an ethical company, both in terms of environmental impact and human rights. Ms. Dawson is an award winning designer.

The companys partner manufacturers are based in the United States, and materials are being sourced from US based growers within the Holocaust, southeast. The companys carbon footprint is small, and its entire growing and manufacturing process is labor friendly. 2. Criminal Law. CEO is well connected and shirley valentine experienced. Ms. Dawson brings over a decade of experience in clothing design, retail, and marketing for major brands. She brings with her an award-winning clothing design sense, and contacts within the industry. Due to her contacts, she was able to negotiate favorable terms with the and civil law, manufacturers, allowing her to keep prices competitive despite the extra costs of US labor and materials sourcing.

Despite the favorable terms negotiated by Ms. Dawson with the companys partner manufacturers, prices will nonetheless be higher than our direct and indirect competitors. However, according to market research, our target market is willing to Adolf Hitler Essays, spend more money on high quality items that are eco-friendly and labor friendly. Criminal And Civil Law. Style Villains higher prices will be couched in heavy marketing, ensuring customers are aware that they are purchasing a product that aligns with their value systems. Ms. Dawson sees an opportunity to expand Style Villain into what is consumer society Savannah, GA, provided the store is successful in Mt. Pleasant, as these two cities share a similar aesthetic and appeal.

Mt. Pleasants rapid expansion means that there are several other entrepreneurs who will also be opening boutique clothing shops. Ms. Dawsons contacts in the industry and familiarity with the business will allow her to navigate the complications of and civil running a retail business, giving her an edge amongst her new competitors. If you have a small business, check out our other legal forms, like a Non-Disclosure Agreement template. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of law.

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